Apr 2017, Volume 11 Issue 2

Cover illustration

  • Aromatics-contaminated soil is of particular environmental concern as it exhibits carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Bioremediation, a biological approach for the removal of soil contaminants, has several advantages over traditional soil remediation methodologies. Bioaugmentation is a widely applied bioremediation technology for soil remediation, defined as the introduction of specific competent strains or consortia of microorganisms. A number of reports have been publish [Detail] ...

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    Qingbin Guo, Sheng Chang

    Tetra-detector HPSEC was evaluated for the SMP characterization

    Molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity of the SMP were characterized

    Specific viscosity and osmotic pressure of the SMP solution were studied

    Approach to analyze the concentration polarization of the SMP was discussed

    Characterization of the molecular properties of soluble microbial products (SMP) is critical for understanding the membrane filtration and fouling mechanisms in anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR & MBR). In this study, the distributions of the absolute molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity of SMP polysaccharides from an AnMBR were effectively determined by a high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) that was coupled with the refractive index (RI), diode array UV (DAUV), right and low angle light scattering (LS), and viscometer (Vis) detectors. Based on the tetra-detector HPSEC determined absolute molecular weights and intrinsic viscosity, a universal calibration relationship for the SMP polysaccharides was developed and the molecular conformations, average molecular weights, and hydrodynamic sizes of the SMP polysaccharides were also explored. Two factors which can be derived from the tetra-detector HPSEC analysis were proposed for the characterization of the viscous and osmotic pressure properties of the SMP polysaccharides. In addition, it was also extrapolated how to analyze the resistance characteristics of the concentration polarization layers formed in membrane filtration based on the molecular properties determined by the tetra-detector HPSEC analysis.

    Tong Chi, Jiane Zuo, Fenglin Liu

    Corn straw biochar prepared under 400 °C was the best Cd and Pb adsorption capacity

    Maximum adsorption capacity of Cd and Pb were 43.48 and 22.73 mg·g1, respectively

    The dominant mechanism of Cd and Pb adsorption was precipitation

    Biochar could reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals when mixed with soil

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water and soil could be adsorbed by biochar produced from corn straw. Biochar pyrolyzed under 400°C for 2 h could reach the ideal removal efficiencies (99.24% and 98.62% for Cd and Pb, respectively) from water with the biochar dosage of 20 g·L1 and initial concentration of 20 mg·L1. The pH value of 4–7 was the optimal range for adsorption reaction. The adsorption mechanism was discussed on the basis of a range of characterizations, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman analysis; it was concluded as surface complexation with active sorption sites (-OH, -COO-), coordination with π electrons (C= C, C= O) and precipitation with inorganic anions (OH, CO32, SO42) for both Cd and Pb. The sorption isotherms fit Langmuir model rather than Freundlich model, and the saturated sorption capacities for Cd and Pb were 38.91 mg·g1 and 28.99 mg·g1, respectively. When mixed with soil, biochar could effectively increase alkalinity and reduce bioavailability of heavy metals. Thus, biochar derived from corn straw would be a green material for both removal of heavy metals and amelioration of soil.

    Yu Qi, Jin Li, Rui Liang, Sitong Ji, Jianxiang Li, Meng Liu

    There are more polysaccharides than proteins in EPS on SS316L surface.

    NaClO cuts down more protein, while 1227 reduced more polysaccharides in EPS.

    HEDP slightly eased the corrosion, NaClO and 1227 inhibited the microbial corrosion.

    NaClO still performed pitting corrosion properties to some extent.

    1227 changed the C:O and NaClO decreased the amidogen in SS316L surface film.

    This paper studied the biofilm properties and corrosion behavior of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) on stainless steel 316L (SS316L) surface in circulating cooling water system with and without additives including hydroxy ethyl fork phosphonic acid (HEDP), dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlotide (1227) and NaClO. Biochemical technique, electrochemical technology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. The results show that the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in biofilm attached on the SS316L surface mainly contain proteins and polysaccharides, the contents are 98 ug·cm2 and 635ug·cm2, respectively. The polysaccharides were cut by 1227 about 80%, while 55% by NaClO. The proteins were reduced by NaClO about 53%, while only 30% by 1227. The potentiodynamic polarization shows that the corrosion potential of SS316L was enhanced from −0.495 V to −0.390 V by the chemical additives, delaying the occurrence of the corrosion. And the corrosion rate was also reduced from 5.19 × 103 mm·a1 to 2.42 × 103 mm·a1. But NaClO still caused pitting corrosion after sterilizing the bacteria, while 1227 can form a protective film on the surface of SS316L. Though HEDP contribute to the bacteria activity, it can enhance the breakdown potential. XPS results confirmed that 1227 can change the value of C:O in the biofilm attached on metal surface, and NaClO can eliminate the existence of amidogen. This study would provide some recommendations for the selection of chemical additives in the thermal power plant.

    Qingliang Zhao, Hang Yu, Weixian Zhang, Felix Tetteh Kabutey, Junqiu Jiang, Yunshu Zhang, Kun Wang, Jing Ding

    Fundamentals and configuration design of MFCs fueled by HCSW were reviewed.

    HCSWs including sewage sludge, biomass and biowaste treated in MFCs were summarized.

    HCSW based MFCs technologies covered the types of sediment, soil, wetland and plant.

    Activated sludge process and composting could be coupled with HCSW-MFCs.

    HCSW-MFCs could be applied in bioremediation and biosensing.

    With the increasing concern about the serious global energy crisis and high energy consumption during high content solid wastes (HCSWs) treatment, microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been recognized as a promising resource utilization approach for HCSW stabilization with simultaneous electrical energy recovery. In contrast to the conventional HCSW stabilization processes, MFC has its unique advantages such as direct bio-energy conversion in a single step and mild reaction conditions (viz., ambient temperature, normal pressure, and neutral pH). This review mainly introduces some important aspects of electricity generation from HCSW and its stabilization in MFC, focusing on: (1) MFCs with different fundamentals and configurations designed and constructed to produce electricity from HCSW; (2) performance of wastes degradation and electricity generation; (3) prospect and deficiency posed by MFCs with HCSW as substrates. To date, the major drawback of MFCs fueled by HCSW is the lower power output than those using simple substrates. HCSW hydrolysis and decomposition would be a major tool to improve the performance of MFCs. The optimization of parameters is needed to push the progress of MFCs with HCSW as fuel.

    Qinqin Liu, Miao Li, Fawang Zhang, Hechun Yu, Quan Zhang, Xiang Liu

    Artificial composite soil treatment system with the high infiltration rate (1.394 m·d-1) had a good removal efficiency of TMP (80%–90%) and SMX (60%–70%).

    The removal mechanism of TMP and SMX was mainly sorption and was related with hydrogeochemical process.

    Sulfamethoxzole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP), two combined-using sulfonamide antibiotics, have gained increasing attention in the surface water, groundwater and the drinking water because of the ecological risk. The removal of TMP and SMX by artificial composite soil treatment system (ACST) with different infiltration rates was systematically investigated using K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ hydrogeochemical indexes. Batch experiments showed that the sorption onto the low-cost and commercially available clay ceramsites was effective for the removal of SMX and TMP from water. The column with more silty clay at high infiltration rate (1.394 m·d1) had removal rates of 80% to 90% for TMP and 60% to 70% for SMX. High SMX and TMP removal rates had a higher effluent concentration of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ and had a lower effluent Na+ concentration. Removal was strongly related to sorption. The results showed that the removal of SMX and TMP was related to hydrogeochemical processes. In this study, ACST is determined to be applicable to the drinking water plants.

    Xiaoyan Song, Rui Liu, Lujun Chen, Tomoki Kawagishi

    The BF-MBR displayed higher removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorous and antibiotics.

    The BF-MBR saved alkali consumption.

    The removal of antibiotics was influenced significantly by HRT.

    Membrane filtration greatly contributed to antibiotics removal.

    A biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) and a conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) were parallelly operated for treating digested piggery wastewater. The removal performance of COD, TN, NH4+-N, TP as well as antibiotics were simultaneously studied when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was gradually shortened from 9 d to 1 d and when the ratio of influent COD to TN was changed. The results showed that the effluent quality in both reactors was poor and unstable at an influent COD/TN ratio of 1.0±0.2. The effluent quality was significantly improved as the influent COD/TN ratio was increased to 2.3±0.5. The averaged removal rates of COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP were 92.1%, 97.1%, 35.6% and 54.2%, respectively, in the BF-MBR, significantly higher than the corresponding values of 91.7%, 90.9%, 17.4% and 31.9% in the MBR. Analysis of 11 typical veterinary antibiotics (from the tetracycline, sulfonamide, quinolone, and macrolide families) revealed that the BF-MBR removed more antibiotics than the MBR. Although the antibiotics removal decreased with a shortened HRT, high antibiotics removals of 86.8%, 80.2% and 45.3% were observed in the BF-MBR at HRT of 5–4 d, 3–2 d and 1 d, respectively, while the corresponding values were only 83.8%, 57.0% and 25.5% in the MBR. Moreover, the BF-MBR showed a 15% higher retention rate of antibiotics and consumed 40% less alkalinity than the MBR. Results above suggest that the BF-MBR was more suitable for digested piggery wastewater treatment.

    Yang Liu, Martina G. Vijver, Bo Pan, Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg

    · No preference is set between CA and IA models to assess toxicity of metal mixtures.

    · Increased model complexity does not, by itself, lead to improved performance.

    · Not all significant deviations have biological meaning due to poor reproducibility.

    · Interactions are suggested to incorporate when they are significant and repeated.

    Observed effects of metal mixtures on animals and plants often differ from the estimates, which are commonly calculated by adding up the biological responses of individual metals. This difference from additivity is commonly referred to as being a consequence of specific interactions between metals. The science of how to quantify metal interactions and whether to include them in risk assessment models is in its infancy. This review summarizes the existing predictive tools for evaluating the combined toxicity of metals present in mixtures and indicates the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We intend to provide eco-toxicologists with background information on how to make good use of the tools and how to advance the methods for assessing toxicity of metal mixtures. It is concluded that statistically significant deviations from additivity are not necessarily biologically relevant. Incorporation of interactions between metals in a model does not on forehand mean that the model is more accurate than a model developed based on additivity only. It is recommended to first use a relatively simple method for effect prediction of uninvestigated metal mixtures. To improve the reliability of toxicity modeling for metal mixtures, further efforts should focus on balancing the relationship between the significance of statistics and the biological meaning, and unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of metals and their mixtures.

    Di Li,Swati Yewalkar,Xiaotao Bi,Sheldon Duff,Dusko Posarac,Heli Wang,Layne A. Woodfin,Jan-Hendrik Hehemann,Sheila C. Potter,Francis E. Nano

    Maximum growth rate of Synechococcus mutant was 0.083 h1 with 5% CO2.

    Maximum biomass concentration of Synechococcus mutant was 3.697 g·L1.

    Synechococcus mutant can tolerate gas aeration with 15% CO2.

    Maximum specific activity of laminarinase was 4.325 U·mg1 dry mass.

    Optimal pH and temperature of laminarinase activity were 8.0 and 70°C.

    The gene for the catalytic domain of thermostable endo-β-1,3-glucanase (laminarinase) LamA was cloned from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 and heterologously expressed in a bioengineered Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. The mutant strain was cultured in a photobioreactor to assess biomass yield, recombinant laminarinase activity, and CO2 uptake. The maximum enzyme activity was observed at a pH of 8.0 and a temperature of 70°C. At a CO2 concentration of 5%, we obtained a maximum specific growth rate of 0.083 h1, a biomass productivity of 0.42 g·L1·d1, a biomass concentration of 3.697 g·L1, and a specific enzyme activity of the mutant strain of 4.325 U·mg1 dry mass. All parameters decreased as CO2 concentration increased from 5% to 10% and further to 15% CO2, except enzyme activity, which increased from 5% to 10% CO2. However, the mutant culture still grew at 15% CO2 concentration, as reflected by the biomass productivity (0.26 g·L1·d1), biomass concentration (2.416 g·L1), and specific enzyme activity (3.247 U·mg1 dry mass).

    Yandong Yang,Liang Zhang,Hedong Shao,Shujun Zhang,Pengchao Gu,Yongzhen Peng

    EBPR and PN/A were combined to enhance nutrients removal from municipal wastewater.

    High effluent quality of 0.25 mg TP?L1 and 10.8 mg TN?L1 was obtained.

    Phosphorus and nitrogen removal was achieved in two separated units.

    A proper post-anoxic phase improved the nitrogen removal performance of PN/A unit.

    Conventional biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus is usually limited due to the lack of biodegradable carbon source, therefore, new methods are needed. In this study, a new alternative consisting of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) followed by partial nitritation-anammox (PN/A), is proposed to enhance nutrients removal from municipal wastewater. Research was carried out in a laboratory-scale system of combined two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). In SBR1, phosphorus removal was achieved under an alternating anaerobic-aerobic condition and ammonium concentration stayed the same since nitrifiers were washed out from the reactor under short sludge retention time of 2–3 d. The remaining ammonium was further treated in SBR2 where PN/A was established by inoculation. A maximum of nitrogen removal rate of 0.12 kg N?m3?d1 was finally achieved. During the stable period, effluent concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were 0.25 and 10.8 mg?L1, respectively. This study suggests EBPR-PN/A process is feasible to enhance nutrients removal from municipal wastewater of low influent carbon source.

    Mingkai Zhang, He Jing, Yanchen Liu, Hanchang Shi

    Inflow and infiltration of a sewage system was estimated by synthetic model.

    Homological feature of catchments was recognized by self-organizing map.

    Occurrence risk index was proposed to assess catchment operation problem.

    Optimal strategy was used to reduce surcharge events and improve effluent quality.

    Inflow and infiltration (I/I) are serious problems in hybrid sewerage systems. Limited sewerage information impedes the estimation accuracy of I/I for each system catchment because of its unknown distribution. A new method proposed to deal with I/I of a large-scale hybrid sewerage system with limited infrastructure facility data is presented in this study. The catchment of representative pump stations was adopted to demonstrate the homological catchments that have similar wastewater fluctuation characteristics. Homological catchments were clustered using the self-organizing map (SOM) analysis based on long-term daily flow records of 50 pumping stations. An assessment index was applied to describe the I/I and overflow risk of representative pump stations in the catchment based on the hourly wastewater quality and quantity data. The potential operational strategy of homological catchments was generated by the assessment index of representative pump stations. The simulation results of the potential operational strategy indicated that the optimized operation strategy could reduce surcharge events and significantly improve the quality of wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Weiman Li, Haidi Liu, Yunfa Chen

    Manganese and chromium oxides promote the NH3-SCR activity of Zr-Ce mixed oxide.

    Cr-Zr-Ce mixed oxide exhibited>80% NOx conversion at a wide temperature window.

    More acid sites and higher reducibility may responsible for the high SCR ability.

    Chromium oxide and manganese oxide promoted ZrO2-CeO2 catalysts were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3. A series of characterization including X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to evaluate the influence of the physicochemical properties on NH3-SCR activity. Cr-Zr-Ce and Mn-Zr-Ce catalysts are much more active than ZrO2-CeO2 binary oxide for the low temperature NH3-SCR, mainly because of the high specific surface area, more surface oxygen species, improved reducibility derived from synergistic effect among different elements. Mn-Zr-Ce catalyst exhibited high tolerance to SO2 and H2O. Cr-Zr-Ce mixed oxide exhibited>80% NOx conversion at a wide temperature window of 100°C–300°C. In situ DRIFT studies showed that the addition of Cr is beneficial to the formation of Bronsted acid sites and prevents the formation of stable nitrate species because of the presence of Cr6+. The present mixed oxide can be a candidate for the low temperature abatement of NOx.

    Yong Song,Lisha Liu,Zhidan Fu,Qing Ye,Shuiyuan Cheng,Tianfang Kang,Hongxing Dai

    Sepiolite is clay mineral with a 2:1 layered structure.

    Ti-pillars have an impact on physicochemical property of the sample.

    30Mn5Cu/Ti-Sep shows excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO.

    The interaction, reducibility, and oxygen mobility govern the activity.

    The Ti-modified sepiolite (Ti-Sep)-supported Mn-Cu mixed oxide (yMn5Cu/Ti-Sep) catalysts were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. The materials were characterized by the X-ray diffraction scanning electron microscope, N2 adsorption-desorption, H2-TPR, O2-TPD, and XPS techniques, and their catalytic activities for CO oxidation were evaluated. It was found that the catalytic activities of yMn5Cu/Ti-Sep were higher than those of 5Cu/Ti-Sep and 30Mn/Ti-Sep, and the Mn/Cu molar ratio had a distinct influence on catalytic activity of the sample. Among the yMn5Cu/Ti-Sep samples, the 30Mn5Cu/Ti-Sep catalyst showed the best activity (which also outperformed the 30Mn5Cu/Sep catalyst), giving the highest reaction rate of 0.875 × 10−3 mmol·g−1·s−1 and the lowest T50% and T100% of 56°C and 86°C, respectively. Moreover, the 30Mn5Cu/Ti-Sep possessed the best low-temperature reducibility, the lowest O2 desorption temperature, and the highest surface Mn3+/Mn4+ atomic ratio. It is concluded that factors, such as the strong interaction between the copper or manganese oxides and the Ti-Sep support, good low-temperature reducibility, and good mobility of chemisorbed oxygen species, were responsible for the excellent catalytic activity of 30Mn5Cu/Ti-Sep.

    Tiejun Zhang, Jian Li, Hong He, Qianqian Song, Quanming Liang

    The Co-La catalyst (pH= 1) exhibited maximum NO conversion of 43% at 180°C.

    Acid modified catalyst enhanced the resistance to SO2.

    The formed sulfates may block the pore structure of the catalyst.

    The NO conversion of compact SCR was 91% at 180°C at the highest space velocity.

    A series of Co-La catalysts were prepared using the wet impregnation method and the synthesis of catalysts were modified by controlling pH with the addition of ammonium hydroxide or oxalic solution. All the catalysts were systematically investigated for NO oxidation and SO2 resistance in a fixed bed reactor and were characterized by Brunanuer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TG) and Ion Chromatography (IC). Among the catalysts, the one synthesized at pH= 1 exhibited the maximum NO conversion of 43% at 180°C. The activity of the catalyst was significantly suppressed by the existence of SO2 (300 ppm) at 220°C. Deactivation may have been associated with the generation of cobalt sulfate, and the SO2 adsorption quantity of the catalyst might also have effected sulfur resistance. In the case of the compact selective catalytic reduction (SCR), the activity increased from 74% to 91% at the highest gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 300000 h1 when the NO catalyst maintained the highest activity, in excess of 50% more than that of the standard SCR.

    Xuemin Wu,Fenfen Zhu,Juanjuan Qi,Luyao Zhao,Fawei Yan,Chenghui Li

    The preparation reactions were catalyzed by base solid catalysts.

    The preparation reactions were catalyzed by two loaded catalysts and KOH.

    KOH/activated carbon was a better catalyst for biodiesel production.

    The considerable compounds content, abundance, and low costs involved has led to the proposal to use sewage sludge as raw material for biodiesel production. The transesterification reaction is catalyzed using an acid catalyst instead of base catalysts because of the high free fatty acid concentration. However, the use of a base catalyst, particularly a solid base catalyst, has certain advantages, including faster reaction speed and easier separation. In this study, we utilize in situ transesterification by base catalyst (KOH, KOH/activated carbon (AC) and KOH/CaO) with sewage sludge as raw material. Many conditions have been tested to increase biodiesel yield through single-factor tests, including mass fraction and catalyst dosage. Preliminary experiments have optimized reaction time and temperature. However, the three catalysts did not work better than H2SO4, which had a maximum yield of 4.6% (dry sewage sludge base) considering the purity by KOH, KOH/CaO, and KOH/AC. The features of the catalyst were analyzed using XRD, BET and SEM. As to BET of KOH/AC and the good spiculate formation of KOH crystal appears to be essential to its function. As for KOH/CaO, the formation of K2O and absorption points is likely essential.

    Xiaorong Meng, Shanshan Huo, Lei Wang, Xudong Wang, Yongtao Lv, Weiting Tang, Rui Miao, Danxi Huang

    Negatively charged CMPES and positively charged QAPES membranes were fabricated.

    Charge modification reduced the adhesion forces between PES UF membranes and BSA.

    QAPES-BSA F/R was weaker than that of CMPES-BSA at pH 3 and on the contrary at pH 9.

    Flux decline rate was positively correlated with the adhesion forces of membrane-BSA.

    Variation of adhesion r0 was consistent with that of ζ potential absolute values.

    Negatively charged carboxymethylated polyethersulfone (CMPES) and positively charged quaternized polyethersulfone (QAPES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were prepared by bulk chemical modification and non-solvent induced phase separation method. The effects of PES membrane interfacial electrokinetic property on the bovine serum albumin (BSA) membrane fouling behavior were studied with the aid of the membrane-modified colloidal atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. Electrokinetic test results indicated that the streaming potential (DE) of QAPES membrane was not consistent with its expected IEC value, however, within the pH range of 3–10, the ζ potentials of two charged-modified PES membranes were more stable than the unmodified membrane. When pH value was 3, 4.7 or 9, the interaction behavior between charged PES membrane and BSA showed that there was significant linear correlation between the jump distance r0 of membrane-BSA adhesion force (F/R) and the ζ potential absolute value. Charged modification significantly reduced the adhesion of PES membrane-BSA, and the adhesion data was good linear correlated with the flux decline rate in BSA filtration process, especially reflected in the CMPES membrane. The above experimental facts proved that the charged membrane interfacial electric double layer structure and its electrokinetic property had strong ties with the protein membrane fouling behavior.

    Ying Xu, Ning-Yi Zhou

    Aromatics-contaminated soils were successfully remediated with adding single strains.

    Bacterial or fungal consortia were successfully used in the cases of bioaugmentation.

    Microbes combined with chemical or biological factors increase remediation efficiency.

    The environmental factors had appreciable impacts on the bioaugmentation.

    Aromatics-contaminated soil is of particular environmental concern as it exhibits carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Bioremediation, a biological approach for the removal of soil contaminants, has several advantages over traditional soil remediation methodologies including high efficiency, complete pollutant removal, low expense and limited or no secondary pollution. Bioaugmentation, defined as the introduction of specific competent strains or consortia of microorganisms, is a widely applied bioremediation technology for soil remediation. In this review, it is concluded which several successful studies of bioaugmentation of aromatics-contaminated soil by single strains or mixed consortia. In recent decades, a number of reports have been published on the metabolic machinery of aromatics degradation by microorganisms and their capacity to adapt to aromatics-contaminated environments. Thus, microorganisms are major players in site remediation. The bioremediation/bioaugmentation process relies on the immense metabolic capacities of microbes for transformation of aromatic pollutants into essentially harmless or, at least, less toxic compounds. Aromatics-contaminated soils are successfully remediated with adding not only single strains but also bacterial or fungal consortia. Furthermore several novel approaches, which microbes combined with physical, chemical or biological factors, increase remediation efficiency of aromatics-contaminated soil. Meanwhile, the environmental factors also have appreciable impacts on the bioaugmentation process. The biostatistics method is recommended for analysis of the effects of bioaugmentation treatments.