A La-doped Co-Cu-Fe catalyst was synthesized for the antipyrine (ANT) removal. The La-doped catalyst had higher ANT removal than the control (95% vs. 54%). La reduced the particle size and increased the specific surface area of catalyst.
A La-doped Co-Cu-Fe catalyst was synthesized for the antipyrine (ANT) removal.
The La-doped catalyst had higher ANT removal than the control (95% vs. 54%).
La reduced the particle size and increased the specific surface area of catalyst.
The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel lanthanum (La) doped catalyst and to investigate antipyrine removal in wastewater using the Fenton-like process with the catalyst. The La-doped Co-Cu-Fe catalyst was synthesized using the modified hydrothermal method. Results showed that the La-doped catalyst had higher specific surface area and lower particle size than the catalyst without La doping (i.e., the control) (267 vs. 163 m2/g and 14 vs. 32 nm, respectively). Under the conditions of catalyst dosage 0.5 g/L, H2O2 concentration 1.70 g/L, and NaHCO3 0.1 g/L, the antipyrine removal within 60 min using the Fenton-like process with the La-doped catalyst was much higher than that with the control (95% vs. 54%). The hydroxyl radical concentration with the La-doped catalyst within 60 min was two times higher than that with the control (49.2 vs. 22.1 mg/L). The high catalytic activity of La-doped catalyst was mainly attributed to its high specific surface area based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result. Our La-doped catalyst should have great potential to remove antipyrine in wastewater using the heterogeneous Fenton-like process.
Estimated anthropogenic Hg emission was 11.9 tons in Pearl River Delta for 2014. Quantifying contributions of emission sources helps to provide control strategies. More attentions should be paid to Hg deposition around the large point sources. Power plant, industrial source and waste incinerator were priorities for control. A coordinated regional Hg emission control was important for controlling pollution.
Estimated anthropogenic Hg emission was 11.9 tons in Pearl River Delta for 2014.
Quantifying contributions of emission sources helps to provide control strategies.
More attentions should be paid to Hg deposition around the large point sources.
Power plant, industrial source and waste incinerator were priorities for control.
A coordinated regional Hg emission control was important for controlling pollution.
We used CMAQ-Hg to simulate mercury pollution and identify main sources in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) with updated local emission inventory and latest regional and global emissions. The total anthropogenic mercury emissions in the PRD for 2014 were 11,939.6 kg. Power plants and industrial boilers were dominant sectors, responsible for 29.4 and 22.7%. We first compared model predictions and observations and the results showed a good performance. Then five scenarios with power plants (PP), municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), industrial point sources (IP), natural sources (NAT), and boundary conditions (BCs) zeroed out separately were simulated and compared with the base case. BCs was responsible for over 30% of annual average mercury concentration and total deposition while NAT contributed around 15%. Among the anthropogenic sources, IP (22.9%) was dominant with a contribution over 20.0% and PP (18.9%) and MSWI (11.2%) ranked second and third. Results also showed that power plants were the most important emission sources in the central PRD, where the ultra-low emission for thermal power units need to be strengthened. In the northern and western PRD, cement and metal productions were priorities for mercury control. The fast growth of municipal solid waste incineration were also a key factor in the core areas. In addition, a coordinated regional mercury emission control was important for effectively controlling pollution. In the future, mercury emissions will decrease as control measures are strengthened, more attention should be paid to mercury deposition around the large point sources as high levels of pollution are observed.
Cell membrane of indigenous Cd-tolerant EAB harbored more cadmium than chromium. Indigenous Cd-tolerant EAB cytoplasm located more chromium than cadmium. Simultaneously quantitatively imaging Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions in EAB was achieved. Current accelerated the harboring of cadmium in EAB at an initial 2 h. Current directed the accumulation of more chromium in EAB over time.
Cell membrane of indigenous Cd-tolerant EAB harbored more cadmium than chromium.
Indigenous Cd-tolerant EAB cytoplasm located more chromium than cadmium.
Simultaneously quantitatively imaging Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions in EAB was achieved.
Current accelerated the harboring of cadmium in EAB at an initial 2 h.
Current directed the accumulation of more chromium in EAB over time.
Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) on the cathodes of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can remove metals from the catholyte, but the response of these indigenous EAB toward exotic metals has not been examined, particularly from the perspective of the co-presence of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) in a wastewater. Four known indigenous Cd-tolerant EAB of Ochrobactrum sp X1, Pseudomonas sp X3, Pseudomonas delhiensis X5, and Ochrobactrum anthropi X7 removed more Cd(II) and less Cr(VI) in the simultaneous presence of Cd(II) and Cr(VI), compared to the controls with individual Cd(II) or single Cr(VI). Response of these EAB toward exotic Cr(VI) was related to the associated subcellular metal distribution based on the sensing of fluorescence probes. EAB cell membrane harbored more cadmium than chromium and cytoplasm located more chromium than cadmium, among which the imaging of intracelluler Cr(III) ions increased over time, contrary to the decreased trend for Cd(II) ions. Compared to the controls with single Cd(II), exotic Cr(VI) decreased the imaging of Cd(II) ions in the EAB at an initial 2 h and negligibly affected thereafter. However, Cd(II) diminished the imaging of Cr(III) ions in the EAB over time, compared to the controls with individual Cr(VI). Current accelerated the harboring of cadmium at an initial 2 h and directed the accumulation of chromium in EAB over time. This study provides a viable approach for simultaneously quantitatively imaging Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions in EAB and thus gives valuable insights into the response of indigenous Cd-tolerant EAB toward exotic Cr(VI) in MECs.
Incorporating the missing heterogeneous oxidation of S(IV) by NO2 into the WRF-Chem model.
Sulfate production is not sensitive to increase in SO2 emission.
The newly added reaction reproduces sulfate concentrations well during winter haze.
We implemented the online coupled WRF-Chem model to reproduce the 2013 January haze event in North China, and evaluated simulated meteorological and chemical fields using multiple observations. The comparisons suggest that temperature and relative humidity (RH) were simulated well (mean biases are -0.2K and 2.7%, respectively), but wind speeds were overestimated (mean bias is 0.5 m?s−1). At the Beijing station, sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were overpredicted and sulfate concentrations were largely underpredicted, which may result from uncertainties in SO2 emissions and missing heterogeneous oxidation in current model. We conducted three parallel experiments to examine the impacts of doubling SO2 emissions and incorporating heterogeneous oxidation of dissolved SO2 by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on sulfate formation during winter haze. The results suggest that doubling SO2 emissions do not significantly affect sulfate concentrations, but adding heterogeneous oxidation of dissolved SO2 by NO2 substantially improve simulations of sulfate and other inorganic aerosols. Although the enhanced SO2 to sulfate conversion in the HetS (heterogeneous oxidation by NO2) case reduces SO2 concentrations, it is still largely overestimated by the model, indicating the overestimations of SO2 concentrations in the North China Plain (NCP) are mostly due to errors in SO2 emission inventory.
Continuous pulsed plate bioreactor (PPBR) was used for phenol biodegradation.
Pseudomonas desmolyticum cells immobilized on granular activated carbon was used.
Dynamic and steady state biofilm characteristics depend on dilution rate (DR).
Lower DR favour phenol degradation and uniform, thick biofilm formation.
Exo polymeric substance production in biofilm are favoured at lower dilution rates.
Pulsed plate bioreactor (PPBR) is a biofilm reactor which has been proven to be very efficient in phenol biodegradation. The present paper reports the studies on the effect of dilution rate on the physical, chemical and morphological characteristics of biofilms formed by the cells of Pseudomonas desmolyticum on granular activated carbon (GAC) in PPBR during biodegradation of phenol. The percentage degradation of phenol decreased from 99% to 73% with an increase in dilution rate from 0.33 h?1 to 0.99 h?1 showing that residence time in the reactor governs the phenol removal efficiency rather than the external mass transfer limitations. Lower dilution rates favor higher production of biomass, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as well as the protein, carbohydrate and humic substances content of EPS. Increase in dilution rate leads to decrease in biofilm thickness, biofilm dry density, and attached dry biomass, transforming the biofilm from dense, smooth compact structure to a rough and patchy structure. Thus, the performance of PPBR in terms of dynamic and steady-state biofilm characteristics associated with phenol biodegradation is a strong function of dilution rate. Operation of PPBR at lower dilution rates is recommended for continuous biologic treatment of wastewaters for phenol removal.
A bio-electrochemical fuel cell reactor with cathodic Fe0/TiO2 generates electricity.
It destroys recalcitrant pollutants in cathode chamber without photocatalysis.
Fe0/TiO2 generates reactive oxygenated species in the dark or under photocatalysis.
Cathodic produced ROS (hydroxy radical/superoxide radical) can degrade tetracycline or dyes.
Electricity generation is enhanced by semiconductor catalyzed cathodic degradation of pollutants.
In this study, a new water treatment system that couples (photo-) electrochemical catalysis (PEC or EC) in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was configured using a stainless-steel (SS) cathode coated with Fe0/TiO2. We examined the destruction of methylene blue (MB) and tetracycline. Fe0/TiO2 was prepared using a chemical reduction-deposition method and coated onto an SS wire mesh (500 mesh) using a sol technique. The anode generates electricity using microbes (bio-anode). Connected via wire and ohmic resistance, the system requires a short reaction time and operates at a low cost by effectively removing 94% MB (initial concentration 20 mg·L−1) and 83% TOC/TOC0 under visible light illumination (50 W; 1.99 mW·cm−2 for 120 min, MFC-PEC). The removal was similar even without light irradiation (MFC-EC). The EEo of the MFC-PEC system was approximately 0.675 kWh·m−3·order−1, whereas that of the MFC-EC system was zero. The system was able to remove 70% COD in tetracycline solution (initial tetracycline concentration 100 mg·L−1) after 120 min of visible light illumination; without light, the removal was 15% lower. The destruction of MB and tetracycline in both traditional photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis systems was notably low. The electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (ESR) study demonstrated that ·OH was formed under visible light, and ·O2− was formed without light. The bio-electricity-activated O2 and ROS (reactive oxidizing species) generation by Fe0/TiO2 effectively degraded the pollutants. This cathodic degradation improved the electricity generation by accepting and consuming more electrons from the bio-anode.
pH values of the BSA solution significantly impact the process of membrane fouling.
Dramatic flux decline is caused by membrane–BSA adhesion force at start of filtration.
XDLVO theory shows the polar or Lewis acid–base interaction plays a major role in membrane fouling.
To further determine the fouling behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on different hydrophilic PVDF ultrafiltration (UF) membranes over a range of pH values, self-made atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probes were used to detect the adhesion forces of membrane–BSA and BSA–BSA, respectively. Results showed that the membrane–BSA adhesion interaction was stronger than the BSA–BSA adhesion interaction, and the adhesion force between BSA–BSA-fouled PVDF/PVA membranes was similar to that between BSA–BSA-fouled PVDF/PVP membranes, which indicated that the fouling was mainly caused by the adhesion interaction between membrane and BSA. At the same pH condition, the PVDF/PVA membrane–BSA adhesion force was smaller than that of PVDF/PVP membrane–BSA, which illustrated that the more hydrophilic the membrane was, the better antifouling ability it had. The extended Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (XDLVO) theory predicts that the polar or Lewis acid–base (AB) interaction played a dominant role in the interfacial free energy of membrane–BSA and BSA–BSA that can be affected by pH. For the same membrane, the pH values of a BSA solution can have a significant impact on the process of membrane fouling by changing the AB component of free energy.
Nitrogen-cycling microbial communities in municipal WWTPs were characterized.
Numbers of amoA, nirK and nirS genes were quantified by MPN-PCR.
Diversity of whole nitrogen-cycling communities was analyzed with DNA microarray.
CAS process retained diverse nitrogen cycling populations.
Specific, limited populations may be dominated in nitrogen removal processes.
To improve nitrogen removal performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), it is essential to understand the behavior of nitrogen cycling communities, which comprise various microorganisms. This study characterized the quantity and diversity of nitrogen cycling genes in various processes of municipal WWTPs by employing two molecular-based methods:most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) and DNA microarray. MPN-PCR analysis revealed that gene quantities were not statistically different among processes, suggesting that conventional activated sludge processes (CAS) are similar to nitrogen removal processes in their ability to retain an adequate population of nitrogen cycling microorganisms. Furthermore, most processes in the WWTPs that were researched shared a pattern:the nirS and the bacterial amoA genes were more abundant than the nirK and archaeal amoA genes, respectively. DNA microarray analysis revealed that several kinds of nitrification and denitrification genes were detected in both CAS and anaerobic-oxic processes (AO), whereas limited genes were detected in nitrogen removal processes. Results of this study suggest that CAS maintains a diverse community of nitrogen cycling microorganisms; moreover, the microbial communities in nitrogen removal processes may be specific.
Trichloroethene (TCE) degradation by Fe(III)-activated calcium peroxide (CP) in the presence of citric acid (CA) in aqueous solution was investigated. The results demonstrated that the presence of CA enhanced TCE degradation significantly by increasing the concentration of soluble Fe(III) and promoting H2O2 generation. The generation of HO? and O2-? in both the CP/Fe(III) and CP/Fe(III)/CA systems was confirmed with chemical probes. The results of radical scavenging tests showed that TCE degradation was due predominantly to direct oxidation by HO?, while O2-? strengthened the generation of HO? by promoting Fe(III) transformation in the CP/Fe(III)/CA system. Acidic pH conditions were favorable for TCE degradation, and the TCE degradation rate decreased with increasing pH. The presence of Cl-, HCO3-, and humic acid (HA) inhibited TCE degradation to different extents for the CP/Fe(III)/CA system. Analysis of Cl- production suggested that TCE degradation in the CP/Fe(III)/CA system occurred through a dechlorination process. In summary, this study provided detailed information for the application of CA-enhanced Fe(III)-activated calcium peroxide for treating TCE contaminated groundwater.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3 is an effective technique to remove NOx from stationary sources, such as coal-fired power plant and industrial boilers. Some of elements in the fly ash deactivate the catalyst due to strong chemisorptions on the active sites. The poisons may act by simply blocking active sites or alter the adsorption behaviors of reactants and products by an electronic interaction. This review is mainly focused on the chemical poisoning on V2O5-based catalysts, environmental-benign catalysts and low temperature catalysts. Several common poisons including alkali/alkaline earth metals, SO2 and heavy metals etc. are referred and their poisoning mechanisms on catalysts are discussed. The regeneration methods of poisoned catalysts and the development of poison-resistance catalysts are also compared and analyzed. Finally, future research directions in developing poisoning resistance catalysts and facile efficient regeneration methods for SCR catalysts are proposed.
The fate and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has received great attention during the last decade. Numerous data concerning concentrations in the water phase can be found in the literature, however corresponding data from sludge as well as associated mass balance calculations are very limited. In the present study, the adsorbed and dissolved concentrations of 9 PPCPs were investigated in each unit of a WWTP in Beijing, China. Based on the calculation of mass balance, the relative mass distribution and removal efficiency of each target compound was obtained at each process. The amount of PPCPs entering into the WWTP ranged from 12 g·d-1 to 3848 g·d-1. Five target compounds (caffeine, chloramphenicol, bezafibrate, clofibric acid, and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) were effectively removed, with rates of 57%–100%. Negative removal efficiencies were obtained for sulpiride, metoprolol, nalidixic acid, and carbamazepine, ranging from -19% to -79%. PPCPs mainly existed in dissolved form (≥92%) in both the raw influent and the final effluent. The sludge cake carried a much lower amount of PPCPs (17 g·d-1) compared with the discharged effluent (402 g·d-1). In A2/O treatment tanks, the anaerobic and anoxic tanks showed good performance for PPCPs removal, and the amount of adsorbed PPCPs was increased. The results reveal that both the dissolved and the adsorbed phases should be considered when assessing the removal capacity of each A2/O tank.
This study employed 454-pyrosequencing to investigate microbial and pathogenic communities in two wastewater reclamation and distribution systems. A total of 11972 effective 16S rRNA sequences were acquired from these two reclamation systems, and then designated to relevant taxonomic ranks by using RDP classifier. The Chao index and Shannon diversity index showed that the diversities of microbial communities decreased along wastewater reclamation processes. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in reclaimed water after disinfection, which accounted for 83% and 88% in two systems, respectively. Human opportunistic pathogens, including Clostridium, Escherichia, Shigella, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium, were selected and enriched by disinfection processes. The total chlorine and nutrients (TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N) significantly affected the microbial and pathogenic communities during reclaimed water storage and distribution processes. Our results indicated that the disinfectant-resistant pathogens should be controlled in reclaimed water, since the increases in relative abundances of pathogenic bacteria after disinfection implicate the potential public health associated with reclaimed water.
The objective of this study is to select and characterize the candidate for synchronous water purification and lipid production from eight freshwater microalgae strains (Chlorella sp. HQ, C. emersonii, C. pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris, Scenedesmus dimorphus, S. quadricauda, S. obiquus, Scenedesmus sp. LX1). The strains Chlorella sp. HQ, C. pyrenoidesa, and S. obliquus showed superiority in biomass accumulation, while the top biomass producers did not correspond to the top lipid producers. S. quadricauda achieved higher lipid content (66.1%), and Chlorella sp. HQ and S. dimorphus ranked down in sequence, with lipid content above 30%. Considering nutrient removal ability (total nitrogen (TN): 52.97%; total phosphorus (TP): 84.81%), the newly isolated microalga Chlorella sp. HQ was the possible candidate for water purification coupled with lipid production. To further investigate the lipid producing and nutrient removal mechanism of candidate microalga, the ultra structural changes especially the lipid droplets under different water qualities (different TN and TP concentrations) were characterized. The results elucidate the nutrient-deficiency (TN: 3.0 mg·L-1; TP: 0.3 mg·L-1) condition was in favor of forming lipid bodies in Chlorella sp. HQ at the sub-cellular level, while the biomass production was inhibited due to the decrease in chloroplast number which could further suppress the nutrient removal effect. Finally, a two-phase cultivation process (a nutrient replete phase to produce biomass followed by a nutrient deplete phase to enhance lipid content) was conducted in a photo-bioreactor for Chlorella sp. HQ to serve for algae-based synchronous biodiesel production and wastewater purification.
The chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted from commercial cooking were explored in this study. Three typical commercial restaurants in Shanghai, i.e., a Shanghai-style one (SHS), a Sichuan-style one (SCS) and an Italian-style one (ITS), were selected to conduct PM2.5 sampling. Particulate organic matter (POM) was found to be the predominant contributor to cooking-related PM2.5 mass in all the tested restaurants, with a proportion of 69.1% to 77.1%. Specifically, 80 trace organic compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which accounted for 3.8%–6.5% of the total PM2.5 mass. Among the quantified organic compounds, unsaturated fatty acids had the highest concentration, followed by saturated fatty acids. Comparatively, the impacts of other kinds of organic compounds were much smaller. Oleic acid was the most abundant single species in both SCS and ITS. However, in the case of SHS, linoleic acid was the richest one. ITS produced a much larger mass fraction of most organic species in POM than the two Chinese cooking styles except for monosaccharide anhydrides and sterols. The results of this study could be utilized to explore the contribution of cooking emissions to PM2.5 pollution and to develop the emission inventory of PM2.5 from cooking, which could then help the policy-makers design efficient treatment measures and control strategies on cooking emissions in the future.