Oct 2015, Volume 10 Issue 5

Cover illustration

  • As an important topic in condensed matter physics, strongly correlated system has attracted researchers close attentions for couple of decades. Especially, the investigation on the quantum phase transitions in strongly correlated systems is one of the most important topics for the discovery of new phases in condensed matter physics. We adopt the combination of the dynamical mean field theory and the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method to investigate the quantum phase t [Detail] ...

  • Select all
    Jia-Jia Geng,Rui-Yun Guo,Dong-Ze He,Jing-Fei Zhang,Xin Zhang

    We explore the impact of the Sandage−Loeb (SL) test on the precision of cosmological constraints for f(T) gravity theories. The SL test is an important supplement to current cosmological observations because it measures the redshift drift in the Lyman-α forest in the spectra of distant quasars, covering the “redshift desert” of 2z5. To avoid data inconsistency, we use the best-fit models based on current combined observational data as fiducial models to simulate 30 mock SL test data. We quantify the impact of these SL test data on parameter estimation for f(T) gravity theories. Two typical f(T) models are considered, the power-law model f(T)PL and the exponential-form model f(T)EXP. The results show that the SL test can effectively break the existing strong degeneracy between the present-day matter density Ωm and the Hubble constant H0 in other cosmological observations. For the considered f(T) models, a 30-year observation of the SL test can improve the constraint precision of Ωm and H0 enormously but cannot effectively improve the constraint precision of the model parameters.

    Bao An(保安),Chen Yao-Hua(陈耀华),Lin Heng-Fu(林恒福),Liu Hai-Di(刘海迪),Zhang Xiao-Zhong(章晓中)

    In this article, we review our recent work on quantum phase transition in two-dimensional strongly correlated fermion systems. We discuss the metal−insulator transition properties of these systems by calculating the density of states, double occupancy, and Fermi surface evolution using a combination of the cellular dynamical mean-field theory (CDMFT) and the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithm. Furthermore, we explore the magnetic properties of each state by defining magnetic order parameters. Rich phase diagrams with many intriguing quantum states, including antiferromagnetic metal, paramagnetic metal, Kondo metal, and ferromagnetic insulator, were found for the two-dimensional lattices with strongly correlated fermions. We believe that our results would lead to a better understanding of the properties of real materials.

    Francesco Mallamace,Carmelo Corsaro,Domenico Mallamace,Cirino Vasi,Nicola Cicero,H. Eugene Stanley

    The dynamic or glass transition in biomolecules is important to their functioning. Also essential is the transition between the protein native state and the unfolding process. To better understand these transitions, we use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the vibrational bending and stretching modes of hydrated lysozymes across a wide temperature range. We find that these transitions are triggered by the strong hydrogen bond coupling between the protein and hydration water. More precisely, we demonstrate that in both cases the water properties dominate the evolution of the system. We find that two characteristic temperatures are relevant: in the supercooled regime of confined water, the fragile-to-strong dynamic transition occurs at TL, and in the stable liquid phase, T*315±5K characterizes the behavior of both isothermal compressibility KT (T,P) and the coefficient of thermal expansion aP (T,P).

    Francesco Mallamace,Carmelo Corsaro,Domenico Mallamace,Nicola Cicero,Sebastiano Vasi,Giacomo Dugo,H. Eugene Stanley

    We study the dynamics of the first hydration shell of lysozyme to determine the role of hydration water that accompanies lysozyme thermal denaturation. We use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate both the translational and rotational contributions. Data on proton self-diffusion and reorentational correlation time indicate that the kinetics of the lysozyme folding/unfolding process is controlled by the dynamics of the water molecules in the first hydration shell. When the hydration water dynamics change, because of the weakening of the hydrogen bond network, the three-dimensional structure of the lysozyme is lost and denaturation is triggered. Our data indicates that at temperatures above approximately 315 K, water behaves as a simple liquid and is no longer a good solvent.

    Francesco Mallamace,Carmelo Corsaro,Domenico Mallamace,Zhe Wang,Sow-Hsin Chen

    The Boson peak (BP) of deeply cooled confined water is studied by using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in a large interval of the (P, T) phase plane. By taking into account the different behavior of such a collective vibrational mode in both strong and fragile glasses as well as in glass-forming materials, we were able to determine the Widom line that characterizes supercooled bulk water within the frame of the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) hypothesis. The peak frequency and width of the BP correlated with the water polymorphism of the LLPT scenario, allowing us to distinguish the “low-density liquid” (LDL) and “high-density liquid” (HDL) phases in deeply cooled bulk water.Moreover, the BP properties afford a further confirmation of theWidom line temperature TW as the (P, T) locus in which the local structure of water transforms from a predominately LDL form to a predominately HDL form.

    Qiu Tong(邱桐),Huang Ji-Ping(黄吉平)

    The realization of rapid and unidirectional single-file water-molecule flow in nanochannels has posed a challenge to date. Here, we report unprecedentedly rapid unidirectional single-file water-molecule flow under a translational terahertz electric field, which is obtained by developing a Debye doublerelaxation theory. In addition, we demonstrate that all the single-file molecules undergo both stable translation and rotation, behaving like high-speed train wheels moving along a railway track. Independent molecular dynamics simulations help to confirm these theoretical results. The mechanism involves the resonant relaxation dynamics of H and O atoms. Further, an experimental demonstration is suggested and discussed. This work has implications for the design of high-efficiency nanochannels or smaller nanomachines in the field of nanotechnology, and the findings also aid in the understanding and control of water flow across biological nanochannels in biology-related research.

    Guo-Xi Nie,Yu Wang,Ji-Ping Huang

    In contrast to the common belief that confinement promotes water solidification, here we show by molecular dynamics simulations that confinement can impede water solidification under electric fields. The behavior is evidenced by the increase in critical electric field strength for water solidification as the confinement progresses. We also show that the solidification occurs more easily with a parallel field than a perpendicular one. We understand and generalize these results by developing an energy theory incorporated with the anisotropic Clausius−Mossotti equation. It is revealed that the underlying mechanism lies in the confinement effect on molecules’ electro-orientations. Thus, it becomes possible to achieve electro-freezing (i.e., room-temperature ice) by choosing both confinement and electric fields appropriately.

    Juan-Fang Han,Dong-Ning Gao,Heng Zhang,Xiao-Yun Wang,Wen-Shan Duan

    The effects of the dust size distribution in ultracold quantum dusty plasmas are investigated. The amplitude φm and width ω of quantum dust acoustic waves are studied with different dust size distributions in the system. The φm and ω of the quantum dust acoustic waves are found to increase as the total number density increases. The φm and ω are greater for unusual dusty plasmas than for typical dusty plasmas. Moreover, as the Fermi temperature of the dust grains increases, the φm of the wave decreases. The ω of quantum dust acoustic waves increases as the speed u0 of the wave increases.

    Chao Yu,Jingtao Zhang,Zhenrong Sun,Ju Gao,Dong-Sheng Guo

    By applying a nonperturbative quantum electrodynamic theory, we study ponderomotive resonances when an electron beam is scattered by a standing photon wave. Our study shows that the ponderomotive parameter up, the ponderomotive energy per laser-photon energy, for each of the two traveling laser modes possesses a minimum value ω/(mec2). Ponderomotive resonances occur only when the ratio of the laser photon energy to the electron rest-mass energy is a fraction, where the denominator is twice the square of a positive integer and the numerator is the total ponderomotive number, which is also a positive integer.

    Fang-Fang Chen,Xue-Jiao Su,Wei-Dong Zhou

    Collinear dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was carried out on Si crystal by using a pair of nanosecond Nd:YAG laser sources emitting at 1064 nm. The spectral intensities and signalto-noise ratios of selected Si atomic and ionic lines were used to evaluate the optical emission. The optical emission intensity was recorded while varying the interpulse delay time and energy ratio of the two pulsed lasers. The effects of the data acquisition delay time on the line intensity and signal-to-noise ratio have been investigated as well. Based on the results, the optimal interpulse delay time, energy ratio of the two pulsed lasers, and data acquisition delay time for achieving the maximum atomic and ionic line intensities were found for generation of Si plasma with the collinear dual-pulse laser approach. The dominant mechanism for the observed line intensity variation was also discussed. In addition, the plasma temperature and electron number density at different gate delay times and different interpulse delay times were derived. A significant influence of plasma shielding on the electron temperature and electron number density at shorter interpulse delay times was observed.

    Kai Wang,Haifeng Hu,Shan Lu,Lingju Guo,Tao He

    We designed a sector bowtie nanoantenna integrated with a rectifier (Au−TiOx−Ti diode) for collecting infrared energy. The optical performance of the metallic bowtie nanoantenna was numerically investigated at infrared frequencies (5−30 μm) using three-dimensional frequency-domain electromagnetic field calculation software based on the finite element method. The simulation results indicate that the resonance wavelength and local field enhancement are greatly affected by the shape and size of the bowtie nanoantenna, as well as the relative permittivity and conductivity of the dielectric layer. The output current of the rectified nano-rectenna is substantially at nanoampere magnitude with an electric field intensity of 1 V/m. Moreover, the power conversion efficiency for devices with three different substrates illustrates that a substrate with a larger refractive index yields a higher efficiency and longer infrared response wavelength. Consequently, the optimized structure can provide theoretical support for the design of novel optical rectennas and fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

    Cheng Tang,Xin Jin,Nan Wang,En-Guang Zhao

    Within the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model, the dynamical octupole deformation is studied as a function of the central distance between the projectile and target in the approaching process of heavy-ion fusion reactions. The dependence of the maximum dynamical octupole deformations on the incident energies is also investigated. The dynamical octupole deformations can be observed during the approaching process, and the maximum dynamical octupole deformations become more significant with decreasing incident energies. The distributions of the proton and neutron centers in the projectile and target are also investigated, respectively. In the approaching process of heavy-ion fusion reactions, the separation between proton centers for two nuclei is larger than that between neutron centers because of the strong Coulomb potential.

    Mahamat Saleh,Bouetou Thomas Bouetou,Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    We investigate Hawking radiation from a five-dimensional Lovelock black hole using the Hamilton–Jacobi method. The behavior of the rate of radiation is plotted for various values of the ultraviolet correction parameter and the cosmological constant. The results show that, owing to the ultraviolet correction and the presence of dark energy represented by the cosmological constant, the black hole radiates at a slower rate in comparison to the case without ultraviolet correction or cosmological constant. Moreover, the presence of the cosmological constant makes the effect of the ultraviolet correction on the black hole radiation negligible.

    Qiang Zhao,Qiang Gu

    The rotational properties of Bose−Einstein condensates in a synthetic magnetic field are studied by numerically solving the Gross−Pitaevskii equation and comparing the results to those of condensates confined in a rotating trap. It appears to be more difficult to add a large angular momentum to condensates spun up by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating trap. However, strengthening the repulsive interaction between atoms is an effective and realizable route to overcoming this problem and can at least generate vortex-lattice-like structures. In addition, the validity of the Feynman rule for condensates in the synthetic magnetic field is verified.