Dec 2016, Volume 10 Issue 6

  • Select all
    Fu Sun,Yi Liu
    Tingting Fang, Ruisong Pan, Jing Jiang, Fen He, Hui Wang

    Various salinities affected the PAH-biodegrading community structure.

    Various salinities affected the growth of strains with different salt tolerance.

    The two ndo genes belonged to a new divergent cluster of the known nah-like genes.

    The two main ndo genes had correlations with the phenanthrene degradation.

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of salinity on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation, community structure and naphthalene dioxygenase gene (ndo) diversity of a halophilic bacterial consortium with the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach. The consortium was developed from oil-contaminated saline soil after enrichment for six times, using phenanthrene as the substrate. The prominent species in the bacterial consortium at all salinities were identified as halophilic bacteria Halomonas, Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Idiomarina, Martelella and uncultured bacteria. The predominant microbes gradually changed associating with the saline concentration fluctuations ranging from 0.1% to 25% (w/v). Two ndo alpha subunits were dominant at salinities ranging from 0.1% to 20%, while not been clearly detected at 25% salinity. Consistently, the biodegradation occurred at salinities ranging from 0.1% to 20%, while no at 25% salinity, suggesting the two ndo genes played an important role in the degradation. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of the two ndo alpha subunits were related to the classic nah-like gene from Pseudomonas stutzeri AN10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PaK1, while one with identity of about 82% and the other one with identity of 90% at amino acid sequence level. We concluded that salinity greatly affected halophilic bacterial community structure and also the functional genes which were more related to biodegradation.

    Lyumeng Ye,Xuemei Wang,Shaofeng Fan,Weihua Chen,Ming Chang,Shengzhen Zhou,Zhiyong Wu,Qi Fan

    The distribution of NOx- and VOC-sensitive regimes in the PRD are identified.

    The effectiveness of six popular chemical indicators for discriminating O3 sensitivity regimes is evaluated.

    Threshold levels for HCHO/NOy, H2O2/HNO3, O3/NOy, O3/NOz, O3/HNO3 were derived and verified.

    The indicators H2O2/HNO3 and H2O2/NOz performed best and maintained relatively stable threshold levels.

    Surface O3 production has a highly nonlinear relationship with its precursors. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of O3-NOx-VOC-sensitivity regimes complicates the control- decision making. In this paper, the indicator method was used to establish the relationship between O3 sensitivity and assessment indicators. Six popular ratios indicating ozone-precursor sensitivity, HCHO/NOy, H2O2/HNO3, O3/NOy, O3/NOz, O3/HNO3, and H2O2/NOz, were evaluated based on the distribution of NOx- and VOC-sensitive regimes. WRF-Chem was used to study a serious ozone episode in fall over the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the south-west of the PRD is characterized by a VOC-sensitive regime, while its north-east is NOx-sensitive, with a sharp transition area between the two regimes. All indicators produced good representations of the elevated ozone hours in the episode on 6 November 2009, with H2O2/HNO3 being the best indicator. The threshold sensitivity levels for HCHO/NOy, H2O2/HNO3, O3/NOy, O3/NOz, O3/HNO3, and H2O2/NOz were estimated to be 0.41, 0.55, 10.2, 14.0, 19.1, and 0.38, respectively. Threshold intervals for the indicators H2O2/HNO3, O3/NOy, O3/NOz, O3/HNO3, and H2O2/NOz were able to identify more than 95% of VOC- and NOx-sensitive grids. The ozone episode on 16 November 16 2008 was used to independently verify the results, and it was found that only H2O2/HNO3 and H2O2/NOz were able to differentiate the ozone sensitivity regime well. Hence, these two ratios are suggested as the most appropriate indicators for identifying fall ozone sensitivity in the PRD. Since the species used for indicators have seasonal variation, the utility of those indicators for other seasons should be investigated in the future work.

    Lei Xia, Guo Liu, Chunmei Chen, Meiyan Wen, Yangyang Gao

    The inhibition of sediment nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) release seems necessary.

    Red soil (RS) was firstly used as sediment capping material under flow conditions.

    RS capping can effectively reduce the N and P release from sediment.

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) released from the sediment to the surface water is a major source of water quality impairment. Therefore, inhibiting sediment nutrient release seems necessary. In this study, red soil (RS) was employed to control the nutrients released from a black-odorous river sediment under flow conditions. The N and P that were released were effectively controlled by RS capping. Continuous-flow incubations showed that the reduction efficiencies of total N (TN), ammonium (NH4+-N), total P (TP) and soluble reactive P (SRP) of the overlying water by RS capping were 77%, 63%, 77% and 92%, respectively, and nitrification and denitrification occurred concurrently in the RS system. An increase in the water velocity coincided with a decrease in the nutrient release rate as a result of intensive water aeration.

    Qi Zou,Keding Lu,Yusheng Wu,Yudong Yang,Zhuofei Du,Min Hu

    • Chemical actinometer (CA) was built for NO2 photolysis frequency, j(NO2), analysis.

    • CA data (10% accuracy) were compared with spectroradiometer (SR) data.

    • Long-term j(NO2) measurement was validated by comparison of CA and SR.

    • Dis-benefit of aerosol on j(NO2) due toparticulate matter (PM2.5) control on O3.

    The photolysis frequency of NO2, j(NO2), is an important analytical parameter in the study of tropospheric chemistry. A chemical actinometer (CA) was built to measure the ambient j(NO2) based on a high precision NOx instrument with 1 min time resolution. Parallel measurements of the ambient j(NO2) by using the CA and a commercial spectroradiometer (SR) were conducted at a typical urban site (Peking University Urban Environmental Monitoring Station) in Beijing. In general, good agreement was achieved between the CA and SR data with a high linear correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.977) and a regression slope of 1.12. The regression offset was negligible compared to the measured signal level. The j(NO2) data were calculated using the tropospheric ultraviolet visible radiation (TUV) model, which was constrained to observe aerosol optical properties. The calculated j(NO2) was intermediate between the results obtained with CA and SR, demonstrating the consistency of all the parameters observed at this site. The good agreement between the CA and SR data, and the consistency with the TUV model results, demonstrate the good performance of the installed SR instrument. Since a drift of the SR sensitivity is expected by the manufacturer, we propose a regular check of the data acquired via SR against those obtained by CA for long-term delivery of a high quality series of j(NO2) data. Establishing such a time series will be invaluable for analyzing the long-term atmospheric oxidation capacity trends as well as O3 pollution for urban Beijing.

    Xuebiao Nie, Wenjun Liu, Mo Chen, Minmin Liu, Lu Ao

    Flow cytometry based on nucleic acid stains and CTC was established and optimized.

    Membrane of S. aureus is more resistant to chlorine/chloramine than E. coli.

    The metabolic activity of bacteria persisted after the cytomembranewas damaged.

    S. aureus showed more resistance to UV irradiation than E. coli by FCM.

    MP-UV was a stronger inhibitor of metabolic activity than LP-UV.

    Flow cytometry (FCM) has been widely used in multi-parametric assessment of cells in various research fields, especially in environmental sciences. This study detected the metabolic activity of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by using an FCM method based on 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride (CTC); the accuracy of this method was enhanced by adding SYTO 9 and 10% R2A broth. The disinfection effects of chlorine, chloramine, and UV were subsequently evaluated by FCM methods. Chlorine demonstrated stronger and faster destructive effects on cytomembrane than chloramine, and nucleic acids decomposed afterwards. The metabolic activity of the bacteria persisted after the cytomembranewas damaged as detected using CTC. Low-pressure (LP) UV or medium-pressure (MP) UV treatments exerted no significant effects on membrane permeability. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased with increasing UV dosage, and MP-UV was a stronger inhibitor of metabolic activity than LP-UV. Furthermore, the membrane of Gram-positive S. aureus was more resistant to chlorine/chloramine than that of Gram-negative E. coli. In addition, S. aureus showed higher resistance to UV irradiation than E. coli.

    Rui Duan, Yun Lu, Lingyan Hou, Lina Du, Lequn Sun, Xingfan Tang

    Estrogen regulates miRNA expression in a typical U-shaped dose-response pattern.

    E2 can regulate drosha in the ventral prostate.

    Mouse ventral prostate is most sensitive to estrogen.

    Nonmonotonic dose-response in prostate could be a component of estrogen signature.

    Many studies have focused on environmental estrogen-related diseases. However, no consistent gene markers or signatures for estrogenicity have been discovered in mammals. This study investigated the estrogenic effects of 17β-estradiol on the prostate in immature male mice. Consistent U-shaped responses were seen in bodyweight, ventral prostate epithelial morphology, and miRNA expression levels. Specifically, most estradiol regulated miRNAs were downregulated at low doses of estradiol (0.2 and 2 mg·kg−1), and whose expression returned to the control level at a larger dose (200 mg·kg−1). The function of these regulated miRNAs is related to the prostate cancer and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, which is consistent with the function of estradiol. Furthermore, the miRNA-processing machinery, Drosha, in the prostate was also regulated in a similar pattern, which could be a part of the U-shaped miRNA expression mechanism. All of these data indicate that the prostate is a reliable organ for evaluating estrogenic activity and that the typical nonmonotonic dose-response relationship could be used as a novel biomarker for estrogenicity.

    Fariba Mahmoudkhani, Maryam Rezaei, Vahid Asili, Mahsasadat Atyabi, Elena Vaisman, Cooper H. Langford, Alex De Visscher

    A photochemical model of benzene degradation compares well with experimental data obtained in the Lab.

    62 reactions were needed to fully describe benzene degradation.

    A feasibility study shows that the photolysis of benzene is a cost-effective process.

    Experimental data and modeling results show that the degradation efficiency will increase when the combination of UV light and ozone is used.

    The degradation of benzene, a carcinogenic air pollutant, was studied in a gas-phase photochemical reactor with an amalgam lamp emitting ultraviolet light at 185 and 254 nm. Efficient benzene degradation (>70%) was possible for benzene mass flow rates of up to 1.5 mg·min−1. Adding ozone allowed benzene mass flow rates of up to 5 mg·min−1 to be treated with the same efficiency. In terms of energy consumption, ozone doubles the efficiency of the process. A comprehensive mechanistic simulation model was developed incorporating a chemical kinetics model (62 reactions involving 47 chemical species), a material balance model incorporating diffusion and flow, a flow velocity model, and a light field model. The model successfully predicted the efficiency of the reactor, generally within 20%, which indicates that the model is sound, and can be used for feasibility studies. The prediction of the reactor efficiency in the presence of ozone was less successful, with systematically overestimated efficiency. Condensation of reaction products in the reactor is thought to be the main cause of model inaccuracy. Both experimental data and model predictions show that there is a synergistic effect between ozonation and ultraviolet degradation.

    Shuai Liang, Peng Gao, Xiaoqi Gao, Kang Xiao, Xia Huang

    Two types of amphiphilic nanoparticles were prepared via silanization reaction.

    Amphiphilic nanoparticles tend to protrude from membrane matrix by segregation.

    Blending with amphiphilic nanoparticles further enhances membrane hydrophilicity.

    Excessive silanization cause adverse effect on blending efficiency.

    Membrane modification is one of the most feasible and effective solutions to membrane fouling problem which tenaciously hampered the further augmentation of membrane separation technology. Blending modification with nanoparticles (NPs), owing to the convenience of being incorporated in established membrane production lines, possesses an advantageous viability in practical applications. However, the existing blending strategy suffers from a low utilization efficiency due to NP encasement by membrane matrix. The current study proposed an improved blending modification approach with amphiphilic NPs (aNPs), which were prepared through silanization using 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) as coupling agents and ZnO or SiO2 as pristine NPs (pNPs), respectively. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed the presence of appropriate organic components in both the ZnO and SiO2 aNPs, which verified the success of the silanization process. As compared with the pristine and conventional pNP-blended membranes, both the ZnO aNP-blended and SiO2 aNP-blended membranes with proper silanization (100% and 200% w/w) achieved a significantly increased blending efficiency with more NPs scattering on the internal and external membrane surfaces under scanning electron microscope observation. This improvement contributed to the increase of membrane hydrophilicity. Nevertheless, an extra dosage of the TMSPMA led to an encasement of NPs, thereby adversely affecting the properties of the resultant membranes. On the basis of all the tests, 100% (w/w) was selected as the optimum TMSPMA dosage for blending modification for both the ZnO and SiO2 types.

    Chunming Wang, Huirong Lin, Chengsong Ye

    The functional surface-modified MNPs were capable of capture E. coli with high efficiency.

    After induced to VBNC state by chlorination, E. coli cells could be separated by MNPs with an additional incubation process.

    This study provides a facile and economic method for VBNC cell enrichment and purification.


    Viable But Nonculturable (VBNC) Bacteria, which represent a unique population of microorganisms in drinking water systems, have become a potential threat to human health. Current studies on VBNC cells usually fail to obtain pure VBNC state bacteria, which may lead to inaccurate results. We therefore introduce a novel method of VBNC cell separation and purification in this paper. PAH-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized and found to be capable of capturing and releasing bacterial cells with high efficiency. With the aid of an additional incubation step, VBNC cells were easily isolated and purified from normal bacteria using functional MNPs. Our method represents a new technique that can be utilized in studies of VBNCs.

    Ying Han, Huiting Xie, Wenbin Liu, Haifeng Li, Mengjing Wang, Xuebin Chen, Xiao Liao, Nan Yan

    Potentially harmful elements in ambient soil of a MSWI were assessed.

    Spatial distribution of potential ecological risk index was investigated.

    Health risk assessment of potentially harmful elements in soil was evaluated.

    Hg in the soil posed health hazards to the local population.

    We assessed the contamination levels of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, As and Hg and the risks posed by these potentially harmful elements in top-soils around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). We collected 20 soil samples, with an average pH of 8.1, and another fly ash sample emitted from the MSWI to investigate the concentrations of these elements in soils. We determined the concentrations of these elements by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), except for Hg, which we measured by AF-610B atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS). We assessed the risks of these elements through the use of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), potential ecological risk index (RI), hazard quotient (HQi) and cancer risk (Riski). The results showed that concentrations of potentially harmful elements in soil were influenced by the wind direction, and the concentrations of most elements were higher in the area northwest of the MSWI, compared with the area southeast of the incinerator, with the exception of As; these results were in accordance with those results acquired from our contour maps. According to the Igeo values, some soil samples were clearly polluted by Hg emissions. However, the health risk assessment indicated that the concentrations of Hg and other elements in soil did not pose non-carcinogenic risks to the local populations. This was also the case for the carcinogenic risks posed by As, Cr, and Ni. The carcinogenic risk posed by As was higher, in the range 6.49 × 10−6–9.58 × 10−6, but this was still considered to be an acceptable level of risk.

    Yan Ma, Xiaoming Du, Yi Shi, Deyi Hou, Binbin Dong, Zhu Xu, Huiying Li, Yunfeng Xie, Jidun Fang, Zheng Li, Yunzhe Cao, Qingbao Gu, Fasheng Li

    Engineering practice of mechanical soil aeration in China is reviewed.

    MSA is a cost-effective technique for VOC-contaminated sites.

    Limitations of MSA application have been summarized.

    In recent years, many industrial enterprises located in the urban centers of China have been relocated owing to the rapid increase in urban development. At the sites abandoned by these enterprises, volatile organic compounds have frequently been detected, sometimes at high concentrations, particularly at sites abandoned by chemical manufacturing enterprises. With the redevelopment of sites and changes in land-use type associated with these sites, substantial amounts of contaminated soils now require remediation. Since China is a developing country, soil remediation warrants the usage of techniques that are suitable for addressing the unique challenges faced in this country. Land shortage is a common problem in China; the large numbers of contaminated sites, tight development schedules, and limited financial resources necessitate the development of cost-effective methods for land reclamation. Mechanical soil aeration is a simple, effective, and low-cost soil remediation technique that is particularly suitable for the remediation of large volatile organic compound-contaminated sites. Its effectiveness has been confirmed by conducting laboratory studies, pilot tests, and full-scale projects. This study reviews current engineering practice and developmental trends of mechanical soil aeration and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of this technology for application in China as an emerging soil remediation market. The findings of this study might aid technology development in China, as well as assist other developing countries in the assessment and implementation of cost-effective hazardous waste site soil remediation programs.

    Linxia Yan, Senlin Tian, Jian Zhou, Xin Yuan

    ? The Cu–Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared to study HCN hydrolysis

    ? On catalyst calcined at 400°C, the HCN removal efficiency reaches a maximum.

    ? HCN removal is the highest at 480 min at a H 2 O/HCN volume ratio of 150

    ? The presence of CO facilitates HCN hydrolysis and increases NH 3 production.

    ? O 2 increases the HCN removal and NOx production but decreases NH 3 production


    To decompose efficiently hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaust gas, g-Al2O3-supported bimetallic-based Cu–Ni catalyst was prepared by incipient-wetness impregnation method. The effects of the calcination temperature, H2O/HCN volume ratio, reaction temperature, and the presence of CO or O2 on the HCN removal efficiency on the Cu–Ni/g-Al2O3 catalyst were investigated. To examine further the efficiency of HCN hydrolysis, degradation products were analyzed. The results indicate that the HCN removal efficiency increases and then decreases with increasing calcination temperature and H2O/HCN volume ratio. On catalyst calcined at 400°C, the efficiency reaches a maximum close to 99% at 480 min at a H2O/HCN volume ratio of 150. The HCN removal efficiency increases with increasing reaction temperature within the range of 100°C–500°C and reaches a maximum at 500°C. This trend may be attributed to the endothermicity of HCN hydrolysis; increasing the temperature favors HCN hydrolysis. However, the removal efficiencies increases very few at 500°C compared with that at 400°C. To conserve energy in industrial operations, 400°C is deemed as the optimal reaction temperature. The presence of CO facilitates HCN hydrolysis andincreases NH3 production. O2 substantially increases the HCN removal efficiency and NOx production but decreases NH3 production.

    Mengchuan Shui, Feng Ji, Rui Tang, Shoujun Yuan, Xinmin Zhan, Wei Wang, Zhenhu Hu

    Impact of continuous ROX addition on performance of UASB reactor was investigated

    With continuous ROX addition, severe inhibition to methanogenic activity occurred

    ROX addition caused the changes in the morphology and bacterial diversity of AGS

    A possible biotransformation pathway of ROX in the UASB reactor was proposed

    60%–70% of the arsenic was discharged to the effluent, and 30%–40% was precipitated

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, ROX) has been widely used for decades as an organoarsenic feed additive to control intestinal parasites and improve feed efficiency in animal production. However, most of the ROX is excreted into the manure, causing arsenic contamination in wastewater. The arsenic compounds are toxic to microorganisms, but the influence of continuous ROX loading on upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is still unknown. In this study, the impact of ROX and its degradation products on the performance of the UASB reactor and the degradation and speciation of ROX in the reactor were investigated. The UASB reactor (hydraulic retention time: 1.75 d) was operated using synthetic wastewater supplemented with ROX for a period of 260 days. With continuous ROX addition at 25.0 mg?L–1, severe inhibition to methanogenic activity occurred after 87 days operation accompanied with an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and a decline in pH. The decrease of added ROX concentration to 13.2 mg?L–1 did not mediate the inhibition. As(III), As(V), MMA(V), DMA(V), HAPA and an unknown arsenic compound were detected in the reactor, and a possible biotransformation pathway of ROX was proposed. Mass balance analysis of arsenic indicated that 60%–70% of the arsenic was discharged into the effluent, and 30%–40% was precipitated in the reactor. The results from this study suggest that we need to pay attention to the stability in the UASB reactors treating organoarsenic-contaminated manure and wastewater, and the effluent and sludge from the reactor to avoid diffusion of arsenic contamination.

    Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari, Amir M. Samani Majd, Gerald L. Riskowski, Saqib Mukhtar, Lingying Zhao

    Slightly acidic solutions are a practical means of removing ammonia from air

    Scrubbed NH3 accumulates in solution as NH4+ and should be an excellent fertilizer

    Increased air velocity decreased NH3 removal and increased NH4+ collection

    Previous research on wet scrubbers has only studied highly acidic scrubbing solutions because of their high ammonia capture efficiencies; however, the high acidity created practical problems. Lower acidity solutions would reduce corrosion, maintenance, and cost; however, designers may need to use strategies for increasing scrubber effectiveness, such as using lower air velocities. The objective of this study was to determine if a spray scrubber with slightly acidic and higher pH scrubbing solution (pH from 2 to 8) could effectively remove NH3 from NH3 laden air (such as animal building exhaust air), and also collect this valuable resource for later use as a fertilizer. A bench-scale spray wet scrubber treated 20 ppmv NH3/air mixture in a countercurrent contact chamber. First, the solution pH was varied from 2 to 8 while maintaining constant air velocity at 1.3 m·s1. Next, air velocity was increased (2 and 3 m·s1) while solution pH remained constant at pH6. At 1.3 m·s−1, NH3 removal efficiencies ranged between 49.0% (pH8) and 84.3% (pH2). This study has shown that slightly acidic scrubbing solutions are a practical means of removing ammonia from air especially if the scrubber is designed to increase collisions between solution droplets and NH3 molecules. The NH3 removed from the air was held in solution as NH4+ and accumulates over time so the solution should be an excellent fertilizer.

    Wentao Zhao, Ying Guo, Shuguang Lu, Pingping Yan, Qian Sui

    Recent publications on PPCPs in surface water environment in China were reviewed.

    Antibiotics received more attention than other PPCPs in surface water environment.

    Uneven attention has been focused across different study areas in China.

    Sulfamethoxazole showed the most significant environmental risk in surface water.

    Higher risks were posed by PPCPs in sediments than in surface water.

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been regarded as an emerging problem in the surface water environment in the past few decades. In China, although related studies were initiated several years ago, an increasing number of studies on this topic have been conducted in recent years. These studies have expanded knowledge of their occurrence, behavior and associated risk in the surface water environment in China. This review compiles the most recent literature related to the studies of PPCPs in the surface water environment in China. It includes PPCP occurrence in surface water and sediments, their geographical distribution, and outcomes of the associated risk assessment. It shows that antibiotics have received much more attention in both surface water and sediments than other PPCPs. Compared to other countries; most antibiotics in the collected sediments in China showed higher contamination levels. Many more study areas have been covered in recent years; however, attention has been given to only specific areas. Environmental risk assessment based on risk quotients indicated that sulfamethoxazole presents the most significant environmental risk to relevant aquatic organisms; followed by ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, 17α-ethynylestradiol, ibuprofen and diclofenac. Despite limited research on the environmental risk assessment of PPCPs in sediments, higher risks posed by PPCPs in the sediments rather than surface water were identified highlighting the need for further risk assessment of PPCPs in sediment samples.

    Hyunju Jeong, Osvaldo A. Broesicke, Bob Drew, Duo Li, John C. Crittenden

    Hybrid system of LID technologies and conventional system was examined.

    Bioretention areas, rainwater harvesting, and xeriscaping were considered.

    Technology feasibility was simulated for land use and population density.

    Synergistic effects of technologies were quantified in defined zones.

    Uncertainty test was conducted with pedigree matrix and Monte Carlo analysis.

    Low-impact development (LID) technologies, such as bioretention areas, rooftop rainwater harvesting, and xeriscaping can control stormwater runoff, supply non-potable water, and landscape open space. This study examines a hybrid system (HS) that combines LID technologies with a centralized water system to lessen the burden on a conventional system (CS). CS is defined as the stormwater collection and water supply infrastructure, and the conventional landscaping choices in the City of Atlanta. The study scope is limited to five single-family residential zones (SFZs), classified R-1 through R-5, and four multi-family residential zones (MFZs), classified RG-2 through RG-5. Population density increases from 0.4 (R-1) to 62.2 (RG-5) persons per 1,000 m2. We performed a life cycle assessment (LCA) comparison of CS and HS using TRACI 2.1 to simulate impacts on the ecosystem, human health, and natural resources. We quantified the impact of freshwater consumption using the freshwater ecosystem impact (FEI) indicator. Test results indicate that HS has a higher LCA single score than CS in zones with a low population density; however, the difference becomes negligible as population density increases. Incorporating LID in SFZs and MFZs can reduce potable water use by an average of 50% and 25%, respectively; however, water savings are negligible in zones with high population density (i.e., RG-5) due to the diminished surface area per capita available for LID technologies. The results demonstrate that LID technologies effectively reduce outdoor water demand and therefore would be a good choice to decrease the water consumption impact in the City of Atlanta.