Owing to the exceptional properties of graphene, intensive studies have been carried out on novel two-dimensional (2D) materials. In the past several years, an elegant exfoliation approach has been used to successfully create a new family of 2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, termed MXene, from layered MAX phases. More recently, some unique properties of MXene have been discovered leading to proposals of potential applications. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in development of MXene from both a theoretical and experimental view, with emphasis on the possible applications.
Motivated by the fact that calibrated light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have become a major tool to determine the expansion history of the Universe, considerable attention has been given to, both, observations and models of these events over the past 15 years. Here, we summarize new observational constraints, address recent progress in modeling Type Ia supernovae by means of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, and discuss several of the still open questions. It will be be shown that the new models have considerable predictive power which allows us to study observable properties such as light curves and spectra without adjustable non-physical parameters. This is a necessary requisite to improve our understanding of the explosion mechanism and to settle the question of the applicability of SNe Ia as distance indicators for cosmology. We explore the capabilities of the models by comparing them with observations and we show how such models can be applied to study the origin of the diversity of SNe Ia.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been regarded as a future superstar for chemical analysis for years due to its unique features such as little or no sample preparation, remote sensing, and fast and multi-element analysis. Chinese LIBS community is one of the most dynamically developing communities in the World. The aim of the work is to inspect what have been done in China for LIBS development and, based on the understanding of the overall status, to identify the challenges and opportunities for the future development. In this paper, the scientific contributions from Chinese LIBS community are reviewed for the following four aspects: fundamentals, instrumentation, data processing and modeling, and applications; and the driving force of LIBS development in China is analyzed, the critical issues for successful LIBS application are discussed, and in our opinion, the potential direction to improve the technology and to realize large scale commercialization in China is proposed.
Magnetic rotation and antimagnetic rotation are exotic rotational phenomena observed in weakly deformed or near-spherical nuclei, which are respectively interpreted in terms of the shears mechanism and two shearslike mechanism. Since their observations, magnetic rotation and antimagnetic rotation phenomena have been mainly investigated in the framework of tilted axis cranking based on the pairing plus quadrupole model. For the last decades, the covariant density functional theory and its extension have been proved to be successful in describing series of nuclear ground-states and excited states properties, including the binding energies, radii, single-particle spectra, resonance states, halo phenomena, magnetic moments, magnetic rotation, low-lying excitations, shape phase transitions, collective rotation and vibrations, etc. This review will mainly focus on the tilted axis cranking covariant density functional theory and its application for the magnetic rotation and antimagnetic rotation phenomena.
This review focuses on high-energy cosmic rays in the PeV energy range and above. Of particular interest is the knee of the spectrum around 3 PeV and the transition from cosmic rays of Galactic origin to particles from extra-galactic sources. Our goal is to establish a baseline spectrum from 1014 to 1020 eV by combining the results of many measurements at different energies. In combination with measurements of the nuclear composition of the primaries, the shape of the energy spectrum places constraints on the number and spectra of sources that may contribute to the observed spectrum.
With unique possibilities for controlling light in nanoscale devices, graphene plasmonics has opened new perspectives to the nanophotonics community with potential applications in metamaterials, modulators, photodetectors, and sensors. In this paper, we briefly review the recent exciting progress in graphene plasmonics. We begin with a general description of the optical properties of graphene, particularly focusing on the dispersion of graphene-plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation of graphene-plasmon polaritons of spatially extended graphene is expressed in terms of the local response limit with an intraband contribution. With this theoretical foundation of graphene-plasmon polaritons, we then discuss recent exciting progress, paying specific attention to the following topics: excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons, electron-phonon interactions in graphene on polar substrates, and tunable graphene plasmonics with applications in modulators and sensors. Finally, we address some of the apparent challenges and promising perspectives of graphene plasmonics.
Graphene and MoS2 are two well-known quasi two-dimensional materials. This review presents a comparative survey of the complementary lattice dynamical and mechanical properties of graphene and MoS2, which facilitates the study of graphene/MoS2 heterostructures. These hybrid heterostructures are expected to mitigate the negative properties of each individual constituent and have attracted intense academic and industrial research interest.
This review deals with the nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method applied to the problems of energy transport due to atomic vibrations (phonons), primarily for small junction systems. We present a pedagogical introduction to the subject, deriving some of the well-known results such as the Laudauer-like formula for heat current in ballistic systems. The main aim of the review is to build the machinery of the method so that it can be applied to other situations, which are not directly treated here. In addition to the above, we consider a number of applications of NEGF, not in routine model system calculations, but in a few new aspects showing the power and usefulness of the formalism. In particular, we discuss the problems of multiple leads, coupled left-right-lead system, and system without a center. We also apply the method to the problem of full counting statistics. In the case of nonlinear systems, we make general comments on the thermal expansion effect, phonon relaxation time, and a certain class of mean-field approximations. Lastly, we examine the relationship between NEGF, reduced density matrix, and master equation approaches to thermal transport.
Levin-Wen models are microscopic spin models for topological phases of matter in (2+ 1)-dimension. We introduce a generalization of such models to (3+ 1)-dimension based on unitary braided fusion categories, also known as unitary premodular categories. We discuss the ground state degeneracy on 3-manifolds and statistics of excitations which include both points and defect loops. Potential connections with recently proposed fractional topological insulators and projective ribbon permutation statistics are described.
In quantum information processing, it is vital to protect the coherence of qubits in noisy environments. Dynamical decoupling (DD), which applies a sequence of flips on qubits and averages the qubit-environment coupling to zero, is a promising strategy compatible with other desired functionalities, such as quantum gates. Here, we review the recent progresses in theories of dynamical decoupling and experimental demonstrations. We give both semiclassical and quantum descriptions of the qubit decoherence due to coupling to noisy environments. Based on the quantum picture, a geometrical interpretation of DD is presented. The periodic Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill DD and the concatenated DD are reviewed, followed by a detailed exploration of the recently developed Uhrig DD, which employs the least number of pulses in an unequally spaced sequence to suppress the qubit-environment coupling to a given order of the evolution time. Some new developments and perspectives are also discussed.
QCD-motivated models for hadrons predict an assortment of “exotic” hadrons that have structures that are more complex than the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons of the original quark-parton model. These include pentaquark baryons, the six-quark H-dibaryon, and tetraquark, hybrid and glueball mesons. Despite extensive experimental searches, no unambiguous candidates for any of these exotic configurations have been identified. On the other hand, a number of meson states, one that seems to be a proton-antiproton bound state, and others that contain either charmed-anticharmed quark pairs or bottom-antibottom quark pairs, have been recently discovered that neither fit into the quark-antiquark meson picture nor match the expected properties of the QCD-inspired exotics. Here I briefly review results from a recent search for the H-dibaryon, and discuss some properties of the newly discovered states –the proton-antiproton state and the so-called XYZ mesons– and compare them with expectations for conventional quark-antiquark mesons and the predicted QCD-exotic states.
Topological semimetals are newly discovered states of quantum matter, which have extended the concept of topological states from insulators to metals and attracted great research interest in recent years. In general, there are three kinds of topological semimetals, namely Dirac semimetals, Weyl semimetals, and nodal line semimetals. Nodal line semimetals can be considered as precursor states for other topological states. For example, starting from such nodal line states, the nodal line structure might evolve into Weyl points, convert into Dirac points, or become a topological insulator by introducing the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) or mass term. In this review paper, we introduce theoretical materials that show the nodal line semimetal state, including the all-carbon Mackay–Terrones crystal (MTC), anti-perovskite Cu3PdN, pressed black phosphorus, and the CaP3 family of materials, and we present the design principles for obtaining such novel states of matter.
This is essentially an update of Ref.  [H. Y. Cheng, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 24 (Suppl. 1), 593 (2009)], a review of charmed baryon physics around 2007. Topics covered in this review include the spectroscopy, strong decays, lifetimes, nonleptonic and semileptonic weak decays, and electromagnetic decays of charmed baryons.
Topological semimetals are three-dimensional topological states of matter, in which the conduction and valence bands touch at a finite number of points, i.e., the Weyl nodes. Topological semimetals host paired monopoles and antimonopoles of Berry curvature at the Weyl nodes and topologically protected Fermi arcs at certain surfaces. We review our recent works on quantum transport in topological semimetals, according to the strength of the magnetic field. At weak magnetic fields, there are competitions between the positive magnetoresistivity induced by the weak anti-localization effect and negative magnetoresistivity related to the nontrivial Berry curvature. We propose a fitting formula for the magnetoconductivity of the weak anti-localization. We expect that the weak localization may be induced by inter-valley effects and interaction effect, and occur in double-Weyl semimetals. For the negative magnetoresistance induced by the nontrivial Berry curvature in topological semimetals, we show the dependence of the negative magnetoresistance on the carrier density. At strong magnetic fields, specifically, in the quantum limit, the magnetoconductivity depends on the type and range of the scattering potential of disorder. The high-field positive magnetoconductivity may not be a compelling signature of the chiral anomaly. For long-range Gaussian scattering potential and half filling, the magnetoconductivity can be linear in the quantum limit. A minimal conductivity is found at the Weyl nodes although the density of states vanishes there.
It is believed that weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are candidates for dark matter (DM) in our universe which come from outer space and might interact with the standard model (SM) matter of our detectors on the earth. Many collaborations in the world are carrying out various experiments to directly detect DM particles. China Jinping underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory in the world and provides a very promising environment for DM search. China Dark matter EXperiment (CDEX) is going to directly detect the WIMP flux with high sensitivity in the low WIMP-mass region. Both CJPL and CDEX have achieved a remarkable progress in recent three years. CDEX employs a point-contact germanium (PCGe) semi-conductor detector whose energy threshold is less than 300 eV. In this report we present the measurement results of muon flux, monitoring of radioactivity and radon concentration carried out in CJPL, as well describing the structure and performance of the 1 kg-PCGe detector in CDEX-1 and 10 kgPCGe detector array in CDEX-10 including the detectors, electronics, shielding and cooling systems. Finally we discuss the physics goals of CDEX-1, CDEX-10 and the future CDEX-1T experiments.
We simulate the bond and site percolation models on several three-dimensional lattices, including the diamond, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic lattices. As on the simple-cubic lattice [
In this mini-review we summarize the progress of Lattice Boltzmann(LB) modeling and simulating compressible flows in our group in recentyears. Main contents include (i) Single-Relaxation-Time (SRT) LB modelsupplemented by additional viscosity, (ii) Multiple-Relaxation-Time(MRT) LB model, and (iii) LB study on hydrodynamic instabilities.The former two belong to improvements of physical modeling and thethird belongs to simulation or application. The SRT-LB model supplementedby additional viscosity keeps the original framework of Lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook(LBGK). So, it is easier and more convenient for previous SRT-LB users.The MRT-LB is a completely new framework for physical modeling. Itsignificantly extends the range of LB applications. The cost is longercomputational time. The developed SRT-LB and MRT-LB are complementaryfrom the sides of convenience and applicability.
Since two-dimensional boron sheet (borophene) synthesized on Ag substrates in 2015, research on borophene has grown fast in the fields of condensed matter physics, chemistry, material science, and nanotechnology. Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, borophene has various potential applications. In this review, we summarize the progress on borophene with a particular emphasis on the recent advances. First, we introduce the phases of borophene by experimental synthesis and theoretical predictions. Then, the physical and chemical properties, such as mechanical, thermal, electronic, optical and superconducting properties are summarized. We also discuss in detail the utilization of the borophene for wide ranges of potential application among the alkali metal ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, supercapacitor, sensor and catalytic in hydrogen evolution, oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and CO2 electroreduction reaction. Finally, the challenges and outlooks in this promising field are featured on the basis of its current development.
The development of nanotechnology in the past two decades has generated great capability of controlling materials at the nanometer scale and has enabled exciting opportunities to design materials with desirable electronic, ionic, photonic, and mechanical properties. This development has also contributed to the advance in energy storage, which is a critical technology in this century. In this article, we will review how the rational design of nanostructured materials has addressed the challenges of batteries and electrochemical capacitors and led to high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices. Four specific material systems will be discussed: i) nanostructured alloy anodes for Li-batteries, ii) nanostructured sulfur cathodes for Li-batteries, iii) nanoporous openframework battery electrodes, and iv) nanostructured electrodes for electrochemical capacitors.
The problem of dark energy is briefly reviewed in both theoretical and observational aspects. In the theoretical aspect, dark energy scenarios are classified into symmetry, anthropic principle, tuning mechanism, modified gravity, quantum cosmology, holographic principle, back-reaction and phenomenological types. In the observational aspect, we introduce cosmic probes, dark energy related projects, observational constraints on theoretical models and model independent reconstructions.
Three major elements, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, in twenty-four bituminous coal samples, were measured by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Argon and helium were applied as ambient gas to enhance the signals and eliminate the interference of nitrogen from surrounding air. The relative standard deviation of the related emission lines and the performance in the partial least squares (PLS) modeling were compared for different ambient environments. The results showed that argon not only improved the intensity, but also reduced signal fluctuation. The PLS model also had the optimal performance in multi-element analysis using argon as ambient gas. The root mean square error of prediction of carbon concentration decreased from 4.25% in air to 3.49% in argon, while the average relative error reduced from 4.96% to 2.98%. Hydrogen line demonstrated similar improvement. Yet, the nitrogen lines were too weak to be detected even in an argon environment which suggested the nitrogen signal measured in air come from the breakdown of nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere.
In quantum interferometry, it is vital to control and utilize nonlinear interactions for the achievement of high-precision measurements. Due to their long coherence time and high controllability, ultracold atoms including Bose condensed atoms have been widely used for quantum interferometry. Here, we review recent progress in theoretical studies of quantum interferometry with Bose condensed atoms. In particular, we focus on nonlinear phenomena induced by atom–atom interactions, and how to control and utilize these nonlinear phenomena. With a mean-field description, due to atom–atom interactions, matter-wave solitons appear in the interference patterns, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping exists in Bose–Josephson junctions. With a many-body description, atom–atom interactions can generate non-classical entanglement, which can be utilized to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the standard quantum limit.
Quantum simulation is a powerful tool to study a variety of problems in physics, ranging from high-energy physics to condensed-matter physics. In this article, we review the recent theoretical and experimental progress in quantum simulation of Dirac equation with tunable parameters by using ultracold neutral atoms trapped in optical lattices or subject to light-induced synthetic gauge fields. The effective theories for the quasiparticles become relativistic under certain conditions in these systems, making them ideal platforms for studying the exotic relativistic effects. We focus on the realization of one, two, and three dimensional Dirac equations as well as the detection of some relativistic effects, including particularly the well-known
Graphene nanostructures are promising candidates for future nanoelectronics and solid-state quantum information technology. In this review we provide an overview of a number of electron transport experiments on etched graphene nanostructures. We briefly revisit the electronic properties and the transport characteristics of bulk, i.e., two-dimensional graphene. The fabrication techniques for making graphene nanostructures such as nanoribbons, single electron transistors and quantum dots, mainly based on a dry etching “paper-cutting” technique are discussed in detail. The limitations of the current fabrication technology are discussed when we outline the quantum transport properties of the nanostructured devices. In particular we focus here on transport through graphene nanoribbons and constrictions, single electron transistors as well as on graphene quantum dots including double quantum dots. These quasi-one-dimensional (nanoribbons) and quasi-zero-dimensional (quantum dots) graphene nanostructures show a clear route of how to overcome the gapless nature of graphene allowing the confinement of individual carriers and their control by lateral graphene gates and charge detectors. In particular, we emphasize that graphene quantum dots and double quantum dots are very promising systems for spin-based solid state quantum computation, since they are believed to have exceptionally long spin coherence times due to weak spin–orbit coupling and weak hyperfine interaction in graphene.
Plasmonics based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has found many exciting applications recently. Those applications usually require a good morphological and structural control of metallic nanostructures. Oblique angle deposition (OAD) has been demonstrated as a powerful technique for various plasmonic applications due to its advantages in controlling the size, shape, and composition of metallic nanostructures. In this review, we focus on the fabrication of metallic nanostructures by OAD and their applications in plasmonics. After a brief introduction to OAD technique, recent progress of applying OAD in fabricating noble metallic nanostructures for LSPR sensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, surface-enhanced infrared absorption, metal-enhanced fluorescence, and metamaterials, and their corresponding properties are reviewed. The future requirements for OAD plasmonics applications are also discussed.