Feb 2016, Volume 11 Issue 1
    

Cover illustration

  • The special topic on Potential Physics at a Super τ-Charm Factory provides detailed discussions on important topics in τ-charm physics that will be explored in the future at a possible super-tau-charm factory, which will operate in the 2 GeV to 7.0 GeV energy range. Both theoretical and experimental issues are  covered, including extensive reviews of recent theoretical and experimental developments. Among the subjects covered are: probes of hadronic states and st [Detail] ...


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  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Bakhtiar Ul Haq, Rashid Ahmed, Galila Abdellatif, Amiruddin Shaari, Faheem K. Butt, Mohammed Benali Kanoun, Souraya Goumri-Said

    The low magnetic moment (MM) in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) at low impurity doping levels has triggered considerable research into condensed magnetic semiconductors (CMS).This work reports an ab-initio investigation of the electronic structures and magnetic properties of ZnO in a zinc-blende (ZB) structure doped with nickel ions. Ni-doped ZnO-based DMS and CMS exhibit a dominance of ferromagnetic coupling over antiferromagnetic. A robust increase in the magnetization has been observed as a function of Ni impurity levels. This material favors short-range magnetic interactions at the ground state, suggesting that the observed ferromagnetism is defined by the double exchange mechanism. The spin-polarized density of states (DOS) of Ni-doped ZnO characterizes it as half-metallic with a considerable energy gap for up-spin components and as metallic for-down spins. Half-metallic Ni:ZnO based magnetic semiconductors with high magnetization are expected to have potential applications in spintronics.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Dongxue Chen, Qian Liu

    Contact exposure is expected to occur in conventional lithography, and can be a source of process deviations (such as shrinking and distortion of templates) during reactive ion etching and inductively coupled plasma etching, as these deviations are induced by ion bombardment. This typically results in undesired sidewall effects, such as lower sidewall angles. Here we report a novel hanging bowlshaped lithography mask that can effectively minimize sidewall effects in lithography applications. As a test case, standard silicon carbide pillars with vertical sidewalls are fabricated using this mask. The mask could be used for fabrication of high-aspect-ratio structures with ultra-violet lithography.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Feng-Bin Liu (刘峰斌), Jing-Lin Li (李景林), Wen-Bin Chen (陈文彬), Yan Cui (崔岩), Zhi-Wei Jiao (焦志伟), Hong-Juan Yan (阎红娟), Min Qu (屈敏), Jie-Jian Di (狄杰建)

    To elucidate the effects of physisorbed active ions on the geometries and electronic structures of hydrogenated diamond films, models of HCO3 , H3O+, and OH ions physisorbed on hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces were constructed. Density functional theory was used to calculate the geometries, adsorption energies, and partial density of states. The results showed that the geometries of the hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces all changed to different degrees after ion adsorption. Among them, the H3O+ ion affected the geometry of the hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces the most. This is well consistent with the results of the calculated adsorption energies, which indicated that a strong electrostatic attraction occurs between the hydrogenated diamond (100) surface and H3O+ ions. In addition, electrons transfer significantly from the hydrogenated diamond (100) surface to the adsorbed H3O+ ion, which induces a downward shift in the HOMO and LUMO energy levels of the H3O+ ion. However, for active ions like OH and HCO3 , no dramatic change appears for the electronic structures of the adsorbed ions.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Sheng-Peng Zhou, Yu-Jun Yang, Da-Jun Ding

    Continuum wavepacket interference is investigated by numerically solving the time-dependent Schröodinger equation for the interaction of hydrogen atoms with laser fields. The obtained wavepacket evolution indicates that, in the over-the-barrier ionization regime (1016 W/cm2), the continuum–continuum (CC) interference of ionizing electrons becomes the main process in highorder harmonics generation (HHG), compared with continuum-bound (CB) transition, as reported by Kohler et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203902 (2010)].We propose a two-color laser field scheme for controlling the quantum trajectories of ionizing electrons and for extending the CC harmonic energy. As a result, a high energy platform occurs in the HHG spectrum, which entirely originates from the CC harmonics, with a cutoff adjustable by the relative phase of the two-color fields. This provides further understanding of the dynamic feature of atoms and molecules in super intense laser fields and provides an opportunity to image the atomic or molecular potential.

  • REVIEW ARTICLE
    Matteo Rama

    We review the measurements of the D decay strong-phase parameters based on quantum-correlated D0D ¯0 pairs produced in the e+eΨ(3770) → D0D ¯0 process, and we discuss their role in the measurements of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle γ and D-D ¯ mixing. In addition, we present estimates of the size of quantum-correlated datasets necessary to support the γ and charm mixing measurements conducted at the LHCb and Belle II experiments. Finally, we review the methods for measuring the DD ¯ mixing and CP violation parameters at a high-luminosity charm factory, giving sensitivity estimates.

  • research-article
    Adrian John Bevan

    Tests of discrete symmetry violation have played an important role in understanding the structure of weak interactions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Historically, these measurements have been extensively performed in experiments with large samples of K and B mesons. A high luminosity τ-charm facility presents physicists with the opportunity to comprehensively explore discrete symmetry violation and test the Standard Model using τ leptons, charm mesons, and charmed baryons. This paper discusses several possible measurements for a future τ-charm factory.

  • REVIEW ARTICLE
    P. Souder, K. D. Paschke

    By comparing the cross sections for left- and right-handed electrons scattered from various unpolarized nuclear targets, the small parity-violating asymmetry can be measured. These asymmetry data probe a wide variety of important topics, including searches for new fundamental interactions and important features of nuclear structure that cannot be studied with other probes. A special feature of these experiments is that the results are interpreted with remarkably few theoretical uncertainties, which justifies pushing the experiments to the highest possible precision. To measure the small asymmetries accurately, a number of novel experimental techniques have been developed.

  • REVIEW ARTICLE
    Zhun Lu

    This article presents a review of our present understanding of the spin structure of the unpolarized hadron. Particular attention is paid to the quark sector at leading twist, namely, the quark Boer–Mulders function, which describes the transverse polarization of the quark inside an unpolarized hadron. After introducing the operator definition of the Boer–Mulders function, a detailed treatment of different non-perturbative calculations of the Boer–Mulders functions is provided. The phenomenology in Drell–Yan processes and semi-inclusive leptoproduction, including the extraction of the quark and antiquark Boer–Mulders functions from experimental data, is presented comprehensively. Finally, prospects for future theoretical studies and experimental measurements are presented in brief.

  • REVIEW ARTICLE
    Xing-Gang Wu, Sheng-Quan Wang, Stanley J. Brodsky

    A primary problem affecting perturbative quantum chromodynamic (pQCD) analyses is the lack of a method for setting the QCD running-coupling renormalization scale such that maximally precise fixed-order predictions for physical observables are obtained. The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) eliminates the ambiguities associated with the conventional renormalization scale-setting procedure, yielding predictions that are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme. The QCD coupling scales and the effective number of quark flavors are set order-by-order in the pQCD series. The PMC has a solid theoretical foundation, satisfying the standard renormalization group invariance condition and all of the self-consistency conditions derived from the renormalization group. The PMC scales at each order are obtained by shifting the arguments of the strong force coupling constant αs to eliminate all non-conformal {βi} terms in the pQCD series. The {βi} terms are determined from renormalization group equations without ambiguity. The correct behavior of the running coupling at each order and at each phase-space point can then be obtained. The PMC reduces in the NC → 0 Abelian limit to the Gell-Mann-Low method. In this brief report, we summarize the results of our recent application of the PMC to a number of collider processes, emphasizing the generality and applicability of this approach. A discussion of hadronic Z decays shows that, by applying the PMC, one can achieve accurate predictions for the total and separate decay widths at each order without scale ambiguities. We also show that, if one employs the PMC to determine the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry at the next-to-next-to-leading order level, one obtains a comprehensive, self-consistent pQCD explanation for the Tevatron measurements of the asymmetry. This accounts for the “increasing-decreasing” behavior observed by the D0 collaboration for increasing tt¯ invariant mass. At lower energies, the angular distributions of heavy quarks can be used to obtain a direct determination of the heavy quark potential. A discussion of the angular distributions of massive quarks and leptons is also presented, including the fermionic component of the two-loop corrections to the electromagnetic form factors. These results demonstrate that the application of the PMC systematically eliminates a major theoretical uncertainty for pQCD predictions, thus increasing collider sensitivity to possible new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  • research-article
    H. Sazdjian

    The main aspects of a gauge-invariant approach to the description of quark dynamics in the nonperturbative regime of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are first reviewed. The role of the parallelm transport operation in constructing gauge-invariant Green’s functions is then presented, and the relevance of Wilson loops for the representation of the interaction is emphasized. Recent developments, based on the use of polygonal lines for the parallel transport operation, are presented. An integro-differential equation, obtained for the quark Green’s function defined with a phase factor along a single, straight line segment, is solved exactly and analytically in the case of two-dimensional QCD in the large-Nc limit. The solution displays the dynamical mass generation phenomenon for quarks, with an infinite number of branch-cut singularities that are stronger than simple poles.