In recent years, spin-orbit coupled ultracold atomic gases have become a major focus of research. By dressing atoms with suitably tailored laser light, motional and internal degrees of freedom can be coupled, resulting in the generation of artificial gauge fields, spin-orbit coupling, and the breaking of Galilean symmetry. Interesting dispersion relations can be engineered and studied in detail, such as double-well potentials in momentum space featuring regions of negative ma[Detail] ...
Au-core/Pt-shell nanorods (Au@Pt NRs) have been prepared by a Au nanorod-mediated growth method, and they exhibit high electromagnetic field enhancements under coupling conditions. Boosted by a long-range effect of the high electromagnetic field generated by the Au core, the electromagnetic field enhancement can be controlled by changing the morphology of the nanostructures. In this study, we report the results on the simulations of the electromagnetic field enhancement using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, taking the real shapes of the Au@Pt NRs into account. Due to the “hot spot” effect, the electromagnetic field can be localized between the Pt nanodots. The electromagnetic field enhancement is found to be rather independent of the Pt content, whereas the local roughness and small sharp features might significantly modify the near-field. As the electromagnetic field enhancement can be tuned by the distribution of Pt nanodots over the Au-core, Au@Pt NRs can find potential applications in related areas.
The experimental and theoretical research of spin–orbit-coupled ultracold atomic gases has advanced and expanded rapidly in recent years. Here, we review some of the progress that either was pioneered by our own work, has helped to lay the foundation, or has developed new and relevant techniques. After examining the experimental accessibility of all relevant spin–orbit coupling parameters, we discuss the fundamental properties and general applications of spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) over a wide range of physical situations. For the harmonically trapped case, we show that the ground state phase transition is a Dicke-type process and that spin–orbit-coupled BECs provide a unique platform to simulate and study the Dicke model and Dicke phase transitions. For a homogeneous BEC, we discuss the collective excitations, which have been observed experimentally using Bragg spectroscopy. They feature a roton-like minimum, the softening of which provides a potential mechanism to understand the ground state phase transition. On the other hand, if the collective dynamics are excited by a sudden quenching of the spin–orbit coupling parameters, we show that the resulting collective dynamics can be related to the famous Zitterbewegung in the relativistic realm. Finally, we discuss the case of a BEC loaded into a periodic optical potential. Here, the spin–orbit coupling generates isolated flat bands within the lowest Bloch bands whereas the nonlinearity of the system leads to dynamical instabilities of these Bloch waves. The experimental verification of this instability illustrates the lack of Galilean invariance in the system.
One of the most dynamic directions in ultracold atomic gas research is the study of low-dimensional physics in quasi-low-dimensional geometries, where atoms are confined in strongly anisotropic traps. Recently, interest has significantly intensified with the realization of synthetic spin–orbit coupling (SOC). As a first step toward understanding the SOC effect in quasi-low-dimensional systems, the solution of two-body problems in different trapping geometries and different types of SOC has attracted great attention in the past few years. In this review, we discuss both the scattering-state and the bound-state solutions of two-body problems in quasi-one and quasi-two dimensions. We show that the degrees of freedom in tightly confined dimensions, in particular with the presence of SOC, may significantly affect system properties. Specifically, in a quasi-one-dimensional atomic gas, a one-dimensional SOC can shift the positions of confinement-induced resonances whereas, in quasitwo-dimensional gases, a Rashba-type SOC tends to increase the two-body binding energy, such that more excited states in the tightly confined direction are occupied and the system is driven further away from a purely two-dimensional gas. The effects of the excited states can be incorporated by adopting an effective low-dimensional Hamiltonian having the form of a two-channel model. With the bare parameters fixed by two-body solutions, this effective Hamiltonian leads to qualitatively different many-body properties compared to a purely low-dimensional model.
Motivated by recent experimental progress in high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques, we investigate the local quasiparticle density of states around a unitary impurity in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5. Based on the T -matrix approach we obtain a sharp nearly zero-energy resonance state in the strong impurity potential scattering localized around the impurity and find qualitative differences in the spatial pattern of the tunneling conductance modulated by the nodal structure of the superconducting gap. These unique features may be used as a probe of the superconducting gap symmetry and, in combination with further STM measurements, may help to confirm the
Motivated by the recent discovery of a strongly spin–orbit-coupled two-dimensional (2D) electron gas near the surface of Rashba semiconductors BiTeX (X= Cl, Br, I), we calculate the thermoelectric responses of spin polarization in a 2D Rashba model. By self-consistently determining the energyand band-dependent transport time, we present an exact solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation for elastic scattering. Using this solution, we find a non-Edelstein electric-field-induced spin polarization that is linear in the Fermi energy EF when EF lies below the band crossing point. The spin polarization efficiency, which is the electric-field-induced spin polarization divided by the driven electric current, increases for smaller EF .We show that, as a function of EF, the temperaturegradient-induced spin polarization increases continuously to a saturation value when EF decreases below the band crossing point. As the temperature tends to zero, the temperature-gradient-induced spin polarization vanishes.
The electrostatic potential caused by a test-charge particle in a positive dust-electron plasma is studied, accounting for the dust-charge fluctuations associated with ultraviolet photoelectron and thermionic emissions. For this purpose, the set of Vlasov–Poisson equations coupled with the dust charging equation is solved by using the space–time Fourier transform technique. As a consequence, a modified dielectric response function is obtained for dust-acoustic waves in a positive dust-electron plasma. By imposing certain conditions on the velocity of the test charge, the electrostatic potential is decomposed into the Debye–Hückel (DH), wake-field (WF), and far-field (FF) potentials that are significantly modified in the limit of a large dust-charge relaxation rate both analytically and numerically. The results can be helpful for understanding dust crystallization/coagulation in twocomponent plasmas, where positively charged dust grains are present.
This paper proposes a novel bubble model to analyze drag reduction. The relationship between the slip length and air bubble height is discussed. The numerical relationship between the surface contact angle and slip length is obtained using the solid-liquid contact ratio in the Cassie equation. The surface drag reduction ratio increases by 40% at low velocities when the solid liquid contact ratio decreases from 90% to 10%. An experimental setup to study liquid/solid friction drag is reported. The drag reduction ratio for the superhydrophobic surface tested experimentally is 30%–35% at low velocities. These results are similar to the simulation results obtained at low velocities.
We study the phase sensitivity of an SU(1,1) interferometer with two input beams in the displaced squeezed vacuum state and the coherent state, respectively. We find that there exists an optimal squeezing fraction of the displaced squeezed vacuum state that optimizes the phase sensitivity. We also examine the effects of some factors, including the loss, mean photon number of the input beams and amplitude gain of the optical parameter amplifiers, on the optimal squeezing fraction so that we can choose the optimal values to enhance the phase sensitivity.
Very recently, the Belle and BESIII experiments observed a new charmonium-like state X(3823), which is a good candidate for the D-wave charmonium ψ(13D2). Because the X(3823) is just near the D ¯D∗ threshold, the decay X(3823)→ J/ψπ+π− can be a golden channel to test the significance of coupled-channel effects. In this work, this decay is considered including both the hidden-charm dipion and the usual quantum chromodynamics multipole expansion (QCDME) contributions. The partial decay width, the dipion invariant mass spectrum distribution dΓ[X(3823) → J/ψπ+π−]/dmπ+π−, and the corresponding dΓ[X(3823) → J/ψπ+π−]/d cos θ distribution are computed. Many parameters are determined from existing experimental data, so the results depend mainly only on one unknown phase between the QCDME and hidden-charm dipion amplitudes.
In this paper I discuss Hopf algebras and Dyson–Schwinger equations. This paper starts with an introduction to Hopf algebras, followed by a review of the contribution and application of Hopf algebras to particle physics. The final part of the paper is devoted to the relation between Hopf algebras and Dyson–Schwinger equations.
The goal of this contribution is to explain the analogy between combinatorial Dyson–Schwinger equations and inductive data types to a readership of mathematical physicists. The connection relies on an interpretation of combinatorial Dyson–Schwinger equations as fixpoint equations for olynomial functors (established elsewhere by the author, and summarised here), combined with he now-classical fact that polynomial functors provide semantics for inductive types. The paper is xpository, and comprises also a brief introduction to type theory.
We describe a setup for obtaining uncertainty relations for arbitrary pairs of observables related by a Fourier transform. The physical examples discussed here are the standard position and momentum, number and angle, finite qudit systems, and strings of qubits for quantum information applications. The uncertainty relations allow for an arbitrary choice of metric for the outcome distance, and the choice of an exponent distinguishing, e.g., absolute and root mean square deviations. The emphasis of this article is on developing a unified treatment, in which one observable takes on values in an arbitrary locally compact Abelian group and the other in the dual group. In all cases, the phase space symmetry implies the equality of measurement and preparation uncertainty bounds. There is also a straightforward method for determining the optimal bounds.
Although the no-cloning theorem forbids perfect replication of quantum information, it is sometimes possible to produce large numbers of replicas with vanishingly small error. This phenomenon, known as quantum superreplication, can occur for both quantum states and quantum gates. The aim of this paper is to review the central features of quantum superreplication and provide a unified view of existing results. The paper also includes new results. In particular, we show that when quantum superreplication can be achieved, it can be achieved through estimation up to an error of size O(M/N2), where N and M are the number of input and output copies, respectively. Quantum strategies still offer an advantage for superreplication in that they allow for exponentially faster reduction of the error. Using the relation with estimation, we provide i) an alternative proof of the optimality of Heisenberg scaling in quantum metrology, ii) a strategy for estimating arbitrary unitary gates with a mean square error scaling as log N/N2, and iii) a protocol that generates O(N2) nearly perfect copies of a generic pure state U|0>while using the corresponding gate U only N times. Finally, we point out that superreplication can be achieved using interactions among k systems, provided that k is large compared to M2/N2.
A new type of entangled fractional squeezing transformation (EFrST) has been theoretically proposed for 2D entanglement [Front. Phys. 10, 100302 (2015)]. In this paper, we shall extend this case to that of 3D entanglement by introducing a type of three-mode entangled state representation, which is not the product of three 1D cases. Using the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators, we derive a compact unitary operator corresponding to the 3D fractional entangling transformation, which is an entangling operator that presents a clear transformation relation. We also verified that the additivity property of the novel 3D EFrST is of a Fourier character by using its quantum mechanical description. As an application of this representation, the EFrST of the three-mode number state is calculated using the quantum description of the EFrST.
We investigate the fragmentation in a two-mode Bose–Einstein condensate with Josephson coupling. We explore how the fragmentation and entropy of the ground state depend on the intermode asymmetry and interparticle interactions. Owing to the interplay between the asymmetry and the interactions, a sequence of notches and plateaus in the fragmentation appears with the single-atom tunneling and interaction blockade, respectively. We then analyze the dynamical properties of the fragmentation in three typical quenches of the asymmetry: linear, sudden, and periodic quenches. In a linear quench, the final state is a fragmented state due to the sequential Landau–Zener tunneling, which can be analytically explained by applying the two-level Landau–Zener formula for each avoided level crossing. In a sudden quench, the fragmentation exhibits persistent fluctuations that sensitively depend on the interparticle interactions and intermode coupling. In a periodic quench, the fragmentation is modulated by the periodic driving, and a suitable modulation may allow one to control the fragmentation.