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Oct. 2021, Volume 15 Issue 5

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Front Cover Story (see: Shuchang Wang, Binbin Shao, Junlian Qiao, Xiaohong Guan, 2021, 15(5): 80)
The past two decades have witnessed the rapid development and wide application of Fe(VI) in the field of water de-contamination because of its environmentally benign character. Fe(VI) has been mainly applied as a highly efficient oxidant/disinfectant for the selective elimination of contaminants. The in situ generated iron(III) (hydr)oxides with the function of adsorption/coagulation can further increase the removal of contaminants by Fe(VI) in some cases. Because of the limitations of Fe(VI) per se, various modified methods have been developed to improve the performance of Fe(VI) oxidation technology. Based on the published literature, this paper summarized the current views on the intrinsic properties of Fe(VI) with the emphasis on the self-decay mechanism of Fe(VI). The applications of Fe(VI) as a sole oxidant for decomposing organic contaminants rich in electron-donating moieties, as a bi-functional reagent (both oxidant and coagulant) for eliminating some special contaminants, and as a disinfectant for inactivating microorganisms were systematically summarized. Moreover, the difficulties in synthesizing and preserving Fe(VI), which limits the large-scale application of Fe(VI), and the potential formation of toxic byproducts during Fe(VI) application were presented. This paper also systematically reviewed the important nodes in developing methods to improve the performance of Fe(VI) as oxidant or disinfectant in the past two decades, and proposed the future research needs for the development of Fe(VI) technologies.
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Aug. 2021, Volume 15 Issue 4

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Front Cover Story (see: Yuxin Li, Jiayin Ling, Pengcheng Chen, Jinliang Chen, Ruizhi Dai, Jinsong Liao, Jiejing Yu, Yanbin Xu, 2021, 15(4): 57)
The livestock and poultry industry is very important for national life, supporting the policies of people’s livelihood and economic development. Pollutants from livestock and poultry has become the source of pollution over industrial pollution, which aggravated non-point pollution in rural area and might increase water shortage, and more serious rigid discharging standards were urgent. To prevent the environmental harm caused by livestock and poultry breeding pollution, in recent years, scale production of livestock and poultry breeding and its wastewater treatment techniques developed rapidly. The biological process combining anoxic fermentation and AO has become the mainstream, but nitrogen removal was blocked for the water quality reason of much hard biodegradable macromolecular and low carbon:nitrogen ratios. This research focused on the problems of nitrate accumulation and incomplete denitrification that often occurred in above process. An isolate Pseudomonas mendocina LYX was isolated and inoculated into aerobic tank, removing nitrate effectively under aerobic conditions, which was a good way to replenish the heterotrophic anaerobic denitrification and overcome water quality limitations. The denitrification pathway and principle of this strain also be analyzed by gene amplification and 15N tracing technique, which could provide a theoretical basis for the application of this strain in resolving the problem of nitrate accumulation of wastewater treatment.
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Jun. 2021, Volume 15 Issue 3

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Front Cover Story (see: Jinbiao Ma, Manman Du, Can Wang, Xinwu Xie, Hao Wang, Qian Zhang,2021, 15(3): 47)
According to the legend, the Monkey King was forged in the gossip furnace of the very high lord for forty-nine days, and he developed a pair of golden eyes, which can penetrate the truth of things and distinguish many monsters. Nowadays, human beings are facing the threat of various infectious diseases caused by bioaerosol. The biosensor can detect bioaerosol sensitively and quickly, just like contemporary golden eyes, which protects people's safety. As an interdisciplinary field, biosensors have successfully introduced a variety of technologies for bio-detection. Given their fast analysis speed, high sensitivity, good portability, strong specificity, and low cost, biosensors have been widely used in environmental monitoring, medical research, food and agricultural safety, military medicine and other fields. In recent years, the performance of biosensors has greatly improved, becoming a promising technology for bioaerosol detection. This review introduces the detection principle of biosensors from the three aspects of component identification, energy conversion principle, and signal amplification. It also summarizes its research and application in bioaerosol detection. The new progress and future development trend of the biosensor detection of bioaerosol are analyzed.
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Feb. 2021, Volume 15 Issue 1

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Demand for water is expanding with increases in population, particularly in urban areas in developing countries. Moreover, urban water system needs a novel perspective for upgradation with urbanization. We present a novel 5R approach for managing urban water resources: Recover (storm water), Reduce (toilet flushing water), Recycle (gray water), Resource (black water), and  Reuse (advanced-treated wastewater). This 5R generation incorporates the latest ideas for harvesting storm water, gray water, and black water in its several forms. We have briefly demonstrated each R of 5R generation for water treatment and reuse. China has the chance to upgrade its urban water systems according to 5R principles. Already, a demonstration project of 5R generation has been installed in Qingdao International Horticultural Exposition, and Dalian International Convention Center (China) has applied 5R, achieving over 70% water saving. The 5R offers promise for moving solutions for urban water scarcity from “hoped for in the future” to “realistic today”.
Front Cover Story (see: Lijie Zhou, Hongwu Wang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Jian Zhang, Hongbin Chen, Xuejun Bi, Xiaohu Dai, Siqing Xia, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen, Bruce E. Rittmann, 2021, 15(1): 16)
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Dec. 2020, Volume 14 Issue 6

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Microplastics (MPs) have been recognized as a new class of emerging contaminants in recent years. They not only directly impact aquatic organisms, but also indirectly impact these organisms by interacting with background toxins in the environment. Moreover, under realistic environmental conditions, algae, a natural food for aquatic organisms, may alter the toxicity pattern related to MPs. In this research, we first examined the toxicity of MPs alone, and their effect on the toxicity of lead (Pb) on Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), a model aquatic organism for toxicity survey. Then, we investigated the effect of algae on the combined toxicity of MPs and Pb. We observed that, MPs significantly increased Pb toxicity, which was related to the increase in soluble Pb concentration and the intake of Pb-loaded MPs, both of which increased the accumulation of Pb in C. dubia. The presence of algae mitigated the combined toxicity of MPs and Pb through mechanisms other than Pb accumulation.
(see: Xuesong Liu & Jianmin Wang, 2020, 14(6): 97)

Oct. 2020, Volume 14 Issue 5

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This Special Issue, Accounts of Environmental Chemistry and Technology Research, is FESE’s first attempt for account articles. Account articles summarize the achievements of a research group and further extend the discussion with closely related literature. Because a comprehensive review of a large number of publications is not needed, account articles provide a concise, focused, and in-depth discussion of specific research topics. The authors can reorganize their research story, include additional data, and express novel opinions.
This Issue contains 15 contributions describing recent developments in the chemistry, technology, and process for water pollutant removal. The topics of these contributions are displayed on the cover art. Comments and suggestions are welcome for the Journal to plan for the next Special Issue to cover more topics in Environmental Science and Engineering. We expect that more excellent account articles will appear on the extending paper rolls.
Front Cover Story (See the Preface by Liu, Wang, and Wei)

Aug. 2020, Volume 14 Issue 4

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Front Cover Story (see: Xinjie Wang, Yang Li, Jian Zhao, Hong Yao, Siqi Chu, Zimu Song, Zongxian He, Wen Zhang, 2020, 14: 56)
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a group of Gram-negative prokaryotes that respond to the geomagnetic field. This unique property is attributed to the biosynthesis of magnetic nanoparticles within MTB’s magnetosomes, an intracellular organelle with magnetic iron-bearing nanocrystals. This review summarizes the most recent studies on different aspects of MTB including the characterization of magnetosomes and applications of the environmental pollutant control or remediation. The morphologic and phylogenetic diversity of MTB are introduced with a review of isolation and cultivation methods. MTB as adsorbents enable magnetic separation for removal of heavy metals, radionuclides, or organic pollutants in wastewater. In addition, the removal of other pollutants such as phosphate and pathogen as well as detection of endocrine disruptors are also highlighted. Finally, the new research perspectives and directions are recommended, such as efficient isolation, genetic modification of MTB for mass production and novel environmental applications.

Jun. 2020, Volume 14 Issue 3

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Front Cover Story (see: Feng Zhu, Zhijian Yao, Wenliang Ji, Deye Liu, Hao Zhang, Aimin Li, Zongli Huo, Qing Zhou, 2020, 14(3): 51)
Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is one of the most commonly used technique for aqueous sample preconcentration, especially for tracing organic pollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals and personal care products, PPCPs). However, the diversity of PPCPs proposes high demand for the compatibility of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the SPE adsorbents. In this study, a new hydrophilic resin with good compatibility was successfully synthesized based on poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone-divinylbenzene). This resin, named GCHM, was used for SPE packing. Subsequently, 44 representative PPCPs (10 classes) in complex environmental matrix were detected to evaluate the absolute recovery of two SPE cartridges (GCHM and Oasis® HLB) by UPLC-MS/MS. Twenty-one PPCPs with absolute recoveries ranging from 80% to 120% were detected using GCHM, while there were only 14 PPCPs detected for Oasis® HLB. The average absolute recovery of 44 PPCPs was 75.6% using GCHM, indicating a better performance than the commercial Oasis® HLB under optimal conditions.

Apr. 2020, Volume 14 Issue 2

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Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is inextricably connected to the physical processes, chemical reactions, and biological activities of membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems. Monitoring DOM characteristics would provide extensive implications for understanding and optimization of MBRs. To this end, the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy has emerged as a potentially rapid, convenient, sensitive, and informative tool for DOM characterization. Herein, this review systematically introduces the recent progress in applying EEM to MBR studies, covering the aspects of: (a) the spectroscopic principles, experimental measurement methods, and data handling techniques of EEM; (b) the molecular information extractable from EEM in terms of fluorescence peak location/intensity, wavelength regional distribution, and spectral decomposition; (c) novel fluorescent indicators such as quantum yield, Stokes shift, excited energy state, and fluorescence lifetime; and (d) how the EEM information/indicators can be used to reflect the chemical compositions, physiochemical properties, biological activities, membrane retention/fouling behaviors, and migration/transformation fates of DOM in MBRs. The future development of EEM for DOM monitoring is also critically discussed.

Feb. 2020, Volume 14 Issue 1

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This article explains the adsorption, uptake and transmembrane transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by bacteria; the regulation of membrane protein function during the transmembrane transport; and the proteomics and single cell analysis technology used to address these areas of research. There are three different regulation mechanisms for uptake, depending on the state and size of the oil droplets relative to the size of the microbial cells, which are (i) direct adhesion, (ii) emulsification and pseudosolubilization, and (iii) interfacial uptake. This article gives a detailed introduction to its process. There are two main transmembrane transport modes are introduced, which are active transport and (ii) passive uptake. Active transport is a very important form of transmembrane transport, and this cover shows just such a process. Active transport has the following four characteristics: it can be transported against the concentration gradient; it requires energy or is coupled with the process of releasing energy; it needs to rely on membrane transport proteins; and it is selective and specific.

Dec. 2019, Volume 13 Issue 6

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The unprecedented double pressures of environmental pollution and resource deficiency and the growing innovation ability in China together are now driving a fundamental change in the wastewater treatment paradigm in this country. Despite of rapid development over the past 40 years, China’s wastewater sector has been following the development mode of many industrialized countries and is still struggling to balance the ever-stringent discharge standard and the intensifying energy consumption and cost. This mini-review summarizes these remaining hurdles and provides a rethinking about the future development direction for China’s wastewater sector and the needed efforts. It is envisaged that the next-generation wastewater management paradigm in China may go beyond wastewater treatment plants, and rely on the construction of an integrated system that aims at achieving sustainable water quality, maximized energy and resource recovery, and harmonious water ecology.
Cover story (see: Jiuhui Qu, Hongchen Wang, Kaijun Wang, Gang Yu, Bing Ke, Han-Qing Yu, Hongqiang Ren, Xingcan Zheng, Ji Li, Wen-Wei Li, Song Gao, Hui Gong, 2019, 13(6): 88)

Oct. 2019, Volume 13 Issue 5

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Production of sulfate radical via peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation by carbon-based nanomaterials has emerged as a promising technology for organic pollutants degradation due to its excellent catalytic potential and environmentally benign properties. However, the electron-donating capability of current carbon materials, which is critical in PMS activation, is still limited. This article describes an UV-light assisted PMS activation system constructed over TiO2-CNT composite. Under the UV light irradiation, the photoinduced electrons generated from TiO2 could be continuously transferred to the CNT for the activation of PMS to improve the catalytic performance of organic pollutant degradation. Meanwhile, the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs could enhance the photocatalysis efficiency. The electron spin resonance spectroscopy and quenching experiments confirmed the generation of sulfate radical, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen in the system. Almost 100% phenol degradation was observed within 20 min, and the kinetic rate constant of the UV/PMS/20%CNT-TiO2 system (0.18 min-1) was 23.7 times that of the PMS/Co3O4 system under same conditions.

Aug. 2019, Volume 13 Issue 4

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The shale oil and gas exploitation consumes substantial amounts of freshwater and generates large quantities of hazardous wastewater. Despite their success in shale oil and gas wastewater treatment at the laboratory scale, membrane technologies have not been implemented at full scale in the oil and gas fields. This article analyzes the growing demands of wastewater treatment in shale oil and gas production, and critically reviews the current stage of membrane technologies applied to shale oil and gas wastewater treatment. The authors focus on the unique niche of those technologies due to their advantages and limitations, and highlight the importance of pretreatment as a key component of integrated treatment trains. They emphasize the lack of sufficient efforts to scale up existing membrane technologies, and suggest that a stronger collaboration between academia and industry is of paramount importance to translate membrane technologies to the practical applications in the shale oil and gas industry.
Cover story (see: Tiezheng Tong, Kenneth H. Carlson, Cristian A. Robbins, Zuoyou Zhang & Xuewei Du, 2019, 13(4): 63)

Jun. 2019, Volume 13 Issue 3

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Discharge of treated sewage and water using only conventional disinfectants may not prevent the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment, which have profound consequences to human health. The ultraviolet (UV) technology has been applied in treatment processes, but may not be able to effectively treat ARGs, especially at UV doses used for disinfection. However, the UV technology in conjunction with known oxidants (chlorine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), and photocatalysts) is reasonably efficient to degrade/inactivate ARGs. The increased efficiency is because of generation of highly reactive species such as Cl, ClO, Cl2●-, OH, and SO4●-, which are highly reactive with constituents of cell like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This review gives current knowledge on the combined technologies of UV and oxidants, followed by the applications of q-PCR and gel electrophoresis approaches to elucidate the fate of ARGs during their treatments.

Apr. 2019, Volume 13 Issue 2

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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from the waste treatment facilities are the major cause for NMBY due to their odorous property and hazard to human health. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology is newly developed methods which has attached great attention for abatement of industrial wastewater and air pollution. Review on recent progress of plasma technology, mainly focus on the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for abatement of VOCs is conducted. The contents include the effect of configurations (electrode, discharge gap, dielectric barrier material) and process parameters (initial concentration, gas feeding rate, oxygen content and input power) of DBD system on VOCs removal efficiency. Moreover, the roles of catalysis and inhibitors in VOCs removal with DBD reactor are discussed. A further development is pointed with regard to increasing conversion efficiency as well as avoiding byproducts formation such as solid residue deposition.
(see: Wenjing Lu, Yawar Abbas, Muhammad Farooq Mustafa, Chao Pan & Hongtao Wang, 2019, 13(2): 30)

Feb. 2019, Volume 13 Issue 1

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Exposure to ambient PM2.5 and its constituents has led to millions of premature death globally. The exposure mainly occurs indoors where people spend over 80% of their time. To better understand health effects of PM2.5 and control indoor PM2.5 exposure, the first step is to accurately characterize indoor PM2.5 and constituents concentrations of outdoor origin. This feature article addresses this from both modeling and measurement perspectives. The key factors in models are air exchange rate, particle penetration factor, and deposition rate. A meta-analysis of measurement data in the past decade shows that sulfate could trace non-volatile species (EC, Fe, Cu, and Mn) and even PM2.5 itself. The indoor-outdoor relationships of semi-volatile species (nitrate, ammonium, and organics) are more complex than those of non-volatile species, especially organics. Future studies on this issue are suggested to help constructing healthy buildings.
(see: Cong Liu & Yinping Zhang, 2019, 13(1): 5)

Dec. 2018, Volume 12 Issue 5

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Heterogeneous photocatalysis has long been considered to be one of the most promising approaches to tackling the myriad environmental issues. In recent years, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) has garnered considerable research interest among various reported techniques and has been extensively explored for the abatement of various organic or inorganic contaminants in water or air under artificial or natural light illumination under ambient conditions. Therefore, it is of particular importance to exploit highly active, selective and durable earth-abundant photocatalysts and deeply understand their underlying photocatalytic degradation mechanisms. However, previous reviews have frequently neglected and placed less emphasis on these crucial principles of photocatalytic degradation reactions. In this review, we first systematically introduced the fundamental principles on the photocatalytic pollutant degradation. Then, the important considerations in the design of photocatalytic degradation systems are carefully addressed, including charge carrier dynamics, catalytic selectivity, photocatalyst stability, pollutant adsorption and photodegradation kinetics. Especially, the underlying mechanisms are thoroughly reviewed, including investigation of oxygen reduction properties and identification of reactive oxygen species and key intermediates. This review in environmental photocatalysis may inspire exciting new directions and methods for designing, fabricating and evaluating photocatalytic degradation systems for better environmental remediation and possibly other relevant fields, such as photocatalytic disinfection, water oxidation, and selective organic transformations.

Aug. 2018, Volume 12 Issue 6

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Polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are listed in the Stockholm Convention Annex C as unintentional Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). They can be unintentionally formed and released during various industrial and daily life processes. Since China is a party to the Stockholm Convention, China is required to identify and quantify the releases of them, and develop action plans to minimize or eliminate them. To this end, the first step is to overview their potential sources and activities on national level. The three chemicals have similar forming mechanism as dioxin. Therefore, thermal processes, such as waste incineration and ferrous and non-ferrous metal production are with high potential of emission. Organochlorine industry is another important source, and some even have the highest release potential. Based on the overview, the national release inventories of the three unintentional POPs of China will be developed in the near future.
(see: Xiaotu Liu, Heidelore Fiedler, Wenwen Gong, Bin Wang, Gang Yu, 2018, 12(6): 1)

Aug. 2018, Volume 12 Issue 4

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Wastewater contains many valuable resources such as energy, nutrient, and water, and recovery of those resources will make wastewater management more sustainable. In recent years, there has been a trend to transform the theme of wastewater management from “treatment” to “recovery”. Development of new technologies will help accomplish resource recovery from wastewater. Among the newly developed technologies, bioelectrochemical systems have attracted a great amount of attention and been advanced in the aspects of system configuration, electrode materials and catalysts, microbiology, and electrochemistry. A potentially feasible way to further develop bioelectrochemical systems is to identify appropriate application niches. In particular, the interaction between microorganisms and solid electron acceptors/donors in a bioelectrochemical system can facilitate the recovery of energy (either direct electricity or gaseous energy), nutrients (both nitrogen and phosphorus), and high quality water for reuse. Using resource recovery – based functions to advance bioelectrochemical systems will better guide the investment of efforts.

Jun. 2018, Volume 12 Issue 3

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The world is facing several challenges in the future. Due to world over-population and intensive use of the world’s resources, severe threats have been recognized. Threats such as climate changes, depletion of the planet resources has drawn immense attention on renewable energy. Biogas process has been recognized as a reliable and sustainable way of helping out these challenges. The biogas process has been known and applied for hundreds of years mainly for domestic needs such as cooking, heating and the most recent years for combined heat and electricity production. Biogas has been the most appropriate technology for bioconversion of slurries and wastewaters. Nowadays, biogas process is applied as a modern technology not only for bioenergy production but also for smart nutrients recycling technology. Technologies for upgrading biogas to biomethane and higher chemicals are trending the development leading to advanced solutions within the frame of circular bioeconomy.

Apr. 2018, Volume 12 Issue 2

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Biochar (BC) is a potential material for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil and water, and base modification is a promising method for improving its sorption ability. In this study, we synthesized a series of base-modified biochars, and evaluated their sorption of phenanthrene. Original biochars were produced by pyrolysis of three feedstocks (rice straw, wood and bamboo) at five temperatures (300, 350, 400, 500 and 700 °C). Base-modified biochars were further obtained by washing of biochars with base solution. The base soluble carbon (SC) was extracted from the supernatant, which were only obtained from biochars pyrolyzed at low temperatures (< 500 °C) and the content was decreased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. The SC content between different feedstocks followed the trend of rice straw > wood > bamboo when same pyrolysis conditions were applied. It was found that base modification improved the sorption of phenanthrene on biochars that SC could be extracted from (extractable-BCs). However, base treatment but had limited effects for biochars that no SC could be extracted from. It suggested that base modification improved the sorption of phenanthrene to extractable-BCs by removing the SC and thus increasing the surface area and hydrophobicity. Therefore, base modification was suggested to be used in modifying extractable-BCs.

Feb. 2018, Volume 12 Issue 1

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Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) are efficient processes to degrade organic pollutants in water. In this paper, the influence of different reaction parameters in WAO, such as temperature, oxygen pressure, pH, stirring speed are analyzed in detail. Homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts including carbon materials, transitional metal oxides and noble metals are extensively discussed in CWAO. Three different kinds of the reactor in the CWAO (autoclave, packed bed and membrane reactors) are illustrated and compared. To enhance the degradation efficiency and reduce the cost of the CWAO process, biological degradation can be combined to develop an integrated technology.

Dec. 2017, Volume 11 Issue 6

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Silicon(Si) is a widely applied photovoltage material in solar energy harvesting. However, the spontaneous oxidation process of pristine Si limits its application as photocatalyst or electrode in aqueous solution or moist air. Covering a protection layer on Si surface is an effective approach to overcome this disadvantage. In this paper, α-Fe2O3 is demonstrated to be an excellent alternative as a protection material. Compared with Si itself, the optical absorption and photocurrent density of α-Fe2O3 coated Si improved 2 times and 4 times, respectively, and its onset potential for hydrogen evolution moved positively about 0.4 V. These improved performances could be ascribed to the enhanced photogenerated-charge-separation efficiency deriving from built-in electric field at the interface between Si and α-Fe2O3. In this work, the application of Si materials as photocatalysts or electrodes in aqueous solution or moist air can be promoted. This could be further beneficial to utilizing in solar water splitting to produce hydrogen, CO2 reduction and pollutants degradation (e.g. dehalogenation).

Oct. 2017, Volume 11 Issue 5

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See Mengmeng Wang, Quanyin Tan, Joseph F. Chiang & Jinhui Li, 2017, 11(5): 1 for more information

Aug. 2017, Volume 11 Issue 4

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Cover story (see: Nanqi Ren, Qian Wang, Qiuru Wang, Hong Huang& Xiuheng Wang, 2017, 11(4):9)
Facing the pressure of excessive water consumption, high pollution load and rainstorm waterlogging, linear and centralized urban water system, system 2.0, as well as traditional governance measures gradually exposed characters of water-sensitivity, vulnerability and unsustainability, subsequently resulting in a full-blown crisis of water shortage, water pollution and waterlogging. To systematically relieve such crisis, in this work we put forward to establish urban water system 3.0, in which decentralized sewerage systems, sponge infrastructures and ecological rivers play critical roles. Through unconventional water resource recycling, whole process control of pollutions and ecological restoration, system 3.0 with integrated management measures, is expected to fit for multiple purposes which involve environmental, ecological, economic and social benefits. With advantages of flexibility, resilience and sustainability, water system 3.0 will show an increasingly powerful vitality in the near future.

Jun. 2017, Volume 11 Issue 3

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see: Conor Dennehy, Peadar G. Lawlor, Yan Jiang, Gillian E. Gardiner, Sihuang Xie, Long D Nghiem & Xinmin Zhan, 2017, 11(3): 11
Manure management is the primary source of greenhouse gas emissions from pig farming, which in turn accounts for 18% of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. N2O and CH4 are emitted from individual pig manure management practices including manure storage, land application, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion, composting and wastewater treatment. Greenhouse gas emission can be reduced by changing and optimising these practices. There is a need to standardize units used to report GHG emissions, and to conduct detailed life cycle assessment of the whole pig manure management chain. Anaerobic digestion and compositing to liquid and solid fractions are best pig manure management practices with respect to their high greenhouse gas mitigation potential

Apr. 2017, Volume 11 Issue 2

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Aromatics-contaminated soil is of particular environmental concern as it exhibits carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Bioremediation, a biological approach for the removal of soil contaminants, has several advantages over traditional soil remediation methodologies. Bioaugmentation is a widely applied bioremediation technology for soil remediation, defined as the introduction of specific competent strains or consortia of microorganisms. A number of reports have been published on the metabolic machinery of aromatics degradation by microorganisms and their capacity to adapt to aromatics-contaminated environments. Thus, microorganisms are major players in site remediation. This review addresses the bioaugmentation of aromatic compound-contaminated soils using a specific strain, a consortium of microorganisms, or microorganisms combined with physical, chemical and other biological methods. The bioremediation/bioaugmentation process relies on the immense metabolic capacities of microbes for transformation of aromatic pollutants into essentially harmless or, at least, less toxic compounds. Aromatics-contaminated soils are successfully remediated with adding not only single strains but also bacterial or fungal consortia. Furthermore several novel approaches, which microbes combined with physical, chemical or biological factors, increase remediation efficiency of aromatics-contaminated soil. Meanwhile, the environmental factors also have appreciable impacts on the bioaugmentation process. The biostatistics method is recommended for analysis of the effects of bioaugmentation treatments.

Feb. 2017, Volume 11 Issue 1

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Arsenic (As) is a pervasive environmental toxin and carcinogenic metalloid. It ranks at the top of the US priority List of Hazardous Substances and causes worldwide human health problems. Wetlands, including natural and artificial ecosystems (i.e. paddy soils) are highly susceptible to As enrichment; acting not only as repositories for water but a host of other elemental/chemical moieties. While macro-scale processes (physical and geological) supply As to wetlands, it is the micro-scale biogeochemistry that regulates the fluxes of As and other trace elements from the semi-terrestrial to neighboring plant/aquatic/atmospheric compartments. Among these fine-scale events, microbial mediated As biotransformations contribute most to the element’s changing forms, acting as the ‘switch’ in defining a wetland as either a source or sink of As. Much of our understanding of these important microbial catalyzed reactions follows relatively recent scientific discoveries. Here we document some of these key advances, with focuses on the implications that wetlands and their microbial mediated transformation pathways have on the global As cycle, the chemistries of microbial mediated As oxidation, reduction and methylation, and future research priorities areas.

Oct. 2016, Volume 10 Issue 5

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 In the paper the concept design and detailed instrumentation information of a latest developed integrated ground-based measurement station, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), at Nanjing University in East China are introduced, and the main scientific findings in studies of air pollution characters and air pollution-weather/climate interactions based on continuous measurement at the station since 2011 are reviewed. The key scientific themes of the SORPES include land surface-atmosphere interactions, air pollution-weather/climate interactions, ecosystem-atmosphere interactions and hydrological cycle, as well as linkages between these associated processes. The main results summarized in this paper include overall characteristics of trace gases and aerosols, chemical transformation mechanisms for secondary trace gases (e.g. O3 and HONO etc.) and secondary inorganic aerosols, and the air pollution – weather/climate interactions and feedbacks in mixed air pollution plumes from sources like fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and dust storms. Future outlooks of the development plan on instrumentation, networking and data-sharing of the station are also discussed. The paper demonstrates and highlights the unique role of this “flagship” station in improving our current understanding of air quality, chemical mechanisms of secondary pollution, and the two-way interactions between air pollution and meteorology, and suggests the need of more SORPES-type stations in different regions of China and the world.

Aug. 2016, Volume 10 Issue 4

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In the paper concepts for wastewater treatment of the future are discussed by the use of a) one flow diagram based on established, compact, proven technologies (i.e. nitrification/denitrification for Nremoval in the mainstream) and b) one flow diagram based on emerging, compact technologies ( in the main stream).The latter (b) will give an energy-neutral wastewater treatment plant, while this cannot be guaranteed for the first one (a). The example flow diagrams show plant concepts that a) minimize energy consumption by using compact biological and physical/chemical processes combined in an optimal way, for instance by using moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) processes for biodegradation and high-rate particle separation processes, and de-ammonification processes for N-removal and b)maximize energy (biogas) production through digestion by using wastewater treatment processes that minimize biodegradation of the sludge (prior to digestion) and pretreatment of the sludge prior to digestion by thermal hydrolysis. The treatment plant of the future should produce a water quality (for instance bathing water quality) that is sufficient for reuse of some kind (toilet flushing, urban use, irrigation etc.). The paper outlines compact water reclamation processes based on ozonation in combination with coagulation as pretreatment before ceramic membrane filtration.