This paper indicates that the performance of tack-back and treatment of electronic waste (e-waste) system can be improved substantially. This can be reached by better taking into account in a better way the big variety in material composition and potential toxicity of electrical and electronic products – from a technical, organizational and regulatory perspective. Realizing that there is no ‘one size fit for all’ and combining smart tailor made solutions with economic of sale will result in the best environmental gain/cost ratio. Several examples show how science and engineering have supported or will support this approach.
Microbial growth is an issue of concern that may cause hygienic and aesthetic problems during the transportation and usage of reclaimed water. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is an important parameter which determines the heterotrophic bacterial growth potential of water.
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) hybrid membranes were prepared using nano-TiO2 as the modifier, and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization results demonstrated that nano-sized TiO2 particles dispersed homogeneously within the PVDF matrix, contributing to more hydroxyls and smoother surfaces. Moreover, permeate flux, retention factor, porosity, contact angle and anti-fouling tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of TiO2 concentration on the performance of PVDF membranes. Among all the prepared membranes, PVDF/TiO2 membrane containing 10 vol.% TiO2 exhibited the best hydrophilicity with an average pure water flux up to 237 L·m-2·h-1, higher than that of unmodified PVDF membranes (155 L·m-2·h-1). Besides, the bovine serum albumin rejection of the hybrid membrane was improved evidently from 52.3% to 70.6%, and the contact angle was significantly lowered from 83° to 60°, while the average pore size and its distribution became smaller and narrower.
The adsorption of direct fast black onto acid-thermal modified sepiolite was investigated. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the influences of experimental parameters such as initial dye concentration, initial solution pH and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption process. The three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized for modeling and optimization of the adsorption conditions for direct fast black onto the acid-thermal modified sepiolite. The raw sepiolite was converted to acid-thermal modified sepiolite, and changes in the fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) adsorption bands of the sample were noted at 3435 cm-1 and 1427 cm-1. The zeolitic water disappeared and the purity of sepiolite was improved by acid-thermal modification. The decolorization rate of direct fast black adsorbed increased from 68.2% to 98.9% on acid-thermal modified sepiolite as the initial solution pH decreased from 10 to 2. When the adsorbent dosage reached to 2.5 g·L-1, 2.0 g·L-1, 1.5 g·L-1 and 1.0 g·L-1, the decolorization rate was 90.3%, 86.7%, 61.0% and 29.8%, respectively. When initial dye concentration increased from 25 to 200 mg·L-1, the decolorization rate decreased from 91.9% to 60.0%. The RSM results showed that the interaction between adsorbent dosage and pH to be a significant factor. The optimum conditions were as follows: the adsorbent dosage 1.99 g·L-1, pH 4.22, and reaction time 5.2 h. Under these conditions, the decolorization rate was 95.1%. The three dimensional fluorescence spectra of direct fast black before and after treatment showed that the direct fast black was almost all adsorbed by the acid-thermal modified sepiolite.
Sulfonamides (SAs) are one class of the most widely used antibiotics around the world. Their fate and transport in the aquatic environment is of great concern. In this study, adsorption of four SAs—sulfadiazine (SD), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfamethazine (SM2)—in single-solute and multi-solute systems on sediments of Dianchi (DC) Lake and Taihu (TH) Lake, China was investigated with batch experiments. In the single-solute adsorption system, the Langmuir model and the dual-mode model described the adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. Model fitness was better on DC sediment than on TH sediment. The order of adsorption capacity approximately followed a decreasing order of SDM>SD>SM2>SMZ on both sediments, which was likely attributed to the distinctly different water solubility of the four SAs. In the multi-solute system, the order of adsorption capacity was SM2>SDM>SD>SMZ, which was probably related to the compound speciation caused by the pH values of the experimental solution. In the multi-solute system, both competitive and cooperative adsorption played important roles in the adsorption of sulfonamides on sediments.
In this study, DOW CORNING 1-2577 Conformal Coating was proposed for the cathode diffusion layer of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). In MFCs, stainless steel mesh cathodes using DOW CORNING 1-2577 Conformal Coating/carbon as the diffusion layer and two poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/carbon diffusion layers and carbon cloth cathode with four poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) diffusion layers were constructed for comparison. Under the same operational condition, the MFCs with the DOW CORNING 1-2577 Conformal Coating/carbon diffusion layer produced the maximum power density of 1585±52 mW·m-2, compared with those using poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) diffusion layers (1421±45 mW·m-2) and poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/carbon diffusion layers (1353±49 mW·m-2). The DOW CORNING 1-2577 Conformal Coating could be an alternative for the diffusion layer construction in the MFC due to its remarkable performance and much simple construction procedure.
Biosorption of Zn2+ from aqueous solutions by biomass of
Pseudosolubilized ability of
Performance of autohydrogenotrophic bacteria for bio-reduction of selenate (Se(VI)) under anaerobic conditions was investigated with batch experiments. Results showed Se(VI) was bio-reduced to selenite (Se(IV)) as an intermediate product, and then to elemental selenium (Se0). Reduction kinetics could be described by the pseudo-first-order model. In particular, the influences of pH value and temperature on Se(VI) reduction by autohydrogentrophic organisms were examined. The high degradation rate was achieved at pH 7.0 to 8.0; and the best reduction temperature was between 25°C and 35°C. This study is of help for treating groundwater with selenium contamination by autohydrogenotrophic bacteria as well as its reactor development.
Pyrene, a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound produced mainly from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is hazardous to ecosystem health. However, long-term exposure studies did not detect any significant effects of pyrene on soil microorganism. In this study, short-term microcosm experiments were conducted to identify the immediate effect of pyrene on soil bacterial communities. A freshly-collected pristine red soil was spiked with pyrene at 0, 10, 100, 200, and 500 mg·kg-1 and incubated for one day and seven days. The bacterial communities in the incubated soils were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) methods. The results revealed high bacterial diversity in both unspiked and pyrene-spiked soils. Only at the highest pyrene-spiking rate of 500 mg·kg-1, two minor bacteria groups of the identified 14 most abundant bacteria groups were completely suppressed. Short-term exposure to pyrene resulted in dominance of Proteobacteria in soil, followed by Acidobacteria, Firmutes, and Bacteroidetes. Our findings showed that bacterial community structure did respond to the presence of pyrene but recovered rapidly from the perturbation. The intensity of impact and the rate of recovery showed some pyrene dosage-dependent trends. Our results revealed that different levels of pyrene may affect the bacterial community structure by suppressing or selecting certain groups of bacteria. It was also found that the bacterial community was most susceptible to pyrene within one day of the chemical addition.
The unexpected emergent discharge of high-arsenic wastewater into water environments results in significantly increased levels of arsenic in water; however, the species distribution of arsenic in sediments has never been reported before for such cases. This study focuses on an As pollution accident in the Dasha River, and uses sequential extraction procedures with deionized water, 1?mol·L-1 MgCl2 at pH= 8, 1?mol·L-1 NaH2PO4 at pH= 5, and 1?mol·L-1 HCl to investigate four binding phases of arsenic (i.e., water soluble, ion-exchangeable, strongly-bound, and precipitates) in sediments at different layers in different cross-sections along the river. The average ratio of arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)) was found to decrease from 0.74:1 in river water to 0.48:1 in sediment, owing to its higher affinity toward As(V) than As(III). The content of arsenic in the sediments was relatively low and the maximum content was observed to be 36.3?mg·kg-1 for As(III) and 97.5?mg·kg-1 for As(V). As(III) and As(V) showed different binding phases in sediments, and the average fractions of these four species were determined to be 0.09, 0.11, 0.17, and 0.63 for As(III) and 0.03, 0.14, 0.63, and 0.20 for As(V), respectively. For all the sediment samples, the content of arsenic showed no relationship with the characteristics of the sediments such as the particle diameter, the content of organic carbon, Fe, and Mn, although a negative correlation with particle diameter was observed for the sediments in the uppermost 2-cm layer. The unexpected emergent As incident results in the high content of total arsenic in the surface sediment, which may be potential secondary source to the elevated As levels in surface water.
The seasonal changes in leaf particulate matter (PM) accumulation, surface wettability and micromorphology in urban tree species, including
Secondary copper production is one of the key polychlorinated dibenzo-
Climate change plays an important role in affecting and altering the course of human development. So far, there have been no effective and efficient techniques to directly quantify the influences of climate change on human development, but there have been rough estimation and qualitative description of the effects. Since the 1990s, climate change considerations have been required to be included in environmental impact assessment, which is a flexible institutional framework of environmental risk evaluation and management. However, there have been no concrete achievements demonstrated. The purpose of this study was first to summarise the practical experience and to disclose the existing problems during the implementation of the process of integrating climate change considerations into environmental impact assessment in China through a case study. Currently in China, the practice of integrating climate change considerations into environmental impact assessment is mainly concentrated on the strategic environmental assessment level. The influences of climate change were identified as energy consumption, greenhouse gases emission, and the restraint of development under abnormal or extreme weather or climate conditions. Because of a lack of related technical guidelines and practical experience, the climate change considerations that have been selected and the evaluation methods that have been applied are quite different. Recommendations on policies, laws, and institutional regulations institution are proposed to better utilise environmental impact assessment to integrate climate change considerations into economic, social, and environmental decisions and actions.
Recycled water provides a viable opportunity to partially supplement fresh water supplies as well as substantially alleviate environmental loads. Currently, thousands of recycled water schemes have been successfully conducted in a number of countries and Sydney is one of the leading cities, which has made massive effort to apply water reclamation, recycling and reuse. This study aims to make a comprehensive analysis of recycled water schemes in Sydney for a wide range of end uses such as landscape irrigation, industrial process uses and residential uses (e.g., golf course irrigation, industrial cooling water reuse, toilet flushing and clothes washing etc.). For each representative recycled water scheme, this study investigates the involved wastewater treatment technologies, the effluent quality compared with specified guideline values and public attitudes toward different end uses. Based on these obtained data, multi criteria analysis (MCA) in terms of risk, cost-benefit, environmental and social aspects can be performed. Consequently, from the analytical results, the good prospects of further expansion and exploration of current and new end uses were identified toward the integrated water planning and management. The analyses could also help decision makers in making a sound judgment for future recycled water projects.
The short-term effect of anaerobic reaction time (AnRT) (i.e., 90, 120 and 150 min) on the denitrifying phosphorus (P) removal performance and N2O production was examined using a denitrifying enhanced biologic phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge acclimatized with mixed acetate (HAc) and propionate (Pro) (in the molar ratio 3∶1) as carbon sources. The results showed that when the AnRT was prolonged from 90 to 150 min, the anaerobic polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis was decreased by 15.3%. Moreover, the ineffective PHA consumption occurred in anaerobic phases and contributed to an increased