The search for and study of exotic quantum states in novel low-dimensional quantum materials have triggered extensive research in recent years. In our recent paper, we proposed that the realization of ferromagnetism in the newly discovered two-dimensional quantum material C3N under charge carrier injection, such as electric field gating or hydrogen doping. These theoretical findings not only demonstrate that the emergence of magnetism may stem from the itinerant el[Detail] ...
We studied the influence of AC current flowing through microwires, on magnetization dynamics. We used a previously developed Sixtus-Tonks modified setup to evaluate the domain wall (DW) velocity within the microwire. However, instead of a magnetizing solenoid, we used a current flowing through the microwire. We observed that the AC current flowing through the annealed Co-rich microwire leads to remagnetization by fast domain wall propagation. The estimated DW velocity was approximately 4.5 km/s, which is similar to and even higher than that reported for the magnetic-field-driven domain wall propagation in Fe- and Co-rich microwires. We measured the DW velocity under tensile stress, and found that the DW velocity decreases under applied stress. An observed DW propagation induced by the current flowing through the microwire is explained considering the influence of an Oersted magnetic field on the outer domain shell. This field has a circular easy magnetization direction and magnetostatic interaction between the outer circumferentially magnetized shell and the inner axially magnetized core.
We evaluate some thermodynamic quantities and characteristic ratios that describe low- and hightemperature s-wave superconducting systems. Based on a set of fundamental equations derived within the conformal transformation method, a simple model is proposed and studied analytically. After including a one-parameter class of fluctuations in the density of states, the mathematical structure of the s-wave superconducting gap, the free energy difference, and the specific heat difference is found and discussed in an analytic manner. Both the zero-temperature limit T = 0 and the subcritical temperature range T≤Tc are discussed using the method of successive approximations. The equation for the ratio R1, relating the zero-temperature energy gap and the critical temperature, is formulated and solved numerically for various values of the model parameter. Other thermodynamic quantities are analyzed, including a characteristic ratio R2, quantifying the dynamics of the specific heat jump at the critical temperature. It is shown that the obtained model results coincide with experimental data for low-Tc superconductors. The prospect of application of the presented model in studies of high-Tc superconductors and other superconducting systems of the new generation is also discussed.
The spin-orbit coupled lattice system under Zeeman fields provides an ideal platform to realize exotic pairing states. Notable examples range from the topological superfluid/superconducting (tSC) state, which is gapped in the bulk but metallic at the edge, to the Fulde–Ferrell (FF) state (having a phase-modulated order parameter with a uniform amplitude) and the Larkin–Ovchinnikov (LO) state (having a spatially varying order parameter amplitude). Here, we show that the topological FF state with Chern number (C=−1) (tFF1) and topological LO state with C= 2 (tLO2) can be stabilized in Rashba spin-orbit coupled lattice systems in the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane Zeeman fields. Besides the inhomogeneous tSC states, in the presence of a weak in-plane Zeeman field, two topological BCS phases may emerge with C=−1 (tBCS1) far from half filling and C= 2 (tBCS2) near half filling. We show intriguing effects such as different spatial profiles of order parameters for FF and LO states, the topological evolution among inhomogeneous tSC states, and different non-trivial Chern numbers for the tFF1 and tLO1,2 states, which are peculiar to the lattice system. Global phase diagrams for various topological phases are presented for both half-filling and doped cases. The edge states as well as local density of states spectra are calculated for tSC states in a 2D strip.
We theoretically investigate the possibility of achieving a superconducting state in transition-metal dichalcogenide bilayers through intercalation, a process previously and widely used to achieve metallization and superconducting states in novel superconductors. For the Ca-intercalated bilayers MoS2 and WS2, we find that the superconducting state is characterized by an electron–phonon coupling constant larger than 1.0 and a superconducting critical temperature of 13.3 and 9.3 K, respectively. These results are superior to other predicted or experimentally observed two-dimensional conventional superconductors and suggest that the investigated materials may be good candidates for nanoscale superconductors. More interestingly, we proved that the obtained thermodynamic properties go beyond the predictions of the mean-field Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer approximation and that the calculations conducted within the framework of the strong-coupling Eliashberg theory should be treated as those that yield quantitative results.
The impurity effect is studied in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals in the framework of a T-matrix method to consider the multiple scattering events of Dirac electrons off impurities. It has been found that a strong impurity potential can significantly restructure the energy dispersion and the density of states of Dirac electrons. An impurity-induced resonant state emerges and significantly modifies the pristine optical response. It is shown that the impurity state disturbs the common longitudinal optical conductivity by creating either an optical conductivity peak or double absorption jumps, depending on the relative position of the impurity band and the Fermi level. More importantly, these conductivity features appear in the forbidden region between the Drude and interband transition, completely or partially filling the Pauli block region of optical response. The underlying physics is that the appearance of resonance states as well as the broadening of the bands leads to a more complicated selection rule for the optical transitions, making it possible to excite new electron-hole pairs in the forbidden region. These features in optical conductivity provide valuable information to understand the impurity behaviors in 3D Dirac materials.
Based on first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we study the electronic properties of phosphorene/graphene heterostructures. Band gaps with different sizes are observed in the heterostructure, and charges transfer from graphene to phosphorene, causing the Fermi level of the heterostructure to shift downward with respect to the Dirac point of graphene. Significantly, strong coupling between two layers is discovered in the band spectrum even though it has a van der Waals heterostructure. A tight-binding Hamiltonian model is used to reveal that the resonance of the Bloch states between the phosphorene and graphene layers in certain K points combines with the symmetry matching between band states, which explains the reason for the strong coupling in such heterostructures. This work may enhance the understanding of interlayer interaction and composition mechanisms in van der Waals heterostructures consisting of two-dimensional layered nanomaterials, and may indicate potential reference information for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.
Polaron effects in cylindrical GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs core–shell nanowires are studied by applying the fractal dimension method. In this paper, the polaron properties of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs core–shell nanowires with different core radii and aluminum concentrations are discussed. The polaron binding energy, polaron mass shift, and fractal dimension parameter are numerically determined as functions of shell width. The calculation results reveal that the binding energy and mass shift of the polaron first increase and then decrease as the shell width increases. A maximum value appears at a certain shell width for different aluminum concentrations and a given core radius. By using the fractal dimension method, polaron problems in cylindrical GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs core–shell nanowires are solved in a simple manner that avoids complex and lengthy calculations.
We present a theoretical study of the electric transport properties of graphene-substrate systems. The drift velocity, mobility, and temperature of the electrons are self-consistently determined using the Boltzmann equilibrium equations. It is revealed that the electronic transport exhibits a distinctly nonlinear behavior. A very high mobility is achieved with the increase of the electric fields increase. The electron velocity is not completely saturated with the increase of the electric field. The temperature of the hot electrons depends quasi-linearly on the electric field. In addition, we show that the electron velocity, mobility, and electron temperature are sensitive to the electron density. These findings could be employed for the application of graphene for high-field nano-electronic devices.
For the spin Hall effect arising from strong band-structure spi n–orbit coupling, a semiclassical Boltzmann theory reasonably addressing the intriguing disorder effect called side-jump has not yet been developed. This paper describes such a theory in which the key ingredient is the spin-current counterpart of the semiclassical side-jump velocity (introduced in the context of the anomalous Hall effect). Applying this theory to spin Hall effects in a two-dimensional electron gas with giant Rashba spin–orbit coupling, largely enhanced spin Hall angle is found in the presence of magnetic impurities when only the lower Rashba band is partially occupied.
The search for and study of exotic quantum states in novel low-dimensional quantum materials have triggered extensive research in recent years. Here, we systematically study the electronic and magnetic structures in the newly discovered two-dimensional quantum material C3N within the framework of density functional theory. The calculations demonstrate that C3N is an indirect-band semiconductor with an energy gap of 0.38 eV, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. Interestingly, we find van Hove singularities located at energies near the Fermi level, which is half that of graphene. Thus, the Fermi energy easily approaches that of the singularities, driving the system to ferromagnetism, under charge carrier injection, such as electric field gating or hydrogen doping. These findings not only demonstrate that the emergence of magnetism stems from the itinerant electron mechanism rather than the effects of local magnetic impurities, but also open a new avenue to designing field-effect transistor devices for possible realization of an insulator–ferromagnet transition by tuning an external electric field.
One challenge in contemporary condensed matter physics is to understand unconventional electronic physics beyond the paradigm of Landau Fermi-liquid theory. Here, we present a perspective that posits that most such examples of unconventional electronic physics stem from restrictions on the degrees of freedom of quantum electrons in Landau Fermi liquids. Since the degrees of freedom are deeply connected to the system’s symmetries and topology, these restrictions can thus be realized by external constraints or by interaction-driven processes via the following mechanisms: (i) symmetry breaking, (ii) new emergent symmetries, and (iii) nontrivial topology. Various examples of unconventional electronic physics beyond the reach of traditional Landau Fermi liquid theory are extensively investigated from this point of view. Our perspective yields basic pathways to study the breakdown of Landau Fermi liquids and also provides a guiding principle in the search for novel electronic systems and devices.
The elastic, dynamical, and electronic properties of cubic LiHg and Li3Hg were investigated based on first-principles methods. The elastic constants and phonon spectral calculations confirmed the mechanical and dynamical stability of the materials at ambient conditions. The obtained elastic moduli of LiHg are slightly larger than those of Li3Hg. Both LiHg and Li3Hg are ductile materials with strong shear anisotropy as metals with mixed ionic, covalent, and metallic interactions. The calculated Debye temperatures are 223.5 K and 230.6 K for LiHg and Li3Hg, respectively. The calculated phonon frequency of the T2g mode in Li3Hg is 326.8 cm−1. The p states from the Hg and Li atoms dominate the electronic structure near the Fermi level. These findings may inspire further experimental and theoretical study on the potential technical and engineering applications of similar alkali metal-based intermetallic compounds.
We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev’s spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.
First-principles calculations of the structural, optical, and thermal properties of Cr2AlB2 are performed using the pseudopotential plane-wave method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Calculation of the elastic constant and phonon dispersion indicates that Cr2AlB2 is mechanically and thermodynamically stable. Analysis of the band structure and density of states indicates that Cr2AlB2 is metallic. The thermal properties under increasing temperature and pressure are investigated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The results show that anharmonic effects on Cr2AlB2 are important at low temperature and high pressure. The calculated equilibrium primitive cell volume is 95.91 Å3 at T = 300 K, P = 0 GPa. The ability of Cr2AlB2 to resist volume changes becomes weaker with increasing temperature and stronger with increasing pressure. Analysis of optical properties of Cr2AlB2 shows that the static dielectric function of Cr2AlB2 is 53.1, and the refractive index n0 is 7.3. If the incident light has a frequency exceeding 16.09 eV, which is the plasma frequency of Cr2AlB2, Cr2AlB2 changes from metallic to dielectric material.
The relatively low repeatability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) severely hinders its wide commercialization. In the present work, we investigate the optimization of LIBS system for repeatability improvement for both signal generation (plasma evolution) and signal collection. Timeintegrated spectra and images were obtained under different laser energies and focal lengths to investigate the optimum configuration for stable plasmas and repeatable signals. Using our experimental setup, the optimum conditions were found to be a laser energy of 250 mJ and a focus length of 100 mm. A stable and homogeneous plasma with the largest hot core area in the optimum condition yielded the most stable LIBS signal. Time-resolved images showed that the rebounding processes through the air plasma evolution caused the relative standard deviation (RSD) to increase with laser energies of>250 mJ. In addition, the emission collection was improved by using a concave spherical mirror. The line intensities doubled as their RSDs decreased by approximately 25%. When the signal generation and collection were optimized simultaneously, the pulse-to-pulse RSDs were reduced to approximately 3% for O(I), N(I), and H(I) lines, which are better than the RSDs reported for solid samples and showed great potential for LIBS quantitative analysis by gasifying the solid or liquid samples.
As a single-phase multiferroic material, Fe3O4 exhibits spontaneous ferroelectric polarization below 38 K. However, the nature of the ferroelectricity in Fe3O4 and effect of external disturbances such as strain on it remains ambiguous. Here, the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization of low-temperature monoclinic Fe3O4 was investigated by first-principles calculations. The pseudo-centrosymmetric FeB42−FeB43 pair has a different valence state. The noncentrosymmetric charge distribution results in ferroelectric polarization. The initial ferroelectric polarization direction is in the −x and −z directions. The ferroelectricity along the y axis is limited owing to the symmetry of the Cc space group. Both the ionic displacement and charge separation at the FeB42−FeB43 pair are affected by strain, which further influences the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization of monoclinic Fe3O4. The ferroelectric polarization along the z axis exhibits an increase of 45.3% as the strain changes from 6% to −6%.
We perform a semi-analytical calculation of the field distributions of a conformal invisible device via mode expansions. For a discrete set of frequencies in the regime of wave optics, the conformal invisible device is perfectly transparent, which stems from the special conformal mapping and the refractiveindex profile of the Mikaelian lens.
Slow light with high group index and wideband is achieved in photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides (PC-CROWs). According to the eye-shaped scatterers and various microcavities, saddlelike curves between the normalized frequency f and wave number k can be obtained by adjusting the parameters of the scatterers, parameters of the coupling microcavities, and positions of the scatterers. Slow light with decent flat band and group index can then be achieved by optimizing the parameters. Simulations prove that the maximal value of the group index is>104, and the normalized delay bandwidth product within a new varying range of ng>102 or ng>103 can be a new and effective criterion of evaluation for the slow light in PC-CROWs.
A versatile electrostatic trap with open optical access for cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking state is proposed in this paper. The trap is composed of a pair of disk electrodes and a hexapole. With the help of a finite element software, the spatial distribution of the electrostatic field is calculated. The results indicate that a three-dimensional closed electrostatic trap is formed. Taking ND3 molecules as an example, the dynamic process of loading and trapping is simulated. The results show that when the velocity of the molecular beam is 10 m/s and the loading time is 0.9964 ms, the maximum loading efficiency reaches 94.25% and the temperature of the trapped molecules reaches about 30.3 mK. A single well can be split into two wells, which is of significant importance to the precision measurement and interference of matter waves. This scheme, in addition, can be further miniaturized to construct one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional spatial electrostatic lattices.
Chimera states consisting of spatially coherent and incoherent domains have been observed in different topologies such as rings, spheres, and complex networks. In this paper, we investigate bipartite networks of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN) oscillators in which the units are allocated evenly to two layers, and FHN units interact with each other only when they are in different layers. We report the existence of chimera states in bipartite networks. Owing to the interplay between chimera states in the two layers, many types of chimera states such as in-phase chimera states, antiphase chimera states, and out-of-phase chimera states are classified. Stability diagrams of several typical chimera states in the coupling strength–coupling radius plane, which show strong multistability of chimera states, are explored.
We study chimera states in one-dimensional and two-dimensional Gaussian coupled map lattices through simulations and experiments. Similar to the case of global coupling oscillators, individual lattices can be regarded as being controlled by a common mean field. A space-dependent order parameter is derived from a self-consistency condition in order to represent the collective state.
We investigate the matter-wave solitons in a spin–orbit-coupled spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensate using a multiscale perturbation method. Beginning with the one-dimensional spin–orbit-coupled threecomponent Gross–Pitaevskii equations, we derive a single nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which allows determination of the analytical soliton solutions of the system. Stationary and moving solitons in the system are derived. In particular, a parameter space for different existing soliton types is provided. It is shown that there exist only dark or bright solitons when the spin–orbit coupling is weak, with the solitons depending on the atomic interactions. However, when the spin–orbit coupling is strong, both dark and bright solitons exist, being determined by the Raman coupling. Our analytical solutions are confirmed by direct numerical simulations.
Quantum communication provides an enormous advantage over its classical counterpart: security of communications based on the very principles of quantum mechanics. Researchers have proposed several approaches for user identity authentication via entanglement. Unfortunately, these protocols fail because an attacker can capture some of the particles in a transmitted sequence and send what is left to the receiver through a quantum channel. Subsequently, the attacker can restore some of the confidential messages, giving rise to the possibility of information leakage. Here we present a new robust General Nuser authentication protocol based on N-particle Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states, which makes eavesdropping detection more effective and secure, as compared to some current authentication protocols. The security analysis of our protocol for various kinds of attacks verifies that it is unconditionally secure, and that an attacker will not obtain any information about the transmitted key. Moreover, as the number of transferred key bits N becomes larger, while the number of users for transmitting the information is increased, the probability of effectively obtaining the transmitted authentication keys is reduced to zero.
At first, the entanglement source deployment problem is studied in a quantum multi-hop network, which has a significant influence on quantum connectivity. Two optimization algorithms are introduced with limited entanglement sources in this paper. A deployment algorithm based on node position (DNP) improves connectivity by guaranteeing that all overlapping areas of the distribution ranges of the entanglement sources contain nodes. In addition, a deployment algorithm based on an improved genetic algorithm (DIGA) is implemented by dividing the region into grids. From the simulation results, DNP and DIGA improve quantum connectivity by 213.73% and 248.83% compared to random deployment, respectively, and the latter performs better in terms of connectivity. However, DNP is more flexible and adaptive to change, as it stops running when all nodes are covered.