There are a variety of elementary and collective terahertz-frequency excitations in condensed matter whose magnetic field dependence contains significant insight into the states and dynamics of the electrons involved. Often, determining the frequency, temperature, and magnetic field dependence of the optical conductivity tensor, especially in high magnetic fields, can clarify the microscopic physics behind complex many-body behaviors of solids. While there are advanced terahertz spectroscopy techniques as well as high magnetic field generation techniques available, a combination of the two has only been realized relatively recently. Here, we review the current state of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) experiments in high magnetic fields. We start with an overview of time-domain terahertz detection schemes with a special focus on how they have been incorporated into optically accessible high-field magnets. Advantages and disadvantages of different types of magnets in performing THz-TDS experiments are also discussed. Finally, we highlight some of the new fascinating physical phenomena that have been revealed by THz-TDS in high magnetic fields.
As an outstanding two-dimensional material, black phosphorene, has attracted significant attention in the biomedicine field due to its large surface area, strong optical absorption, distinct bioactivity, excellent biocompatibility, and high biodegradability. In this review, the preparation and properties of black phosphorene are summarized first. Thereafter, black phosphorene-based multifunctional platforms employed for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, including cancer, bone injuries, brain diseases, progressive oxidative diseases, and kidney injury, are reviewed in detail. This review provides a better understanding of the exciting properties of black phosphorene, such as its high drug-loading efficiency, photothermal conversion capability, high 1O2 generation efficiency, and high electrical conductivity, as well as how these properties can be exploited in biomedicine. Finally, the research perspectives of black phosphorene are discussed.
Graphene is a two-dimensional material showing excellent properties for utilization in transparent electrodes; it has low sheet resistance, high optical transmission and is flexible. Whereas the most common transparent electrode material, tin-doped indium-oxide (ITO) is brittle, less transparent and expensive, which limit its compatibility in flexible electronics as well as in low-cost devices. Here we review two large-area fabrication methods for graphene based transparent electrodes for industry: liquid exfoliation and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We discuss the basic methodologies behind the technologies with an emphasis on optical and electrical properties of recent results. State-of-the-art methods for liquid exfoliation have as a figure of merit an electrical and optical conductivity ratio of
Ever since vortex beams were proposed, they are known for owning phase singularity and carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the past decades, coherent optics developed rapidly. Vortex beams have been extended from fully coherent light to partially coherent light, from scalar light to vector light, from integral topological charge (TC) to fractional TC. Partially coherent vortex beams have attracted tremendous interest due to their hidden correlation singularity and unique propagation properties (e.g., beam shaping, beam rotation and self-reconstruction). Based on the sufficient condition for devising a genuine correlation function of partially coherent beam, partially coherent vortex beams with nonconventional correlation functions (i.e., non-Gaussian correlated Schell-model functions) were introduced recently. This timely review summarizes basic concepts, theoretical models, generation and propagation of partially coherent vortex beams.
With the increasing demands for remote spectroscopy in many fields ranging from homeland security to environmental monitoring, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has drawn a significant amount of attention because of its capability to acquire chemical spectral signatures non-invasively. However, advanced THz remote sensing techniques are obstructed by quite a few factors, such as THz waves being strongly absorbed by water vapor in the ambient air, difficulty to generate intense broadband coherent THz source remotely, and hard to transmit THz waveform information remotely without losing the signal to noise ratio, etc. In this review, after introducing different THz air-photonics techniques to overcome the difficulties of THz remote sensing, we focus mainly on theoretical and experimental methods to improve THz generation and detection performance for the purpose of remote sensing through tailoring the generation and detection media, air-plasma.
For the THz generation part, auto-focusing ring-Airy beam was introduced to enhance the THz wave generation yield from two-color laser induced air plasma. By artificially modulated exotic wave packets, it is exhibited that abruptly auto-focusing beam induced air-plasma can give an up to 5.3-time-enhanced THz wave pulse energy compared to normal Gaussian beam induced plasma under the same conditions. At the same time, a red shift on the THz emission spectrum is also observed. A simulation using an interference model to qualitatively describe these behaviors has be developed.
For the THz detection part, the results of THz remote sensing at 30 m using THz-radiation-enhanced-emission-of-fluorescence (THz-REEF) technique are demonstrated, which greatly improved from the 10 m demonstration last reported. The THz-REEF technique in the counter-propagation geometry was explored, which is proved to be more practical for stand-off detections than co-propagation geometry. We found that in the counter-propagating geometry the maximum amplitude of the REEF signal is comparable to that in the co-propagating case, whereas the time resolved REEF trace significantly changes. By performing the study with different plasmas, we observed that in the counter-propagating geometry the shape of the REEF trace depends strongly on the plasma length and electron density. A new theoretical model suggesting that the densest volume of the plasma does not contribute to the fluorescence enhancement is proposed to reproduce the experimental measurements.
Our results further the understanding of the THz-plasma interaction and highlight the potential of THz-REEF technique in the plasma detection applications.