A Tuneable near to mid-infrared pump, terahertz (THz) probe spectroscopy in reflection geometry has been constructed in Professor Nan-Lin Wang’s laboratory, International Center for Quantum Materials, Peking University. The setup is capable of exciting the bulk materials with pump pulses ranging from 1.2 μm to 15 μm (shown in color yellow), and detecting the transient photoinduced subtle changes of reflected electric field at the frequency of 0.25-2.5 THz (shown in color red)[Detail] ...
In this paper, a random clique network model to mimic the large clustering coefficient and the modular structure that exist in many real complex networks, such as social networks, artificial networks, and protein interaction networks, is introduced by combining the random selection rule of the Erdös and Rényi (ER) model and the concept of cliques. We find that random clique networks having a small average degree differ from the ER network in that they have a large clustering coefficient and a power law clustering spectrum, while networks having a high average degree have similar properties as the ER model. In addition, we find that the relation between the clustering coefficient and the average degree shows a non-monotonic behavior and that the degree distributions can be fit by multiple Poisson curves; we explain the origin of such novel behaviors and degree distributions.
Acoustical signal transduction in the cochlea is an active process that involves nonlinear amplification and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. Signal transduction involves individual subunits composed of globally coupled hair cells, which can be modeled as oscillators close to a Hopf bifurcation. The coupling may induce a transition toward synchronization, which in turn leads to a strong nonlinear response. In the model studied here, the synchronization transition of the subunit is discontinuous (explosive) in the absence of an external stimulus. We show that, in the presence of an external stimulus and for a coupling strength slightly lower than the critical value leading to explosive synchronization, the response of the subunit has better frequency selectivity and a larger signal-to-noise ratio. From physiological observations that subunits are themselves coupled together, we further propose a model of the complete cochlea, accounting for the ensemble of frequencies that the organ is able to detect.
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
A high-performance multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingot was produced by seed-assisted directional solidification, and the minority carrier lifetime of the periphery edge region was evaluated. The defects and impurities in the periphery edge region of the silicon wafers were systematically studied with photoluminescence (PL) imaging, minority carrier lifetime mapping, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Their relationships with the minority carrier lifetime were investigated. The concentration of substitutional carbon, interstitial oxygen, and dislocation clusters is not directly correlated with the low minority carrier lifetime of the edge zone of the mc-Si ingot. Inhomogeneous grain size distribution and contamination with iron impurities were demonstrated to be the main factors affecting the low minority carrier lifetime. By controlling the impurities and improving the grain size distribution, a modified furnace was designed and a higher-quality mc-Si ingot was manufactured.
The spin–orbit interaction (SOI) of light has been intensively studied in nanophotonics because it enables sensitive control of photons’ spin degree of freedom and thereby the trajectories of the photons, which is useful for applications such as signal encoding and routing. A recent study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 166803 (2016)] showed that the SOI of photons manifests in the presence of a gradient in the permittivity of the medium through which the photons propagate; this enhances the scattering of circularly polarized light and results in the photons propagating along twisted trajectories. Here we theoretically predict that, because of the equivalence between an inhomogeneous dielectric medium and a gravitational field demonstrated in transformation optics, a significant SOI is induced onto circularly polarized light passing by the gravitational lens of a black hole. This leads to: i) the photons to propagate along chiral trajectories if the size of the black hole is smaller than the wavelength of the incident photons; ii) the resulting image of the gravitational lens to manifest an azimuthal rotation because of these chiral trajectories. The findings open for a way to probe for and discover subwavelength-size black holes using circularly polarized light.
Controlling and manipulating the fluorescence of single fluorophores is of great interest in recent years for its potential uses in improving the performance of molecular photonics and molecular electronics, such as in organic light-emitting devices, single photon sources, organic field-effect transistors, and probes or sensors based on single molecules. This review shows how the fluorescence emission of single organic molecules can be modified using local electromagnetic fields of metallic nanostructures and electric-field-induced electron transfer. Electric-field-induced fluorescence modulation, hysteresis, and the achievement of fluorescence switch are discussed in detail.
Strong-field mid-infrared pump–terahertz (THz) probe spectroscopy has been proven as a powerful tool for light control of different orders in strongly correlated materials. We report the construction of an ultrafast broadband infrared pump–THz probe system in reflection geometry. A two-output optical parametric amplifier is used for generating mid-infrared pulses with GaSe as the nonlinear crystal. The setup is capable of pumping bulk materials at wavelengths ranging from 1.2 m to 15 m and beyond, and detecting the subtle, transient photoinduced changes in the reflected electric field of the THz probe at different temperatures. As a demonstration, we present 15 m pump–THz probe measurements of a bulk EuSbTe3 single crystal. A 0:5% transient change in the reflected THz electric field can be clearly resolved. The widely tuned pumping energy could be used in mode-selective excitation experiments and applied to many strongly correlated electron systems.
The periodic Anderson model (PAM), where local electron orbitals interplay with itinerant electronic carriers, plays an essential role in our understanding of heavy fermion materials. Motivated by recent proposals for simulating the Kondo lattice model (KLM) in terms of alkaline-earth metal atoms, we take another step toward the simulation of PAM, which includes the crucial charge/valence fluctuation of local f-electrons beyond purely low-energy spin fluctuation in the KLM. To realize PAM, a transition induced by a suitable laser between the electronic excited and ground state of alkaline-earth metal atoms (1S0↔3P0) is introduced. This leads to effective hybridization between local electrons and conduction electrons in PAM. Generally, the SU(N) version of PAM can be realized by our proposal, which gives a unique opportunity to detect large-N physics without complexity in realistic materials. In the present work, high-temperature physical features of standard [SU(2)] PAM with harmonic trapping potential are analyzed by quantum Monte Carlo and dynamic mean-field theory, where the Mott/orbital-selective Mott state was found to coexist with metallic states. Indications for near-future experiments are provided. We expect our theoretical proposal and (hopefully) forthcoming experiments will deepen our understanding of heavy fermion systems. At the same time, we hope these will trigger further studies on related Mott physics, quantum criticality, and non-trivial topology in both the inhomogeneous and nonequilibrium realms.
Both impurity- and magnetic-field-induced quasiparticle states in chiral p-wave superconductors are investigated theoretically by solving the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations self-consistently. At the strong scattering limit, we find that a universal state bound to the impurity can be induced for both a single nonmagnetic impurity and a single magnetic impurity. Furthermore, we find that different chiral order parameters and the corresponding supercurrents have uniform distributions around linear impurities. Calculations of the local density of states in the presence of an external magnetic field show that the intensity peak of the zero-energy Majorana mode in the vortex core can be enhanced dramatically by tuning the strength of the external magnetic field or pairing interaction.
We synthesized a series of Nb2Pd1−xRuxS5 polycrystalline samples by a solid-state reaction method and systematically investigated the Ru-doping effect on superconductivity by transport and magnetic measurements. It is found that superconductivity is enhanced with Ru doping and is quite robust upon disorder. Hall coefficient measurements indicate that the charge transport is dominated by hole-type charge carriers similar to the case of Ir doping, suggesting multi-band superconductivity. Upon Ru or Ir doping, Hc2/Tc exhibits a significant enhancement, exceeding the Pauli paramagnetic limit value by a factor of approximately 4. A comparison of Tc and the upper critical field (Hc2) amongst the different doping elements on Pd site, reveals a significant role of spin–orbit coupling.
We present a general method for constructing maximally localized Wannier functions. It consists of three steps: (i) picking a localized trial wave function, (ii) performing a full band projection, and (iii) orthonormalizing with the Löwdin method. Our method is capable of producing maximally localized Wannier functions without further minimization, and it can be applied straightforwardly to random potentials without using supercells. The effectiveness of our method is demonstrated for both simple bands and composite bands.
Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo–Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large-N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1−xYbxCoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.
We study the pairing states in a largely imbalanced two-component Fermi gas loaded in an anisotropic two-dimensional optical lattice, where the spin-up and spin-down fermions are filled to the s- and px-orbital bands, respectively. We show that owing to the relative inversion of the band structures of the s and px orbitals, the system favors pairing between two fermions on the same side of the Brillouin zone, leading to a large stable regime for states with a finite center-of-mass momentum, i.e., the Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. In particular, when two Fermi surfaces are close in momentum space, a nesting effect stabilizes a special type of π-FFLO phase with a spatial modulation of πalong the easily tunneled x direction. We map out the zero-temperature phase diagrams within the mean-field approach for various aspect ratios within the two-dimensional plane and calculate the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) transition temperatures TBKT for different phases.
Through a detailed study of the mean-field approximation, the Gaussian approximation, the perturbation expansion, and the field-theoretic renormalization-group analysis of a φ3 theory, we show that the instability fixed points of the theory, together with their associated instability exponents, are quite probably relevant to the scaling and universality behavior exhibited by the first-order phase transitions in a field-driven scalar φ4 model, below its critical temperature and near the instability points. Finitetime scaling and leading corrections to the scaling are considered. We also show that the instability exponents of the first-order phase transitions are equivalent to those of the Yang–Lee edge singularity, and employ the latter to improve our estimates of the former. The outcomes agree well with existing numerical results.
The wettability and roughness of a substrate are crucial to the evolution of the contact angle and three-phase contact line in the evaporation of sessile droplets. In this paper, by performing molecular dynamics simulations for droplet evaporation at the nanoscale, we show that the wettability is more important than the roughness. For a smooth substrate, the evaporation behavior of a nanodroplet is similar to that at the macroscopic scale. This similarity is also observed in the case of a rough hydrophilic substrate. However, for a rough hydrophobic substrate, both the constant contact angle and contact line pinning appear in turn during evaporation. This suggests that the roughness of the hydrophobic substrate is useful for the evaporation technique in self-assembly at the nanoscale.
Defected graphene has a more important practical significance than graphene. Silver nanoparticles can modify the optical properties of defected graphene. We present herein a detailed theoretical analysis about the coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the Stone–Wales (SW) defected graphene–silver nanowire hybrid system by using time-dependent density functional theory. The plasmon coherent effect is mainly attributed to the electromagnetic field coupling between the Stone–Wales defected graphene and silver nanowires. As a result, the optical response of the hybrid system exhibits a remarkable enhancement. Plasmon resonance, which depends on polarization and selectable tuning, is enhanced in wide frequency regions. Moreover, it reveals that the resonance frequency of an optical absorption spectrum depends on the space configuration of the SW defected graphene in the hybrid system. This investigation provides a better understanding of the plasmon enhancement effect used in a graphene-based photoelectric device. The study also offers an effective means of detecting the defects existing in graphene.
An extended social force model with a dynamic navigation field is proposed to study bidirectional pedestrian movement. The dynamic navigation field is introduced to describe the desired direction of pedestrian motion resulting from the decision-making processes of pedestrians. The macroscopic funda-mental diagrams obtained using the extended model are validated against camera-based observations. Numerical results show that this extended model can reproduce collective phenomena in pedestrian traffic, such as dynamic multilane flow and stable separate-lane flow. Pedestrians’ path choice behavior significantly affects the probability of congestion and the number of self-organized lanes.
We study the spontaneous symmetry breaking of dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates trapped in stacks of two-well systems, which may be effectively built as one-dimensional trapping lattices sliced by a repelling laser sheet. If the potential wells are sufficiently deep, the system is modeled by coupled discrete Gross–Pitaevskii equations with nonlocal self- and cross-interaction terms representing dipole–dipole interactions. When the dipoles are not polarized perpendicular or parallel to the lattice, the crossinteraction is asymmetric, replacing the familiar symmetric two-component solitons with a new species of cross-symmetric or-asymmetric ones. The orientation of the dipole moments and the interwell hopping rate strongly affect the shapes of the discrete two-component solitons as well as the characteristics of the cross-symmetry breaking and the associated phase transition. The sub- and super-critical types of cross-symmetry breaking can be controlled by either the hopping rate between the components or the total norm of the solitons. The effect of the interplay between the contact nonlinearity and the dipole angle on the cross-symmetry breaking is also discussed.
We investigate periodic inversion and phase transition of normal and displaced finite-energy Airy beams propagating in nonlocal nonlinear media with the split-step Fourier method. Numerical simulation results show that parameters such as the degree of nonlocality and amplitude have profound effects on the intensity distribution of the period of an Airy beam. Nonlocal nonlinear media will reduce into a harmonic potential if the nonlocality is strong enough, which results in the beam fluctuating in an approximately cosine mode. The beam profile changes from an Airy profile to a Gaussian one at a critical point, and during propagation the process repeats to form an unusual oscillation. We also briefly discus the two-dimensional case, being equivalent to a product of two one-dimensional cases.
In this paper, we propose a simple method of illusion optics based on conformal mappings. By carefully developing designs with specific conformal mappings, one can make an object look like another with a significantly different shape. In addition, the illusion optical devices can work in a broadband of frequencies.
Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various “sublattice” patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal “sublattice” structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in “sublattices”. Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in “lattices” formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.
The study of hyperon decays at the Beijing Electron Spectrometer III (BESIII) is proposed to investigate the events of J/φ decay into hyperon pairs, which provide a pristine experimental environment at the Beijing Electron–Positron Collider II. About 106–108 hyperons, i.e., ?, Σ,Ξand Ω, will be produced in the J/φ and φ(2S) decays with the proposed data samples at BESIII. Based on these samples, the measurement sensitivity of the branching fractions of the hyperon decays is in the range of 10-5–10-8. In addition, with the known center-of-mass energy and “tag technique”, rare decays and decays with invisible final states can be probed.
Fermion particle pair production in strong SU(2)-gauge chromoelectric fields is studied using the Boltzmann–Vlasov equation in a classical way. The existence of a preproduction process in a classical description is shown using the distribution evolution of non-Abelian particle production. It is interesting to find that the distribution of the particle number density is centered on two islands and shows a split on the color charge sphere as it evolves, ultimately reaching a steady state that is related to the amplitude and variation of the field.
We investigate dynamical phase transitions that are induced by interspecies interaction in a two-species bosonic Josephson junctions (BJJ), based on semi-classical theory. In zero-phase mode, similar to the case of a single-species BJJ, we observe the well-known dynamical phase transition from Josephson oscillation to self-trapping, which can be induced by both enhanced repulsive and attractive interspecies interactions. In π phase mode, dynamical phase transitions are even more interesting and counterintuitive. We characterize a dynamical phase transition with the merging of two separate phase space domains into one, which is induced by increasing repulsive interspecies interaction. On the other hand, we find that by increasing attractive interspecies interaction, a phase separation of two formally overlapped phase space domains will occur. At last, we reveal that these intriguing dynamical phase transitions are caused by different kinds of bifurcations.
A new kind of non-Gaussian quantum state is introduced by applying nonlocal coherent superposition (τa + sb)m of photon subtraction to two single-mode squeezed vacuum states, and the properties of entanglement are investigated according to the degree of entanglement and the average fidelity of quantum teleportation. The state can be seen as a single-variable Hermitian polynomial excited squeezed vacuum state, and its normalization factor is related to the Legendre polynomial. It is shown that, for τ=s, the maximum fidelity can be achieved, even over the classical limit (1/2), only for evenorder operation m and equivalent squeezing parameters in a certain region. However, the maximum entanglement can be achieved for squeezing parameters with a π phase difference. These indicate that the optimal realizations of fidelity and entanglement could be different from one another. In addition, the parameter τ/s has an obvious effect on entanglement and fidelity.
Quantum teleportation provides a “bodiless” way of transmitting the quantum state from one object to another, at a distant location, using a classical communication channel and a previously shared entangled state. In this paper, we present a tripartite scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary single qubit state, without losing the information of the state being teleported, via a fourqubit cluster state of the form |φ〉1234=α|0000〉+β|1010〉+γ|1010〉－η|1010〉, as the quantum channel, where the nonzero real numbers α, β, γ, and ηsatisfy the relation |α|2+|β|2+|γ|2+|η|2=1. With the introduction of an auxiliary qubit with state |0〉, using a suitable unitary transformation and a positive-operator valued measure (POVM), the receiver can recreate the state of the original qubit. An important advantage of the teleportation scheme demonstrated here is that, if the teleportation fails, it can be repeated without teleporting copies of the unknown quantum state, if the concerned parties share another pair of entangled qubit. We also present a protocol for quantum information splitting of an arbitrary two-particle system via the aforementioned cluster state and a Bell-state as the quantum channel. Problems related to security attacks were examined for both the cases and it was found that this protocol is secure. This protocol is highly efficient and easy to implement.