Feb 2022, Volume 17 Issue 1
    

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  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Jia-Jing Li, Yang Dai, Jin-Cheng Zheng

    Strain engineering is a powerful approach for tuning various properties of functional materials. The influences of lattice strain on the Li-ion migration energy barrier of lithium-ions in layered LiCoO2 have been systemically studied using lattice dynamics simulations, analytical function and neural network method. We have identified two Li-ion migration paths, oxygen dumbbell hop (ODH), and tetrahedral site hop (TSH) with different concentrations of local defects. We found that Li-ion migration energy barriers increased with the increase of pressure for both ODH and TSH cases, while decreased significantly with applied tensile uniaxial c-axis strain for ODH and TSH cases or compressive in-plane strain for TSH case. Our work provides the complete strain-map for enhancing the diffusivity of Liion in LiCoO2, and therefore, indicates a new way to achieve better rate performance through strain engineering.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Liyu Qian, Juan Zhao, Yiqun Xie

    The photogalvanic effect (PGE) occurring in noncentrosymmetric materials enables the generation of a dc photocurrent at zero bias with a high polarization sensitivity, which makes it very attractive in photodetection. However, the magnitude of the PGE photocurrent is usually small, leading to a low photoresponsivity, and therefore hampers its practical application in photodetection. Here, we propose an approach to largely enhancing the PGE photocurrent by applying an inhomogenous me-chanical stretch, based on quantum transport simulations. We model a two-dimensional photodetector consisting of the wide-bandgap MgCl2/ZnBr2 vertical van der Waals heterojunction with the noncen-trosymmetric C3v symmetry. Polarization-sensitive PGE photocurrent is generated under the vertical illumination of linearly polarized light. By applying inhomogenous mechanical stretch on the lattice, the photocurrent can be largely increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude due to the significantly in-creased device asymmetry. Our results propose an effective way to enhance the PGE by inhomogenous mechanical strain, showing the potential of the MgCl2/ZnBr2 vertical heterojunction in the low-power UV photodetection.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Yueyue Tian, Houping Yang, Junjun Li, Shunbo Hu, Shixun Cao, Wei Ren, Yin Wang

    Using density functional theory combined with nonequilibrium Green’s function method, the transport properties of borophene-based nano gas sensors with gold electrodes are calculated, and comprehensive understandings regarding the effects of gas molecules, MoS2 substrate and gold electrodes to the transport properties of borophene are made. Results show that borophene-based sensors can be used to detect and distinguish CO, NO, NO2 and NH3 gas molecules, MoS2 substrate leads to a nonlinear behavior on the current-voltage characteristic, and gold electrodes provide charges to borophene and form a potential barrier, which reduced the current values compared to the current of the systems without gold electrodes. Our studies not only provide useful information on the computationally design of borophene-based gas sensors, but also help understand the transport behaviors and underlying physics of 2D metallic materials with metal electrodes.

  • REVIEW ARTICLE
    Xiao-Hui Li, Yi-Xuan Guo, Yujie Ren, Jia-Jun Peng, Ji-Shu Liu, Cong Wang, Han Zhang

    Narrow-bandgap materials possess the intriguing optical-electric properties and unique structures, which can be widely applied in the field of photonics, energy optoelectronic sensing and biomedicine, etc. Nowadays, the researches on nonlinear optical properties of narrow-bandgap materials have attracted extensive attention worldwide. In this paper, we review the progress of narrow-bandgap materials from many aspects, such as background, nonlinear optical properties, energy band structure, methods of preparation, and applications. These materials have obvious nonlinear optical characteristics and the interaction with the short pulse laser excitation shows the extremely strong nonlinear absorption characteristics, which leads to the optical limiting or saturable absorption related to Pauli blocking and excited state absorption. Especially, some of these novel narrow-bandgap materials have been utilized for the generation of ultrashort pulse that covers the range from the visible to midinfrared wavelength regions. Hence, the study on these materials paves a new way for the advancement of optoelctronics devices.

  • TOPICAL REVIEW
    Jiahao Fan, Huaqing Huang

    With the rapid development of topological states in crystals, the study of topological states has been extended to quasicrystals in recent years. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of topological states in quasicrystals, particularly focusing on one-dimensional (1D) and 2D systems. We first give a brief introduction to quasicrystalline structures. Then, we discuss topological phases in 1D quasicrystals where the topological nature is attributed to the synthetic dimensions associated with the quasiperiodic order of quasicrystals. We further present the generalization of various types of crystalline topological states to 2D quasicrystals, where real-space expressions of corresponding topological invariants are introduced due to the lack of translational symmetry in quasicrystals. Finally, since quasicrystals possess forbidden symmetries in crystals such as five-fold and eight-fold rotation, we provide an overview of unique quasicrystalline symmetry-protected topological states without crystalline counterpart.

  • PERSPECTIVE
    Changqing Xiang, Cheng-Wei Wu, Wu-Xing Zhou, Guofeng Xie, Gang Zhang

    In recent years, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries have served as significant power sources in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles because of their high energy density and rate capability. There are growing concerns towards the safety of Li-ion batteries, in which thermal conductivities of anodes, cathodes, electrolytes and separator play key roles for determining the thermal energy transport in Li-ion battery. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art studies on the thermal conductivities of commonly used anodes, cathodes, electrolytes and separator in Li-ion batteries, including both theoretical and experimental reports. First, the thermal conductivities of anodes and cathodes are discussed, and the effects of delithiation degree and temperature of materials are also discussed. Then, we review the thermal conductivities of commonly used electrolytes, especially on solid electrolytes. Finally, the basic concept of interfacial thermal conductance and simulation methods are presented, as well as the interfacial thermal conductance between separator and cathodes. This perspective review would provide atomic perspective knowledge to understand thermal transport in Li-ion battery, which will be beneficial to the thermal management and temperature control in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  • TOPICAL REVIEW
    Zi Wang, Luqin Wang, Jiangzhi Chen, Chen Wang, Jie Ren

    The second law of thermodynamics dictates that heat simultaneously flows from the hot to cold bath on average. To go beyond this picture, a range of works in the past decade show that, other than the average dynamical heat flux determined by instantaneous thermal bias, a non-trivial flux contribution of intrinsic geometric origin is generally present in temporally driven systems. This additional heat flux provides a free lunch for the pumped heat and could even drive heat against the bias. We review here the emergence and development of this so called “geometric heat pump”, originating from the topological geometric phase effect, and cover various quantum and classical transport systems with different internal dynamics. The generalization from the adiabatic to the non-adiabatic regime and the application of control theory are also discussed. Then, we briefly discuss the symmetry restriction on the heat pump effect, such as duality, supersymmetry and time-reversal symmetry. Finally, we examine open problems concerning the geometric heat pump process and elucidate their prospective significance in devising thermal machines with high performance.

  • ERRATUM
    Daryl Ryan Chong, Minhyuk Kim, Jaewook Ahn, Heejeong Jeong
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Daryl Ryan Chong, Minhyuk Kim, Jaewook Ahn, Heejeong Jeong

    Studying the complex quantum dynamics of interacting many-body systems is one of the most challenging areas in modern physics. Here, we use machine learning (ML) models to identify the symmetrized base states of interacting Rydberg atoms of various atom numbers (up to six) and geometric configurations. To obtain the data set for training the ML classifiers, we generate Rydberg excitation probability profiles that simulate experimental data by utilizing Lindblad equations that incorporate laser intensities and phase noise. Then, we classify the data sets using support vector machines (SVMs) and random forest classifiers (RFCs). With these ML models, we achieve high accuracy of up to 100% for data sets containing only a few hundred samples, especially for the closed atom configurations such as the pentagonal (five atoms) and hexagonal (six atoms) systems. The results demonstrate that computationally cost-effective ML models can be used in the identification of Rydberg atom configurations.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Yexiong Zeng, Biao Xiong, Chong Li

    We propose a scheme to suppress the laser phase noise without increasing the optomechanical singlephoton coupling strength. In the scheme, the parametric amplification terms, created by Kerr and Duffing nonlinearities, can restrain laser phase noise and strengthen the effective optomechanical coupling, respectively. Interestingly, decreasing laser phase noise leads to increasing thermal noise, which is inhibited by bringing in a broadband-squeezed vacuum environment. To reflect the superiority of the scheme, we simulate quantum memory and stationary optomechanical entanglement as examples, and the corresponding numerical results demonstrate that the laser phase noise is extremely suppressed. Our method can pave the way for studying other quantum phenomena.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Yanting Cheng, Xin Chen, Ren Zhang

    Motivated by recent theoretical and experimental advances in quantum simulations using alkaline earth (AE) atoms, we put forward a proposal to detect the Kondo physics in a cold atomic system. It has been demonstrated that the intrinsic spin-exchange interaction in AE atoms can be significantly enhanced near a confinement-induced resonance (CIR), which facilitates the simulation of Kondo physics. Since the Kondo effect appears only for antiferromagnetic coupling, we find that the conductivity of such system exhibits an asymmetry across a resonance of spin-exchange interaction. The asymmetric conductivity can serve as the smoking gun evidence for Kondo physics in the cold atom context. When an extra magnetic field ramps up, the spin-exchange process near Fermi surface is suppressed by Zeeman energy and the conductivity becomes more and more symmetric. Our results can be verified in the current experimental setup.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Zhi-Rong Zhong, Lei Chen, Jian-Qi Sheng, Li-Tuo Shen, Shi-Biao Zheng

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to achieve a multiphonon-resonance quantum Rabi model and adiabatic passage in a strong-coupling cavity optomechanical system. In the scheme, when the driving bichromatic laser beam is adjusted to the off-resonant j-order red- and blue-sideband, the interaction between the cavity and mechanical oscillator leads to a j-phonon resonance quantum Rabi model. Moreover, we show that there exists a resonant multi-phonon coupling via intermediate states connected by counter-rotating processes when the frequency of the simulated bosonic mode is near a fraction of the transition frequency of the simulated two-level system. As a typical example, we theoretically analyze the two-phonon resonance quantum Rabi model, and derive an effective Hamiltonian of the six-phonon coupling. Finally, we present a method of six-phonon generation based on adiabatic passage across the resonance. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the proposed scheme. Theoretically, the proposed scheme can be extended to the realization of 3j-phonon state.

  • VIEW & PERSPECTIVE
    Mai Tal, Danielle Ben Haim, Tal Ellenbogen
  • REVIEW ARTICLE
    Aviv Karnieli, Yongyao Li, Ady Arie

    The geometric phase of light has been demonstrated in various platforms of the linear optical regime, raising interest both for fundamental science as well as applications, such as flat optical elements. Recently, the concept of geometric phases has been extended to nonlinear optics, following advances in engineering both bulk nonlinear photonic crystals and nonlinear metasurfaces. These new technologies offer a great promise of applications for nonlinear manipulation of light. In this review, we cover the recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field of geometric phases accompanying nonlinear frequency conversion. We first consider the case of bulk nonlinear photonic crystals, in which the interaction between propagating waves is quasi-phase-matched, with an engineerable geometric phase accumulated by the light. Nonlinear photonic crystals can offer efficient and robust frequency conversion in both the linearized and fully-nonlinear regimes of interaction, and allow for several applications including adiabatic mode conversion, electromagnetic nonreciprocity and novel topological effects for light. We then cover the rapidly-growing field of nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces, which allow the simultaneous nonlinear generation and shaping of light by using ultrathin optical elements with subwavelength phase and amplitude resolution. We discuss the macroscopic selection rules that depend on the rotational symmetry of the constituent meta-atoms, the order of the harmonic generations, and the change in circular polarization. Continuous geometric phase gradients allow the steering of light beams and shaping of their spatial modes. More complex designs perform nonlinear imaging and multiplex nonlinear holograms, where the functionality is varied according to the generated harmonic order and polarization. Recent advancements in the fabrication of three dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals, as well as the pursuit of quantum light sources based on nonlinear metasurfaces, offer exciting new possibilities for novel nonlinear optical applications based on geometric phases.