Jun 2023, Volume 16 Issue 2

Cover illustration

  • In-fiber whispering gallery mode (WGM) microsphere resonators can serve as a convenient sensing probe due to their refection mode operation. Heretofore, it has been used in sensing temperature, humidity, hydrostatic pressure, refractive index, chemicals, biomolecules, etc. The in-fiber resonators have the advantages of self-alignment, compact structure, and high stability, making them a vigorous sub-field of WGM photonic devices. This review gives an overview of the recent pr [Detail] ...

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    Xiang Gao, Fengbo Sun, Xinzhu Tong, Xufan Zheng, Yinuo Wang, Cong Xiao, Pengcheng Li, Renqiang Yang, Xunchang Wang, Zhitian Liu

    Single perylene diimide (PDI) used as a non-fullerene acceptor (NFA) in organic solar cells (OSCs) is enticing because of its low cost and excellent stability. To improve the photovoltaic performance, it is vital to narrow the bandgap and regulate the stacking behavior. To address this challenge, we synthesize soluble perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI) molecules with a bulky side chain at the bay region, by replacing the widely used “swallow tail” type alkyl chains at the imide position of PDI molecules with a planar benzimidazole structure. Compared with PDI molecules, PTCBI molecules exhibit red-shifted UV–vis absorption spectra with larger extinction coefficient, and one magnitude higher electron mobility. Finally, OSCs based on one soluble PTCBI-type NFA, namely MAS-7, exhibit a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.34%, which is significantly higher than that of the corresponding PDI-based OSCs and is the highest PCE of PTCBI-based OSCs reported. These results highlight the potential of soluble PTCBI derivatives as NFAs in OSCs.

    Qi Han, Yadong Jiang, Xianchao Liu, Chaoyi Zhang, Jun Wang

    Black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) are synthesized and combined with graphene sheet. The fabricated BPQDs/graphene devices are capable of detecting visible and near infrared radiation. The adsorption effect of BPQDs in graphene is clarified by the relationship of the photocurrent and the shift of the Dirac point with different substrate. The Dirac point moves toward a neutral point under illumination with both SiO2/Si and Si3N4/Si substrates, indicating an anti-doped feature of photo-excitation. To our knowledge, this provides the first observation of photoresist induced photocurrent in such systems. Without the influence of the photoresist the device can respond to infrared light up to 980 nm wavelength in vacuum in a cryostat, in which the photocurrent is positive and photoconduction effect is believed to dominate the photocurrent. Finally, the adsorption effect is modeled using a first-principle method to give a picture of charge transfer and orbital contribution in the interaction of phosphorus atoms and single-layer graphene.

    Yong Yang, Zijie Wang, Xiaobei Zhang, Qi Zhang, Tingyun Wang

    In-fiber whispering gallery mode (WGM) microsphere resonators have received remarkable attention due to the superiorities of compact structure, high stability and self-alignment. As an in-fiber structure, WGM microsphere resonators have been demonstrated in various applications, such as sensors, filters and lasers, which have significant impacts on modern optics. Herein, we review recent progress of in-fiber WGM microsphere resonators, which involve fibers of diverse structures and microspheres of different materials. First, a brief introduction is given to in-fiber WGM microsphere resonators, from structures to applications. Then, we focus on recent progresses in this field, including in-fiber couplers based on conventional fibers, capillaries and micro-structure hollow fibers, and passive/active microspheres. Finally, future developments of the in-fiber WGM microsphere resonators are envisioned.

    Zhenzhu Xu, Li Mei, Yuhua Chong, Xudong Gao, Shoubao Han, Chengkun Yang, Lin Li

    An integrated microwave photonic mixer based on silicon photonic platforms is proposed, which consist of a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator and a balanced photodetector. The modulated optical signals from microwave photonic links can be directly demodulated and down-converted to intermediate frequency (IF) signals by the photonic mixer. The converted signal is obtained by conducting off-chip subtraction of the outputs from the balanced photodetector, and subsequent filtering of the high frequency items by an electrical low-pass filter. Benefiting from balanced detection, the conversion gain of the IF signal is improved by 6 dB, and radio frequency leakage and common-mode noise are suppressed significantly. System-level simulations show that the frequency mixing system has a spurious-free dynamic range of 89 dB·Hz2/3, even with deteriorated linearity caused by the two cascaded modulators. The spur suppression ratio of the photonic mixer remains higher than 40 dB when the IF varies from 0.5 to 4 GHz. The electrical-electrical 3 dB bandwidth of frequency conversion is 11 GHz. The integrated frequency mixing approach is quite simple, requiring no extra optical filters or electrical 90° hybrid coupler, which makes the system more stable and with broader bandwidth so that it can meet the potential demand in practical applications.

    Zixiong Li, Mingyu Li, Xinyi Hou, Lei Du, Lin Xiao, Tianshu Wang, Wanzhuo Ma

    This paper proposes a mode-locked fiber laser based on graphene-coated microfiber. The total length of the fiber laser resonant cavity is 31.34 m. Under the condition of stable output of bright-dark soliton pairs from the fiber laser, dual-wavelength tuning is realized by adjusting the polarization controller (PC), and the wavelength tuning range is 11 nm. Furthermore, the effects of polarization states on bright-dark solitons are studied. It is demonstrated that the mode-locking state can be switched between conventional solitons and bright-dark solitons in the graphene mode-locked fiber laser. Bright-dark soliton pairs with different shapes and nanosecond pulse width can be obtained by adjusting the PC and pump power.

    Baohao Xu, Zhiyuan Jin, Lie Shi, Huanian Zhang, Qi Liu, Peng Qin, Kai Jiang, Jing Wang, Wenjing Tang, Wei Xia

    As a member of Xenes family, germanene has excellent nonlinear saturable absorption characteristics. In this work, we prepared germanene nanosheets by liquid phase exfoliation and measured their saturation intensity as 0.6 GW/cm2 with a modulation depth of 8%. Then, conventional solitons with a pulse width of 946 fs and high-energy noise-like pulses with a pulse width of 784 fs were obtained by using germanene nanosheet as a saturable absorber for a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser. The characteristics of the two types of pulses were investigated experimentally. The results reveal that germanene has great potential for modulation devices in ultrafast lasers and can be used as a material for creation of excellent nonlinear optical devices to explore richer applications in ultrafast photonics.

    Weinan Liu, Youmin Rong, Ranwu Yang, Congyi Wu, Guojun Zhang, Yu Huang

    The mechanisms of interaction between pulsed laser and materials are complex and indistinct, severely influencing the stability and quality of laser processing. This paper proposes an intelligent method based on the acoustic emission (AE) technique to monitor laser processing and explore the interaction mechanisms. The validation experiment is designed to perform nanosecond laser dotting on float glass. Processing parameters are set differently to generate various outcomes: ablated pits and irregular-shaped cracks. In the signal processing stage, we divide the AE signals into two bands, main and tail bands, according to the laser processing duration, to study the laser ablation and crack behavior, respectively. Characteristic parameters extracted by a method that combines framework and frame energy calculation of AE signals can effectively reveal the mechanisms of pulsed laser processing. The main band features evaluate the degree of laser ablation from the time and intensity scales, and the tail band characteristics demonstrate that the cracks occur after laser dotting. In addition, from the analysis of the parameters of the tail band very large cracks can be efficiently distinguished. The intelligent AE monitoring method was successfully applied in exploring the interaction mechanism of nanosecond laser dotting float glass and can be used in other pulsed laser processing fields.

    Mengqiong Zhu, Yuanbo Zhang, Shuaicheng Lu, Zijun Wang, Junbing Zhou, Wenkai Ma, Ruinan Zhu, Guanyuan Chen, Jianbing Zhang, Liang Gao, Jiancan Yu, Pingqi Gao, Jiang Tang

    Infrared photovoltaic cells (IRPCs) have attracted considerable attention for potential applications in wireless optical power transfer (WOPT) systems. As an efficient fiber-integrated WOPT system typically uses a 1550 nm laser beam, it is essential to tune the peak conversion efficiency of IRPCs to this wavelength. However, IRPCs based on lead sulfide (PbS) colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) with an excitonic peak of 1550 nm exhibit low short circuit current (Jsc) due to insufficient absorption under monochromatic light illumination. Here, we propose comprehensive optical engineering to optimize the device structure of IRPCs based on PbS CQDs, for 1550 nm WOPT systems. The absorption by the device is enhanced by improving the transmittance of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) in the infrared region and by utilizing the optical resonance effect in the device. Therefore, the optimized device exhibited a high short circuit current density of 37.65 mA/cm2 under 1 sun (AM 1.5G) solar illumination and 11.91 mA/cm2 under 1550 nm illumination 17.3 mW/cm2. Furthermore, the champion device achieved a record high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.17% under 1 sun illumination and 10.29% under 1550 nm illumination. The PbS CQDs IRPCs under 1550 nm illumination can even light up a liquid crystal display (LCD), demonstrating application prospects in the future.

    Liye Xu, Jiao Geng, Liping Shi, Weicheng Cui, Min Qiu

    We report self-organized periodic nanostructures on amorphous silicon thin films by femtosecond laser-induced oxidation. The dependence of structural periodicity on the thickness of silicon films and the substrate materials is investigated. The results reveal that when silicon film is 200 nm, the period of self-organized nanostructures is close to the laser wavelength and is insensitive to the substrates. In contrast, when the silicon film is 50 nm, the period of nanostructures is much shorter than the laser wavelength, and is dependent on the substrates. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, for the thick silicon films, quasi-cylindrical waves dominate the formation of periodic nanostructures, while for the thin silicon films, the formation originates from slab waveguide modes. Finite-difference time-domain method-based numerical simulations support the experimental discoveries.

  • Zheng Liu, Tianhua Xu, Ji Qi, Joshua Uduagbomen, Jian Zhao, Tiegen Liu

    Optical fiber communication networks play an important role in the global telecommunication network. However, nonlinear effects in the optical fiber and transceiver noise greatly limit the performance of fiber communication systems. In this paper, the product of mutual information (MI) and communication bandwidth is used as the metric of the achievable information rate (AIR). The MI loss caused by the transceiver is also considered in this work, and the bit-wise MI, generalized mutual information (GMI), is used to calculate the AIR. This loss is more significant in the use of higher-order modulation formats. The AIR analysis is carried out in the QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM modulation formats for the communication systems with different communication bandwidths and transmission distances based on the enhanced Gaussian noise (EGN) model. The paper provides suggestions for the selection of the optimal modulation format in different transmission scenarios.