Jun 2024, Volume 17 Issue 2

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    Rui Ma, Qiuchen Yan, Yihao Luo, Yandong Li, Xingyuan Wang, Cuicui Lu, Xiaoyong Hu, Qihuang Gong

    The topological photonics plays an important role in the fields of fundamental physics and photonic devices. The traditional method of designing topological system is based on the momentum space, which is not a direct and convenient way to grasp the topological properties, especially for the perturbative structures or coupled systems. Here, we propose an interdisciplinary approach to study the topological systems in real space through combining the information entropy and topological photonics. As a proof of concept, the Kagome model has been analyzed with information entropy. We reveal that the bandgap closing does not correspond to the topological edge state disappearing. This method can be used to identify the topological phase conveniently and directly, even the systems with perturbations or couplings. As a promotional validation, Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model and the valley-Hall photonic crystal have also been studied based on the information entropy method. This work provides a method to study topological photonic phase based on information theory, and brings inspiration to analyze the physical properties by taking advantage of interdisciplinarity.

    Yupei Liang, Mingyu Liu, Fan Tang, Yanhong Guo, Hao Zhang, Shihan Liu, Yanping Yang, Guangming Zhao, Teng Tan, Baicheng Yao

    Since their inception, frequency combs generated in microresonators, known as microcombs, have sparked significant scientific interests. Among the various applications leveraging microcombs, soliton microcombs are often preferred due to their inherent mode-locking capability. However, this choice introduces additional system complexity because an initialization process is required. Meanwhile, despite the theoretical understanding of the dynamics of other comb states, their practical potential, particularly in applications like sensing where simplicity is valued, remains largely untapped. Here, we demonstrate controllable generation of sub-combs that bypasses the need for accessing bistable regime. And in a graphene-sensitized microresonator, the sub-comb heterodynes produce stable, accurate microwave signals for high-precision gas detection. By exploring the formation dynamics of sub-combs, we achieved 2 MHz harmonic comb-to-comb beat notes with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) greater than 50 dB and phase noise as low as – 82 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The graphene sensitization on the intracavity probes results in exceptional frequency responsiveness to the adsorption of gas molecules on the graphene of microcavity surface, enabling detect limits down to the parts per billion (ppb) level. This synergy between graphene and sub-comb formation dynamics in a microcavity structure showcases the feasibility of utilizing microcombs in an incoherent state prior to soliton locking. It may mark a significant step toward the development of easy-to-operate, systemically simple, compact, and high-performance photonic sensors.

    Zhixiang Huang, Weipeng Wu, Eric Herrmann, Ke Ma, Zizwe A. Chase, Thomas A. Searles, M. Benjamin Jungfleisch, Xi Wang

    The non-ionizing and penetrative characteristics of terahertz (THz) radiation have recently led to its adoption across a variety of applications. To effectively utilize THz radiation, modulators with precise control are imperative. While most recent THz modulators manipulate the amplitude, frequency, or phase of incident THz radiation, considerably less progress has been made toward THz polarization modulation. Conventional methods for polarization control suffer from high driving voltages, restricted modulation depth, and narrow band capabilities, which hinder device performance and broader applications. Consequently, an ideal THz modulator that offers high modulation depth along with ease of processing and operation is required. In this paper, we propose and realize a THz metamaterial comprised of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuated by the phase-transition material vanadium dioxide (VO2). Simulation and experimental results of the three-dimensional metamaterials show that by leveraging the unique phase-transition attributes of VO2, our THz polarization modulator offers notable advancements over existing designs, including broad operation spectrum, high modulation depth, ease of fabrication, ease of operation condition, and continuous modulation capabilities. These enhanced features make the system a viable candidate for a range of THz applications, including telecommunications, imaging, and radar systems.

    Bo Ren, Hongxiang Chang, Can Li, Tao Wang, Kaikai Jin, Jiayi Zhang, Kun Guo, Rongtao Su, Jinyong Leng, Pu Zhou

    In this paper, we report a coherent beam combining (CBC) system that involves two thulium-doped all-polarization maintaining (PM) fiber chirped pulse amplifiers. Through phase-locking the two channels via a fiber stretcher by using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm, a maximum average power of 265 W is obtained, with a CBC efficiency of 81% and a residual phase error of λ/17. After de-chirping by a pair of diffraction gratings, the duration of the combined laser pulse is compressed to 690 fs. Taking into account the compression efficiency of 90% and the main peak energy proportion of 91%, the corresponding peak power is calculated to be 4 MW. The laser noise characteristics before and after CBC are examined, and the results indicate that the CBC would degrade the low frequency relative intensity noise (RIN), of which the integration is 1.74% in [100 Hz, 2 MHz] at the maximum combined output power. In addition, the effects of the nonlinear spectrum broadening during chirped pulse amplification on the CBC efficiency are also investigated, showing that a higher extent of pulse stretching is effective in alleviating the spectrum broadening and realizing a higher output power with decent combining efficiency.

    Zha Li, Wancai Li, Dehui Li, Wei Tang, Huageng Liang, Huaibing Song, Chao Chen, Liang Gao, Jiang Tang

    Chiral inorganic semiconductors with high dissymmetric factor are highly desirable, but it is generally difficult to induce chiral structure in inorganic semiconductors because of their structure rigidity and symmetry. In this study, we introduced chiral ZnO film as hard template to transfer chirality to CsPbBr3 film and PbS quantum dots (QDs) for circularly polarized light (CPL) emission and detection, respectively. The prepared CsPbBr3/ZnO thin film exhibited CPL emission at 520 nm and the PbS QDs/ZnO film realized CPL detection at 780 nm, featuring high dissymmetric factor up to around 0.4. The electron transition based mechanism is responsible for chirality transfer.

    Chen Zhou, Xiwen He, Mingyue Xiao, Deyue Ma, Weibiao Chen, Zhiping Zhou

    In current documented studies, it has been observed that wavelength converters utilizing AlGaAsOI waveguides exhibit suboptimal on-chip wavelength conversion efficiency from the C-band to the 2 µm band, generally falling below –20.0 dB. To address this issue, we present a novel wavelength conversion device assisted by a waveguide amplifier, incorporating both AlGaAs wavelength converter and erbium-ytterbium co-doped waveguide amplifier, thereby achieving a notable conversion efficiency exceeding 0 dB. The noteworthy enhancement in efficiency can be attributed to the specific dispersion design of the AlGaAs wavelength converter, which enables an upsurge in conversion efficiency to –15.54 dB under 100 mW of pump power. Furthermore, the integration of an erbium-ytterbium co-doped waveguide amplifier facilitates a loss compensation of over 15 dB. Avoiding the use of external optical amplifiers, this device enables efficient and high-bandwidth wavelength conversion, showing promising applications in various fields, such as optical communication, sensing, imaging, and beyond.

    Junjun Xue, Jiaming Tong, Zhujun Gao, Zhouyu Chen, Haoyu Fang, Saisai Wang, Ting Zhi, Jin Wang

    An ultraviolet-infrared (UV-IR) dual-wavelength photodetector (PD) based on a monolayer (ML) graphene/GaN heterostructure has been successfully fabricated in this work. The ML graphene was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and subsequently transferred onto GaN substrate using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The morphological and optical properties of the as-prepared graphene and GaN were presented. The fabricated PD based on the graphene/GaN heterostructure exhibited excellent rectify behavior by measuring the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics under dark conditions, and the spectral response demonstrated that the device revealed an UV-IR dual-wavelength photoresponse. In addition, the energy band structure and absorption properties of the ML graphene/GaN heterostructure were theoretically investigated based on density functional theory (DFT) to explore the underlying physical mechanism of the two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D) hybrid heterostructure PD device. This work paves the way for the development of innovative GaN-based dual-wavelength optoelectronic devices, offering a potential strategy for future applications in the field of advanced photodetection technology.

    Guangdong Li, Mingxiang Xu, Zhong Chen

    The multiple absorber layer perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with charge transport layers-free (CTLs-free) have drawn widespread research interest due to their simplified architecture and promising photoelectric characteristics. Under the circumstances, the novel design of CTLs-free inversion PSCs with stable and nontoxic three absorber layers (triple Cs3Bi2I9, single MASnI3, double Cs2TiBr6) as optical-harvester has been numerically simulated by utilizing wxAMPS simulation software and achieved high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.8834%. This is owing to the innovative architecture of PSCs favors efficient transport and extraction of more holes and the slender band gap MASnI3 extends the absorption spectrum to the near-infrared periphery compared with the two absorber layers architecture of PSCs. Moreover, the performance of the device with p-type-Cs3Bi2I9/p-type-MASnI3/n-type-Cs2TiBr6 architecture is superior to the one with the p-type-Cs3Bi2I9/n-type-MASnI3/n-type-Cs2TiBr6 architecture due to less carrier recombination and higher carrier life time inside the absorber layers. The simulation results reveal that Cs2TiF6 double perovskite material stands out as the best alternative. Additionally, an excellent PCE of 21.4530% can be obtained with the thicker MASnI3 absorber layer thickness (0.4 µm). Lastly, the highest-performance photovoltaic devices (28.6193%) can be created with the optimized perovskite doping density of around E15 cm3 (Cs3Bi2I9), E18 cm3 (MASnI3), and 1.5E19 cm3 (Cs2TiBr6). This work manifests that the proposed CTLs-free PSCs with multi-absorber layers shall be a relevant reference for forward applications in electro-optical and optoelectronic devices.

    O. Castelló, Sofía M. López Baptista, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, E. Diez, J. E. Velázquez-Pérez, Y. M. Meziani, J. M. Caridad, J. A. Delgado-Notario

    In recent years, graphene field-effect-transistors (GFETs) have demonstrated an outstanding potential for terahertz (THz) photodetection due to their fast response and high-sensitivity. Such features are essential to enable emerging THz applications, including 6G wireless communications, quantum information, bioimaging and security. However, the overall performance of these photodetectors may be utterly compromised by the impact of internal resistances presented in the device, so-called access or parasitic resistances. In this work, we provide a detailed study of the influence of internal device resistances in the photoresponse of high-mobility dual-gate GFET detectors. Such dual-gate architectures allow us to fine tune (decrease) the internal resistance of the device by an order of magnitude and consequently demonstrate an improved responsivity and noise-equivalent-power values of the photodetector, respectively. Our results can be well understood by a series resistance model, as shown by the excellent agreement found between the experimental data and theoretical calculations. These findings are therefore relevant to understand and improve the overall performance of existing high-mobility graphene photodetectors.

    Aleksandr Ushakov, Kseniia Mamaeva, Leonid Seleznev, Georgy Rizaev, Vladimir Bukin, Timophey Dolmatov, Pavel Chizhov, Vladimir Bagdasarov, Sergey Garnov

    In this paper, we first present an experimental demonstration of terahertz radiation pulse generation with energy up to 5 pJ under the electron emission during ultrafast optical discharge of a vacuum photodiode. We use a femtosecond optical excitation of metallic copper photocathode for the generation of ultrashort electron bunch and up to 45 kV/cm external electric field for the photo-emitted electron acceleration. Measurements of terahertz pulses energy as a function of emitted charge density, incidence angle of optical radiation and applied electric field have been provided. Spectral and polarization characteristics of generated terahertz pulses have also been studied. The proposed semi-analytical model and simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics prove the experimental data and allow for the optimization of experimental conditions aimed at flexible control of radiation parameters.