Ethanol production from lignocellulosic waste has attracted considerable attention because of its feasibility and the generation of valuable products. Previous studies have shown that pretreatment and hydrolysis are key processes for lignocellulose conversion. Hydrothermal process is a promising technique because of its efficiency to break down the lignocellulosic structures and produce fermentable hexoses. Most studies in this field have therefore focused on understanding these processes or optimizing the parameters, but commonly reported low yields of fermentable hexoses. The inability to produce high yields of fermentable hexoses is mainly attributed to inadequate information on the conversion mechanisms of lignocellulose, particularly the reaction rules of dissolution, which is a limiting step in the entire conversion process. This paper critically reviewed the progress done in the research and development of the hydrothermal dissolution and hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Principles, processes, and related studies on separate dissolution and asynchronous hydrolysis of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose are presented. Potential research prospects are also suggested.
Porous ZIF-7 with the sodalite (SOD) cage structure (ZIF, Zeolitic imidazolate framework) were synthesized by the solvothermal method. Synthesized material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal gravity (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N2 adsorption analysis. ZIF-8 with the SOD structure and a little larger pore window was synthesized in a similar way and was characterized for comparisons. Thermal stability and structural stability of ZIF-7 were tested through PXRD analysis, and the capability of the material for CO2 capture from simulated flue gas was investigated through physical adsorption method. The results showed that CO2 adsorption capacity on ZIF-7 was about 48 mL·g-1 while the capacity on ZIF-8 was about 18 mg·g-1 (at 12°C and 0.98
Al-Fe (hydr)oxides with different Al/Fe molar ratios (4∶1, 1∶1, 1∶4, 0∶1) were prepared using a co-precipitation method and were then employed for simultaneous removal of arsenate and fluoride. The 4Al:Fe was superior to other adsorbents for removal of arsenate and fluoride in the pH range of 5.0–9.0. The adsorption capacity of the Al-Fe (hydr)oxides for arsenate and fluoride at pH 6.5±0.3 increased with increasing Al content in the adsorbents. The linear relationship between the amount of OH- released from the adsorbent and the amount of arsenate or fluoride adsorbent by 4Al:Fe indicated that the adsorption of arsenate and fluoride by Al-Fe (hydr)oxides was realized primarily through quantitative ligand exchange. Moreover, there was a very good correlation between the surface hydroxyl group densities of Al-Fe (hydr)oxides and their adsorption capacities for arsenate or fluoride. The highest adsorption capacity for arsenate and fluoride by 4Al:Fe is mainly ascribed to its highest surface hydroxyl group density besides its largest pHpzc. The dosage of adsorbent necessary to remove arsenate and fluoride to meet the drinking water standard was mainly determined by the presence of fluoride since fluoride was generally present in groundwater at much higher concentration than arsenate.
Graphene electrodes (Ti/Gr) were prepared by depositing Gr sheets on Ti substrate, followed by an annealing process for enhancing the adhesion strength. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction patterns displayed that the electrochemical behavior of Ti/Gr electrodes can be improved due to the generation of TiO2 layer at Ti-Gr interface during the annealing process. The palladized Gr electrodes (Ti/Gr/Pd) were prepared by electrochemical depositing Pd nanoparticles on Gr sheets. The debromination ability of Ti/Gr/Pd electrodes was investigated using BDE-47 as a target pollutant with various bias potentials. The results indicated that the BDE-47 degradation rates on Ti/Gr/Pd electrodes increased with the negative bias potentials from 0 V to -0.5 V (vs. SCE). Almost all of the BDE-47 was removed in the debromination reaction on the Ti/Gr/Pd electrode at -0.5 V for 3 h, and the main product was diphenyl ethers, meaning it is promising to debrominate completely using the Ti/Gr/Pd electrode. Although the debromination rate was slightly slower at -0.3 V than that under -0.5 V, the current efficiency at -0.3 V was higher, because the electrical current acted mostly on BDE-47 rather than on water.
The oxidation of aqueous monochlorobenzene (MCB) solutions using thermally- activated persulfate has been investigated. The influence of reaction temperature on the kinetics of MCB oxidation was examined, and the Arrenhius Equation rate constants at 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C for MCB oxidation performance were calculated as 0, 0.001, 0.002, 0.015, 0.057 min-1, which indicates that elevated temperature accelerated the rate. The most efficient molar ratio of persulfate/MCB for MCB oxidation was determined to be 200 to 1 and an increase in the rate constants suggests that the oxidation process proceeded more rapidly with increasing persulfate/MCB molar ratios. In addition, the reactivity of persulfate in contaminated water is partly influenced by the presence of background ions such as Cl-,
Homolog and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-
Often as a result of biofilm formation, drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are regularly faced with the problem of microbial contamination. Quorum sensing (QS) systems play a marked role in the regulation of microbial biofilm formation; thus, inhibition of QS systems may provide a promising approach to biofilm formation control in DWDS. In the present study, 22 bacterial strains were isolated from drinking water-related environments. The following properties of the strains were investigated: bacterial biofilm formation capacity, QS signal molecule N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) production ability, and responses to AHLs and AHL analogs, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and 2(5H)-furanone. Four AHLs were added to developed biofilms at dosages ranging from 0.1?nmol·L-1 to 100 nmol·L-1. As a result, the biofilm growth of more than 1/4 of the isolates, which included AHL producers and non-producers, were significantly promoted. Further, the biofilm biomasses were closely associated with respective AHLs concentrations. These results provided evidence to support the idea that AHLs play a definitive role in biofilm formation in many of the studied bacteria. Meanwhile, two AHLs analogs demonstrated unexpectedly minimal negative effects on biofilm formation. This suggested that, in order to find an applicable QS inhibition approach for biofilm control in DWDS, the testing and analysis of more analogs is needed.
A novel floating-bed incorporated with water spinach (
Subcellular distributions and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in the leaves, stems and roots were investigated in low-Cd accumulation cultivars and high-Cd accumulation cultivars of pakchoi (
Currently, environmental protection and resources conservation continue to be challenges faced by solid-waste managers in China. These challenges are being further compounded by rapid socioeconomic development and population growth associated with increased waste generation rates and decreased waste disposal capacities. In response to these challenges, an interval joint-probabilistic mixed-integer programming (IJMP) method is developed for supporting long-term planning of waste management activities in the city of Tianjin, which is one of the largest municipalities in the northern part of China. In the IJMP, joint probabilistic constraints are introduced into an interval-parameter mixed-integer programming framework, such that uncertainties presented in terms of interval values and random variables can be reflected. Moreover, a number of violation levels for the waste-management-capacity constraints are examined, which can facilitate in-depth analyses of tradeoffs among economic objective and system-failure risk. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated. They are valuable for supporting the adjustment of the city’s existing waste-management practices and the long-term planning of the city’s waste-management facilities.
Vanadium is a vital strategic resource, and vanadium metabolism is an important part of the national socio-economic system of China. This study conducts accounting and scenario analysis on the life cycle of vanadium metabolism in China. Based on the characteristics of vanadium life cycle and substance flow analysis (SFA) framework, we present a quantitative evaluation of a static anthropogenic vanadium life cycle for the year 2010. Results show that anthropogenic vanadium consumption, stocks, and new domestic scrap are at 98.2, 21.2, and 4.1 kt, respectively; new scrap is usually discarded. The overall utilization ratio of vanadium is 32.2%. A large amount of vanadium is stockpiled into tailings, debris, slags, and other spent solids. A scenario analysis was conducted to analyze the future developmental trend of vanadium metabolism in China based on the SFA framework and the qualitative analysis of technology advancement and socio-economic development. The baseline year was set as 2010. Several indicators were proposed to simulate different scenarios from 2010 to 2030. The scenario analysis indicates that the next 20 years is a critical period for the vanadium industry in China. This paper discusses relevant policies that contribute to the improvement of sustainable vanadium utilization in China.
In this work, the enhanced dewaterabing characteristics of waste activated sludge using Fenton pretreatment was investigated in terms of effectiveness and statistical optimization. Response surface method (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) were applied to evaluate and optimize the effectiveness of important operational parameters, i.e., H2O2 concentrations, Fe2+ concentrations and initial pH values. A significant quadratic polynomial model was obtained (
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex organic compounds which are identified as significant carcinogenic to human health. PAHs (mainly in particle phase) are susceptible to atmospheric oxidant gases, especially ozone, nitrogen oxides (NO
This study evaluated the effectiveness of different amendments—including a commercial NPK fertilizer, a humic substance (HS), an organic industrial waste (NovoGro), and a yeast-bacteria consortium—in the remediation of highly contaminated (up to 6% of total petroleum hydrocarbons) oilfield soils. The concentrations of hydrocarbon, soil toxicity, physicochemical properties of the soil, microbial population numbers, enzyme activities and microbial community structures were examined during the 90-d incubation. The results showed that the greatest degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was observed with the biostimulation using mixture of NPK, HS and NovoGro, a treatment scheme that enhanced both dehydrogenase and lipase activities in soil. Introduction of exogenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (in addition to biostimulation with NPK, HS and NovoGro) had negligible effect on the removal of TPH, which was likely due to the competition between exogenous and autochthonous microorganisms. Nonetheless, the addition of exogenous yeast-bacteria consortium significantly enhanced the removal of the aromatic fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons, thus detoxifying the soil. The effect of bioaugmentation on the removal of more recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbon fraction was likely due to the synergistic effect of bacteria and fungi.