Dec 2021, Volume 16 Issue 6
    

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  • REPORT
    Daniele P. Anderle, Valerio Bertone, Xu Cao, Lei Chang, Ningbo Chang, Gu Chen, Xurong Chen, Zhuojun Chen, Zhufang Cui, Lingyun Dai, Weitian Deng, Minghui Ding, Xu Feng, Chang Gong, Longcheng Gui, Feng-Kun Guo, Chengdong Han, Jun He, Tie-Jiun Hou, Hongxia Huang, Yin Huang, KrešImir KumeričKi, L. P. Kaptari, Demin Li, Hengne Li, Minxiang Li, Xueqian Li, Yutie Liang, Zuotang Liang, Chen Liu, Chuan Liu, Guoming Liu, Jie Liu, Liuming Liu, Xiang Liu, Tianbo Liu, Xiaofeng Luo, Zhun Lyu, Boqiang Ma, Fu Ma, Jianping Ma, Yugang Ma, Lijun Mao, Cédric Mezrag, Hervé Moutarde, Jialun Ping, Sixue Qin, Hang Ren, Craig D. Roberts, Juan Rojo, Guodong Shen, Chao Shi, Qintao Song, Hao Sun, Paweł Sznajder, Enke Wang, Fan Wang, Qian Wang, Rong Wang, Ruiru Wang, Taofeng Wang, Wei Wang, Xiaoyu Wang, Xiaoyun Wang, Jiajun Wu, Xinggang Wu, Lei Xia, Bowen Xiao, Guoqing Xiao, Ju-Jun Xie, Yaping Xie, Hongxi Xing, Hushan Xu, Nu Xu, Shusheng Xu, Mengshi Yan, Wenbiao Yan, Wencheng Yan, Xinhu Yan, Jiancheng Yang, Yi-Bo Yang, Zhi Yang, Deliang Yao, Zhihong Ye, Peilin Yin, C.-P. Yuan, Wenlong Zhan, Jianhui Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Pengming Zhang, Yifei Zhang, Chao-Hsi Chang, Zhenyu Zhang, Hongwei Zhao, Kuang-Ta Chao, Qiang Zhao, Yuxiang Zhao, Zhengguo Zhao, Liang Zheng, Jian Zhou, Xiang Zhou, Xiaorong Zhou, Bingsong Zou, Liping Zou

    Lepton scattering is an established ideal tool for studying inner structure of small particles such as nucleons as well as nuclei. As a future high energy nuclear physics project, an Electron-ion collider in China (EicC) has been proposed. It will be constructed based on an upgraded heavy-ion accelerator, High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) which is currently under construction, together with a new electron ring. The proposed collider will provide highly polarized electrons (with a po- larization of 80%) and protons (with a polarization of 70%) with variable center of mass energies from 15 to 20 GeV and the luminosity of (2–3)×1033 cm2•s1. Polarized deuterons and Helium-3, as well as unpolarized ion beams from Carbon to Uranium, will be also available at the EicC.

    The main foci of the EicC will be precision measurements of the structure of the nucleon in the sea quark region, including 3D tomography of nucleon; the partonic structure of nuclei and the parton interaction with the nuclear environment; the exotic states, especially those with heavy flavor quark contents. In addition, issues fundamental to understanding the origin of mass could be addressed by measurements of heavy quarkonia near-threshold production at the EicC. In order to achieve the above-mentioned physics goals, a hermetical detector system will be constructed with cutting-edge technologies.

    This document is the result of collective contributions and valuable inputs from experts across the globe. The EicC physics program complements the ongoing scientific programs at the Jefferson Laboratory and the future EIC project in the United States. The success of this project will also advance both nuclear and particle physics as well as accelerator and detector technology in China.

  • VIEW & PERSPECTIVE
    Kim Siang Khaw, Liang Li, Jing Shu

    The first results from the Fermilab Muon g–2 Experiment shed lights on the mystery surrounding the magnetic anomaly of the muon. This could become a window into a new era of particle physics.

  • VIEW & PERSPECTIVE
    Xiangdong Ji
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Wenyu Sun, Tong Liu, Maoqiang Jing, Liangliang Wang, Bin Zhong, Weimin Song

    Initial State Radiation (ISR) plays an important role in e+e collision experiments such as the BESIII. To correct the ISR effects in measurements of hadronic cross-sections of e+e annihilation, an iterative method that weights simulated ISR events is proposed here to assess the efficiency of event selection and the ISR correction factor for the observed cross-section. The simulated ISR events were generated only once, and the obtained cross-sectional line shape was used iteratively to weigh the same simulated ISR events to evaluate the efficiency and corrections until the results converge. Compared with the method of generating ISR events iteratively, the proposed weighting method provides consistent results, and reduces the computational time and disk space required by a factor of five or more, thus speeding-up e+e hadronic cross-section measurements.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Na Kang, Wenhui Wan, Yanfeng Ge, Yong Liu

    In this paper, we systematically investigated the structural and magnetic properties of CrTe by combining particle swarm optimization algorithm and first-principles calculations. By considering the electronic correlation effect, we predicted the ground-state structure of CrTe to be NiAs-type (space group P63/mmc) structure at ambient pressure, consistent with the experimental observation. Moreover, we found two extra meta-stable Cmcaand R3 ¯m structures which have negative formation enthalpy and stable phonon dispersion at ambient pressure. The Cmcastructure is a layered antiferromagnetic metal. The cleaved energy of a single layer is 0.464 J/m2 , indicating the possible synthesis of CrTe monolayer. The R3 ¯m structure is a ferromagnetic half-metal. When external pressure is applied, the ground-state structure of CrTe transitions from P63/mmc structure to R3 ¯m structure at a pressure of 34 GPa, then to R3 ¯m structure at 42 GPa. We thought these results help to motivate experimental studies of the CrTe compounds in the application of spintronics.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Feng Liu, Zhenhao Fan, Zhipeng Sun, Xuzong Chen, Dingping Li

    We developed a systematic non-perturbative method base on Dyson–Schwinger theory and the Φ-derivable theory for Ising model at broken phase. Based on these methods, we obtain critical temperature and spin spin correlation beyond mean field theory. The spectrum of Green function obtained from our methods become gapless at critical point, so the susceptibility become divergent at Tc. The critical temperature of Ising model obtained from this method is fairly good in comparison with other non-cluster methods. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicate spin models for example with continue symmetry.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Chengyong Zhong

    Three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TIs) have been studied for approximately fifteen years, but those made from group-IV elements, especially Ge and Sn, seem particularly attractive owing to their nontoxicity, sizable intrinsic spin–orbit coupling (SOC) strength and natural compatibility with the current semiconductor industry. However, group-IV elemental TIs have rarely been reported, except for the low temperature phase of α-Sn under strain. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose new allotropes of Ge and Sn, named T5-Ge/Sn, as desirable TIs. These new allotropes are also highly anisotropic Dirac semimetals if the SOC is turned off. To the best of our knowledge, T5-Ge/Sn are the first 3D allotropes of Ge/Sn that possess topological states in their equilibrium states at room temperature. Additionally, their isostructures of C and Si are metastable indirect and direct semiconductors. Our work not only reveals two promising TIs, but more profoundly, we justify the advantages of group-IV elements as topological quantum materials (TQMs) for fundamental research and potential practical applications, and thus reveal a new direction in the search for desirable TQMs.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Haoyu Dong, Le Lei, Shuya Xing, Jianfeng Guo, Feiyue Cao, Shangzhi Gu, Yanyan Geng, Shuo Mi, Hanxiang Wu, Yan Jun Li, Yasuhiro Sugawara, Fei Pang, Wei Ji, Rui Xu, Zhihai Cheng

    Transition-metal chalcogenides (TMCs) materials have attracted increasing interest both for fundamental research and industrial applications. Among all these materials, two-dimensional (2D) compounds with honeycomb-like structure possess exotic electronic structures. Here, we report a systematic study of TMC monolayer AgTe fabricated by direct depositing Te on the surface of Ag(111) and annealing. Few intrinsic defects are observed and studied by scanning tunneling microscopy, indicating that there are two kinds of AgTe domains and they can form gliding twin-boundary. Then, the monolayer AgTe can serve as the template for the following growth of Te film. Meanwhile, some Te atoms are observed in the form of chains on the top of the bottom Te film. Our findings in this work might provide insightful guide for the epitaxial growth of 2D materials for study of novel physical properties and for future quantum devices.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Lei Qiao, Ning-hua Wu, Tianhao Li, Siqi Wu, Zhuyi Zhang, Miaocong Li, Jiang Ma, Baijiang Lv, Yupeng Li, Chenchao Xu, Qian Tao, Chao Cao, Guang-Han Cao, Zhu-An Xu

    We investigated the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order in the compound Er2O2Bi with anti-ThCr2Si2-type structure through resistivity, magnetization, specific heat measurements and first-principle calculations. The superconducting transition temperature Tc of 1.23 K and antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN of 3 K are observed in the sample with the best nominal composition. The superconducting upper critical field Hc2(0) and electron-phonon coupling constant λeph in Er2O2Bi are similar to those in the previously reported non-magnetic superconductor Y2O2Bi with the same structure, indicating that the superconductivity in Er2O2Bi may have the same origin as in Y2O2Bi. The first-principle calculations of Er2O2Bi show that the Fermi surface is mainly composed of the Bi 6p orbitals both in the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic state, implying minor effect of the 4f electrons on the Fermi surface. Besides, upon increasing the oxygen incorporation in Er2OxBi, Tc increases from 1 to 1.23 K and TN decreases slightly from 3 K to 2.96 K, revealing that superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order may compete with each other. The Hall effect measurements indicate that hole-type carrier density indeed increases with increasing oxygen content, which may account for the variations of Tc and TN with different oxygen content.

  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Xiao-Dong Zhang, Kang Liu, Jun-Wei Fu, Hong-Mei Li, Hao Pan, Jun-Hua Hu, Min Liu

    Electrocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) to obtain C2 products has drawn widespread attentions. Copper-based materials are the most reported catalysts for CO2 reduction to C2 products. Design of high-efficiency pseudo-copper catalysts according to the key characteristics of copper (Cu) is an important strategy to understand the reaction mechanism of C2 products. In this work, density function theory (DFT) calculations are used to predict nickel–zinc (NiZn) alloy catalysts with the criteria similar structure and intermediate adsorption property to Cu catalyst. The calculated tops of 3d states of NiZn3(001) catalysts are the same as Cu(100), which is the key parameter affecting the adsorption of intermediate products. As a result, NiZn3(001) exhibits similar adsorption properties with Cu(100) on the crucial intermediates *CO2, *CO and *H. Moreover, we further studied CO formation, CO hydrogenation and C–C coupling process on Ni–Zn alloys. The free energy profile of C2 products formation shows that the energy barrier of C2 products formation on NiZn3(001) is even lower than Cu(100). These results indicate that NiZn3 alloy as pseudo-copper catalyst can exhibit a higher catalytic activity and selectivity of C2 products during CO2RR. This work proposes a feasible pseudo-copper catalyst and provides guidance to design high-efficiency catalysts for CO2RR to C2 or multi-carbon products.

  • ERRATUM
    Wen-Cheng Huang, Wei Li, Xiaosong Liu
  • RESEARCH ARTICLE
    Qi-Ping Su, Hanyu Zhang, Chui-Ping Yang

    We present a way to transfer maximally- or partially-entangled states of n single-photon-state (SPS) qubits onto ncoherent-state (CS) qubits, by employing 2nmicrowave cavities coupled to a superconducting flux qutrit. The two logic states of a SPS qubit here are represented by the vacuum state and the single-photon state of a cavity, while the two logic states of a CS qubit are encoded with two coherent states of a cavity. Because of using only one superconducting qutrit as the coupler, the circuit architecture is significantly simplified. The operation time for the state transfer does not increase with the increasing of the number of qubits. When the dissipation of the system is negligible, the quantum state can be transferred in a deterministic way since no measurement is required. Furthermore, the higher-energy intermediate level of the coupler qutrit is not excited during the entire operation and thus decoherence from the qutrit is greatly suppressed. As a specific example, we numerically demonstrate that the high-fidelity transfer of a Bell state of two SPS qubits onto two CS qubits is achievable within the present-day circuit QED technology. Finally, it is worthy to note that when the dissipation is negligible, entangled states of n CS qubits can be transferred back onto n SPS qubits by performing reverse operations. This proposal is quite general and can be extended to accomplish the same task, by employing a natural or artificial atom to couple 2nmicrowave or optical cavities.