Simulations with more fundamental physics did not helpThe success of tokamak fusion reactors like ITER depends on the burning plasma having a very hot edge with good confinement. Current tokamaks can easily get into this high performance operation (H-mode). The hot edge lifts the core to the high temperatures. However if not enough heating power is supplied to the tokamak plasma, it falls into low performance operation (L-mode) with a high-level of tur [Detail] ...
We present a systematic analysis of the energy gap in underdoped Bi2212 superconductor as a function of temperature and hole doping level. Within the framework of the theoretical model containing the electron-phonon and electron-electron-phonon pairing mechanism, we reproduced the measurement results of modern ARPES experiments with very high accuracy. We showed that the energy-gap amplitude is very weakly dependent on the temperature but clearly dependent on the level of doping. The evidence for a non-zero energy gap above the critical temperature, referred to as a pseudogap, was also obtained.
Based on the assumption that the superconducting state belongs to a single irreducible representation of lattice symmetry, we propose that the pairing symmetry in all measured iron-based superconductors is generally consistent with the A1gs-wave. Robust s-wave pairing throughout the different families of iron-based superconductors at different doping regions signals two fundamental principles behind high-Tc superconducting mechanisms: (i) the correspondence principle: the short-range magnetic-exchange interactions and the Fermi surfaces act collaboratively to achieve high-Tc superconductivity and determine pairing symmetries; (ii) the magnetic-selection pairing rule: superconductivity is only induced by the magnetic-exchange couplings from the super-exchange mechanism through cation-anion-cation chemical bonding. These principles explain why unconventional high-Tc superconductivity appears to be such a rare but robust phenomena, with its strict requirements regarding the electronic environment. The results will help us to identify new electronic structures that can support high-Tc superconductivity.
The aim of this review paper is to expose a new state of matter exhibited by strongly correlated Fermi systems represented by various heavy-fermion (HF) metals, two-dimensional liquids like 3He, compounds with quantum spin liquids, quasicrystals, and systems with one-dimensional quantum spin liquid. We name these various systems HF compounds, since they exhibit the behavior typical of HF metals. In HF compounds at zero temperature the unique phase transition, dubbed throughout as the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) can occur; this FCQPT creates flat bands which in turn lead to the specific state, known as the fermion condensate. Unlimited increase of the effective mass of quasiparticles signifies FCQPT; these quasiparticles determine the thermodynamic, transport and relaxation properties of HF compounds. Our discussion of numerous salient experimental data within the framework of FCQPT resolves the mystery of the new state of matter. Thus, FCQPT and the fermion condensation can be considered as the universal reason for the non-Fermi liquid behavior observed in various HF compounds. We show analytically and using arguments based completely on the experimental grounds that these systems exhibit universal scaling behavior of their thermodynamic, transport and relaxation properties. Therefore, the quantum physics of different HF compounds is universal, and emerges regardless of the microscopic structure of the compounds. This uniform behavior allows us to view it as the main characteristic of a new state of matter exhibited by HF compounds.
To monitor the components of molten magnesium alloy during the smelting process in real time and online, we designed a standoff double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis system that can perform focusing, collecting and imaging of long-range samples. First, we tested the system on solid standard magnesium alloy samples in the laboratory to establish a basis for the online monitoring of the components of molten magnesium alloy in the future. The experimental results show that the diameters of the focus spots are approximately 1 mm at a range of 3 m, the ablation depth of the double-pulse mode is much deeper than that of the single-pulse mode, the optimum interpulse delay of the double pulse is inconsistent at different ranges, and the spectral intensity decays rapidly as the range increases. In addition, the enhancement effect of the double pulse at 1.89 m is greater than that at 2.97 m, the maximum enhancement is 7.1-fold for the Y(I)550.35-nm line at 1.89 m, and the calibration results at 1.89 m are better than those at 2.97 m. At 1.89 m, the determination coefficients (R2) of the calibration curves are approximately 99% for Y, Pr, and Zr; the relative standard deviations (RSDs) are less than 10% for Y, Pr, and Zr; the root mean square errors (RMSEs) are less than 0.037% for Pr and Zr; the limits of detection (LODs) are less than 1000 ppm for Y, Pr, and Zr; and the LODs of Y, Pr, and Zr at 2.97 m are higher than those at 1.89 m. Additionally, we tested the system on molten magnesium alloy in a magnesium alloy plant. The calibration results of the liquid magnesium alloy are not as favorable as those of the sampling solid magnesium alloys. In particular, the RSDs of the liquid magnesium alloy are approximately 20% for Pr and La. However, with future improvements in the experimental conditions, the developed system is promising for the in situ analysis of molten magnesium alloy.
Gyrokinetics is widely applied in plasma physics. However, this framework is limited to weak turbulence levels and low drift-wave frequencies because high-frequency gyro-motion is reduced by the gyro-phase averaging. In order to test where gyrokinetics breaks down, Waltz and Zhao developed a new theory, called cyclokinetics [R. E. Waltz and Zhao Deng, Phys. Plasmas 20, 012507 (2013)]. Cyclokinetics dynamically follows the high-frequency ion gyro-motion which is nonlinearly coupled to the low-frequency drift-waves interrupting and suppressing gyro-averaging. Cyclokinetics is valid in the high-frequency (ion cyclotron frequency) regime or for high turbulence levels. The ratio of the cyclokinetic perturbed distribution function over equilibrium distribution function δf/F can approach 1.
This work presents, for the first time, a numerical simulation of nonlinear cyclokinetic theory for ions, and describes the first attempt to completely solve the ion gyro-phase motion in a nonlinear turbulence system. Simulations are performed [Zhao Deng and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 22(5), 056101 (2015)] in a local flux-tube geometry with the parallel motion and variation suppressed by using a newly developed code named rCYCLO, which is executed in parallel by using an implicit time-advanced Eulerian (or continuum) scheme [Zhao Deng and R. E. Waltz, Comp. Phys. Comm. 195, 23 (2015)]. A novel numerical treatment of the magnetic moment velocity space derivative operator guarantee saccurate conservation of incremental entropy.
By comparing the more fundamental cyclokinetic simulations with the corresponding gyrokinetic simulations, the gyrokinetics breakdown condition is quantitatively tested. Gyrokinetic transport and turbulence level recover those of cyclokinetics at high relative ion cyclotron frequencies and low turbulence levels, as required. Cyclokinetic transport and turbulence level are found to be lower than those of gyrokinetics at high turbulence levels and low-Ω∗ values with stable ion cyclotron modes. The gyrokinetic approximation is found to break down when the density perturbation exceeds 20%, or when the ratio of nonlinear E×B frequency over ion cyclotron frequency exceeds 20%. This result indicates that the density perturbation of the Tokamak L-mode near-edge is not sufficiently large for breaking the gyro-phase averaging. For cyclokinetic simulations with sufficiently unstable ion cyclotron (IC) modes and sufficiently low Ω∗ ∼10, the high-frequency component of the cyclokinetic transport can exceed that of the gyrokinetic transport. However, the low-frequency component of the cyclokinetic transport does not exceed that of the gyrokinetic transport. For higher and more physically relevant Ω∗≥50 values and physically realistic IC driving rates, the low-frequency component of the cyclokinetic transport remains smaller than that of the gyrokinetic transport. In conclusion, the “L-mode near-edge short-fall” phenomenon, observed in some low-frequency gyrokinetic turbulence transport simulations, does not arise owing to the nonlinear coupling of high-frequency ion cyclotron motion to low-frequency drift motion.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has attracted much attention in terms of both scientific research and industrial application. An important branch of LIBS research in Asia, the development of data processing methods for LIBS, is reviewed. First, the basic principle of LIBS and the characteristics of spectral data are briefly introduced. Next, two aspects of research on and problems with data processing methods are described: i) the basic principles of data preprocessing methods are elaborated in detail on the basis of the characteristics of spectral data; ii) the performance of data analysis methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis of LIBS is described. Finally, a direction for future development of data processing methods for LIBS is also proposed.
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the existence and stability of multi-peak solitons in parity–time-symmetric Bessel optical lattices with defects in nonlinear media. The results demonstrate that there always exists a critical propagation constant μc for the existence of multi-peak solitons regardless of whether the nonlinearity is self-focusing or self-defocusing. In self-focusing media, multi-peak solitons exist when the propagation constant μ>μc. In the self-defocusing case, solitons exist only when μ<μc. Only low-power solitons can propagate stably when random noise perturbations are present. Positive defects help stabilize the propagation of multi-peak solitons when the nonlinearity is self-focusing. When the nonlinearity is self-defocusing, however, multi-peak solitons in negative defects have wider stable regions than those in positive defects.
New materials for hydrogen storage of Li-doped fullerene (C20, C28, C36, C50, C60, C70)-intercalated hexagonal boron nitrogen (h-BN) frameworks were designed by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. First-principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the structures of the Cn-BN (n= 20, 28, 36, 50, 60, and 70) frameworks were stable at room temperature. The interlayer distance of the h-BN layers was expanded to 9.96–13.59˚A by the intercalated fullerenes. The hydrogen storage capacities of these three-dimensional (3D) frameworks were studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The GCMC results revealed that at 77 K and 100 bar (10 MPa), the C50-BN framework exhibited the highest gravimetric hydrogen uptake of 6.86 wt% and volumetric hydrogen uptake of 58.01 g/L. Thus, the hydrogen uptake of the Li-doped Cn-intercalated h-BN frameworks was nearly double that of the non-doped framework at room temperature. Furthermore, the isosteric heats of adsorption were in the range of 10–21 kJ/mol, values that are suitable for adsorbing/desorbing the hydrogen molecules at room temperature. At 193 K (–80 ?C) and 100 bar for the Li-doped C50-BN framework, the gravimetric and volumetric uptakes of H2 reached 3.72 wt% and 30.08 g/L, respectively.
Although the standard model (SM) is extremely successful, there are various motivations for considering the physics beyond the SM. For example, the SM includes neither dark energy nor dark matter, which has been confirmed through astrophysical observations. Examination of the dark sector, which contains new, light, weakly-coupled particles at the GeV scale or lower, is well motivated by both theory and dark-matter detection experiments. In this mini-review, we focus on one particular case in which these new particles can interact with SM particles through a kinematic mixing term between U(1) gauge bosons. The magnitude of the mixing can be parameterized by a parameter ϵ. Following a brief overview of the relevant motivations and the constraints determined from numerous experiments, we focus on the light dark sector phenomenology at low-energy high-luminosity e+e− colliders. These colliders are ideal for probing the new light particles, because of their large production rates and capacity for precise resonance reconstruction. Depending on the details of a given model, the typical observed signatures may also contain multi lepton pairs, displaced vertices, and/or missing energy. Through the use of extremely large data samples from existing experiments, such as KLOE, CLEO, BABAR, Belle, and BESIII, the ϵ<10−4–10−3 constraint can be obtained. Obviously, future experiments with larger datasets will provide opportunities for the discovery of new particles in the dark sector, or for stricter upper limits on ϵ. Once the light dark sector is confirmed, the particle physics landscape will be changed significantly.
Nucleon scattering by the classical gravitational field is described by the gravitational (energymomentum tensor) form factors (GFFs), which also control the partition of nucleon spin between the total angular momenta of quarks and gluons. The equivalence principle (EP) for spin dynamics results in the identically zero anomalous gravitomagnetic moment, which is the straightforward analog of its electromagnetic counterpart. The extended EP (ExEP) describes its (approximate) validity separately for quarks and gluons and, in turn, results in equal partition of the momentum and total angular momentum. It is violated in quantum electrodynamics and perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but may be restored in nonperturbative QCD because of confinement and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, which is supported by models and lattice QCD calculations. It may, in principle, be checked by extracting the generalized parton distributions from hard exclusive processes. The EP for spin-1 hadrons is also manifested in inclusive processes (deep inelastic scattering and the Drell–Yan process) in sum rules for tensor structure functions and parton distributions. The ExEP may originate in either gravity-proof confinement or in the closeness of the GFF to its asymptotic values in relation to the mediocrity principle. The GFFs in time-like regions reveal some similarity between inflation and annihilation.
Transformation thermodynamics as a major extension of transformation optics has recently received considerable attention. In this paper, we present two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) diamond-shaped transient thermal cloaks with non-singular homogeneous material parameters. The absence of singularity in the parameters results from the fact that the linear coordinate transformation is performed by expanding a line segment rather than a point into a region, while the mechanism behind the homogeneity is the homogeneous stretching and compression along orthogonal directions during the transformation. Although the derived parameters remain anisotropic, we further show that this can be circumvented by considering a layered structure composed of only four types of isotropic materials based on the effective medium theory. Numerical simulation results confirm the good performance of the proposed cloaks.
Bose–Einstein condensation is a state of matter known to be responsible for peculiar properties exhibited by superfluid Helium-4 and superconductors. Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) in its pure form is realizable with alkali atoms under ultra-cold temperatures. In this paper, we review the experimental scheme that demonstrates the atomic Bose–Einstein condensate. We also elaborate on the theoretical framework for atomic Bose–Einstein condensation, which includes statistical mechanics and the Gross–Pitaevskii equation. As an extension, we discuss Bose–Einstein condensation of photons realized in a fluorescent dye filled optical microcavity. We analyze this phenomenon based on the generalized Planck’s law in statistical mechanics. Further, a comparison is made between photon condensate and laser. We describe how photon condensate may be a possible alternative for lasers since it does not require an energy consuming population inversion process.
Bistable switch modules are among the most important fundamental motifs in signal-transduction pathways. To better understand their spatial signal transduction, we model the diffusion process in the one-dimensional (1–D) domain. We find that when none of the elements diffuse, the response of the system exhibits a spatial switch–like property. However, when one of the elements is highly diffusible, the response of the system does not show any spatial switching behavior. Furthermore, we observe that the spatial responses of the system are more sensitive to the time constant of the switch when none of the elements are diffusible. Further, a slow loop keeps the system in the high steady state more positions than that in the fast loop. Finally, we consolidate our numerical results analytically by performing a mathematical method.