Oct 2019, Volume 13 Issue 5

Cover illustration

  • Production of sulfate radical via peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation by carbon-based nanomaterials has emerged as a promising technology for organic pollutants degradation due to its excellent catalytic potential and environmentally benign properties. However, the electron-donating capability of current carbon materials, which is critical in PMS activation, is still limited. This article describes an UV-light assisted PMS activation system constructed over TiO2-CNT [Detail] ...

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    Zuotao Zhang, Chongyang Wang, Jianzhong He, Hui Wang

    Anaerobic phenanthrene biodegradation enriched process was described in detail.

    The enriched bacterial communities were characterized under four redox conditions.

    The enriched archaeal communities were stated under high percentage conditions.

    Relatively intact pathways of anaerobic phenanthrene biodegradation were proposed.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread and persistent contaminants worldwide, especially in environments devoid of molecular oxygen. For lack of molecular oxygen, researchers enhanced anaerobic zones PAHs biodegradation by adding sulfate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and iron. However, microbial community reports of them were limited, and information of metabolites was poor except two-ring PAH, naphthalene. Here, we reported on four phenanthrene-degrading enrichment cultures with sulfate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and iron as electron acceptors from the same initial inoculum. The high-to-low order of the anaerobic phenanthrene biodegradation rate was the nitrate-reducing conditions>sulfate-reducing conditions>methanogenic conditions>iron-reducing conditions. The dominant bacteria populations were Desulfobacteraceae, Anaerolinaceae, and Thermodesulfobiaceae under sulfate-reducing conditions; Moraxellaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Comamonadaceae under methanogenic conditions; Rhodobacteraceae, Planococcaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae under nitrate-reducing conditions; and Geobacteraceae, Carnobacteriaceae, and Anaerolinaceae under iron-reducing conditions, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that bacteria populations of longtime enriched cultures with four electron acceptors all obtained significant changes from original inoculum, and bacterial communities were similar under nitrate-reducing and iron-reducing conditions. Archaea accounted for a high percentage under iron-reducing and methanogenic conditions, and Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriaceae, as well as Methanobacteriaceae, were the dominant archaea populations under iron-reducing and methanogenic conditions. The key steps of phenanthrene biodegradation under four reducing conditions were carboxylation, further ring system reduction, and ring cleavage.

    Zhan Wang, Chongyang Shen, Yichun Du, Yulong Zhang, Baoguo Li

    We examined influence of phosphate on transport of TiO2 NPs in soil.

    Deposition was reduced at higher pH and by adsorption of phosphate in soil.

    Release was more for NPs initially deposited at higher pH.

    Release was more for NPs initially deposited in the presence of phosphate.

    Surface roughness and charge heterogeneity play a role in the deposition/ release.

    The widespread use of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) makes inevitable their release into the soil. Phosphate is also widespread within soil, and is likely copresent with TiO2 NPs. However, the influence of phosphate on deposition/release— and thereby on transport— of TiO2 NPs in soil is yet to be elucidated. In this study we conducted saturated column experiments to systematically examine the transport of TiO2 NPs in soil amended with phosphate at different ionic strengths (ISs) (1, 10, 100 mmol/L NaCl) and pHs (4 and 9). Results show that the deposition of TiO2 NPs decreased with decreasing IS, increasing pH, and when soil absorbed phosphate. These observations are qualitatively in agreement with Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energy calculations, because the repulsive energy barrier is larger and secondary minimum depth is smaller at a lower IS, higher pH, and in the presence of phosphate. Accordingly, both primary- and secondary-minimum deposition were inhibited. Interestingly, although the deposition was less at higher pH and in the presence of phosphate, the subsequent spontaneous detachment and detachment by reduction of solution IS in these cases were greater. In addition, the presence of phosphate in the solution can cause a small quantity of attached TiO2 NPs to detach, even without perturbations of physical and chemical conditions. Our study was the first to investigate the influence of phosphate on detachment of TiO2 NPs and the results have important implication for accurate prediction of fate and transport of TiO2 NPs in subsurface environments.

    Xiaoya Liu, Yu Hong, Peirui Liu, Jingjing Zhan, Ran Yan

    Heterotrophic cultivation caused high level of ROS and high lipids accumulation.

    HMTC is the best culture strategy for improving the microalgal biomass.

    Chlorella sp. HQ had great nutrient removal capacity under five culture strategies.

    The effects of cultivation strategies (including autotrophic cultivation (AC), heterotrophic cultivation (HC), fed-batch cultivation (FC), heterotrophic+ autotrophic two-stage cultivation (HATC), and heterotrophic+ mixotrophic two-stage cultivation (HMTC)) on the growth and lipid accumulation of Chlorella sp. HQ and its total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal in secondary effluent were investigated in column photoreactors. The results showed that the TN and TP removal rates ranged between 93.72%–95.82% and 92.73%–100%, respectively, under the five different strategies. The microalgal growth potential evaluated by the maximal growth rate (Rmax) was in the order of HMTC>HC>FC>AC>HATC. The values of biomass, total lipid yield, triacylglycerols (TAGs) yield, and total lipid content of the microalga cultivated in the last 5 d increased significantly, but the TAGs productivities of the five strategies were lower than those in the first 7 d. Compared with all the other cultivation strategies, the TAGs productivity and yield after 12 d of cultivation under the heterotrophic condition reached the highest values accompanying the highest level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), in which the TAGs yield reached 40.81 mg/L at the end of the cultivation period. The peaks in TAGs yield and ROS level suggested that HC was beneficial for lipids accumulation via regulating the cellular redox status and exerting ROS stress on microalgal cells. In summary, HMTC was the best cultivation strategy for improving the microalgal biomass and HC was the best strategy for microalgal TAGs accumulation to produce biodiesel.

    Xuemin Hao, Guanlong Wang, Shuo Chen, Hongtao Yu, Xie Quan

    CNT-TiO2 composite is used to activate PMS under UV-light assistance.

    Superior performance is due to the enhanced electron-transfer ability of CNT.

    SO4, •OH and 1O2 play key roles in the degradation of organic pollutants.

    In this work, a UV-light assisted peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation system was constructed with the composite catalyst of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) - titanium dioxide (TiO2). Under the UV light irradiation, the photoinduced electrons generated from TiO2 could be continuously transferred to CNT for the activation of PMS to improve the catalytic performance of organic pollutant degradation. Meanwhile, the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs could enhance the photocatalysis efficiency. The electron spin resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and quenching experiments confirmed the generation of sulfate radical (SO4), hydroxyl radical (•OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) in the UV/PMS/20%CNT-TiO2 system. Almost 100% phenol degradation was observed within 20 min UV-light irradiation. The kinetic reaction rate constant of the UV/PMS/20%CNT-TiO2 system (0.18 min1) was 23.7 times higher than that of the PMS/Co3O4 system (0.0076 min1). This higher catalytic performance was ascribed to the introduction of photoinduced electrons, which could enhance the activation of PMS by the transfer of electrons in the UV/PMS/CNT-TiO2 system.

    Dian Ding, Jia Xing, Shuxiao Wang, Xing Chang, Jiming Hao

    O3 increment is mainly caused by changes in meteorology rather than emissions.

    Emission reduction is effective to reduce O3 nationwide, especially in summer.

    Strengthened NOx controls are necessary to meet the ambient O3 standard.

    We have quantified the impacts of anthropogenic emissions reductions caused by the Air Pollution Control Action Plan and changes in meteorological fields between 2013 and 2017 on the warm-season O3 concentration in China using a regional 3D chemical transport model. We found that the impact on daily maximum eight-hour (MDA8) O3 concentration by the meteorological variation that mostly increased O3 was greater than that from emission reduction, which decreased O3. Specifically, the control measures implemented since 2013 in China have reduced SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOC emissions by 33%, 25%, 30%, and 4% in 2017, while NH3 emissions have increased by 7%. The changes in anthropogenic emissions lowered MDA8 O3 by 0.4–3.7 ppb (0.8%–7.6%, varying by region and month), although MDA8 O3 was increased slightly in some urban areas (i.e. North China) at the beginning/end of warm seasons. Relative to 2013, the average 2 m temperature in 2017 shows increments in North, North-east, East, and South China (0.34℃–0.83℃) and decreases in Central China (0.24℃). The average solar radiation shows increments in North, North-east, and South China (7.0–9.7 w/m2) and decreases in Central, South-west, and North-west China (4.7–10.3 w/m2). The meteorological differences significantly change MDA8 O3 by -3.5–8.5 ppb (-8.2%–18.8%) with large temporal variations. The average MDA8 O3 was slightly increased in North, North-east, East, and South China. The response surface model suggests that the O3 formation regime transfers from NOx-saturated in April to NOx-limited in July on average in China.

    Ziming Zhao, Wenjun Sun, Madhumita B. Ray, Ajay K Ray, Tianyin Huang, Jiabin Chen

    Charge neutralization and sweep flocculation were the major mechanisms.

    Effect of process parameters was investigated.

    Optimal coagulation conditions were studied by response surface methodology.

    ANN models presented more robust and accurate prediction than RSM.

    Seasonal algal blooms of Lake Yangcheng highlight the necessity to develop an effective and optimal water treatment process to enhance the removal of algae and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the present study, the coagulation performance for the removal of algae, turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) was investigated systematically by central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM). The regression models were developed to illustrate the relationships between coagulation performance and experimental variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test the significance of the response surface models. It can be concluded that the major mechanisms of coagulation to remove algae and DOM were charge neutralization and sweep flocculation at a pH range of 4.66–6.34. The optimal coagulation conditions with coagulant dosage of 7.57 mg Al/L, pH of 5.42 and initial algal cell density of 3.83 × 106 cell/mL led to removal of 96.76%, 97.64%, 40.23% and 30.12% in term of cell density, turbidity, DOC and UV254 absorbance, respectively, which were in good agreement with the validation experimental results. A comparison between the modeling results derived through both ANOVA and artificial neural networks (ANN) based on experimental data showed a high correlation coefficient, which indicated that the models were significant and fitted well with experimental results. The results proposed a valuable reference for the treatment of algae-laden surface water in practical application by the optimal coagulation-flocculation process.

    Zunaira Asif, Zhi Chen

    Air Pollution Control model is developed for open-pit metal mines.

    Model will aid decision makers to select a cost-effective solution.

    Open-pit metal mines contribute toward air pollution and without effective control techniques manifests the risk of violation of environmental guidelines. This paper establishes a stochastic approach to conceptualize the air pollution control model to attain a sustainable solution. The model is formulated for decision makers to select the least costly treatment method using linear programming with a defined objective function and multi-constraints. Furthermore, an integrated fuzzy based risk assessment approach is applied to examine uncertainties and evaluate an ambient air quality systematically. The applicability of the optimized model is explored through an open-pit metal mine case study, in North America. This method also incorporates the meteorological data as input to accommodate the local conditions. The uncertainties in the inputs, and predicted concentration are accomplished by probabilistic analysis using Monte Carlo simulation method. The output results are obtained to select the cost-effective pollution control technologies for PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2 and greenhouse gases. The risk level is divided into three types (loose, medium and strict) using a triangular fuzzy membership approach based on different environmental guidelines. Fuzzy logic is then used to identify environmental risk through stochastic simulated cumulative distribution functions of pollutant concentration. Thus, an integrated modeling approach can be used as a decision tool for decision makers to select the cost-effective technology to control air pollution.

    Fatih Ilhan, Kubra Ulucan-Altuntas, Yasar Avsar, Ugur Kurt, Arslan Saral

    The wastewater from industrial area was treated by EC via Fe and Al electrodes.

    Cu, Ni, Cr and Zn were highly removed at the first minutes, simultaneously.

    Pseudo-2nd-order was found to be more suitable for kinetics.

    Adsorption capacities based on kinetic modeling were observed as Cr>Cu>Ni>Zn.

    The chemical cost in the case of pH adjustment after EC was less as 3.83 $/m3.

    It is known that wastewater produced by the metal-plating industry contains several heavy metals, which are acidic in nature and therefore toxic for the environment and for living creatures. In particular, heavy metals enter the food chain and accumulate in vital organs and cause serious illness. The precipitation of these metals is mostly achieved by pH adjustment, but as an alternative to this method, the electrocoagulation process has investigated in this study using iron and aluminum electrodes. The effects of the pH adjustment on removal before and after the electrocoagulation process were investigated, and cost analyses were also compared. It was observed that a high proportion of removal was obtained during the first minutes of the electrocoagulation process; thus, the current density did not have a great effect. In addition, the pH adjustment after the electrocoagulation process using iron electrodes, which are 10% more effective than aluminum electrodes, was found to be much more efficient than before the electrocoagulation process. In the process where kinetic modeling was applied, it was observed that the heavy metal removal mechanism was not solely due to the collapse of heavy metals at high pH values, and with this modeling, it was seen that this mechanism involved adsorption by iron and aluminum hydroxides formed during the electrocoagulation process. When comparing the ability of heavy metals to be adsorbed, the sequence was observed to be Cr>Cu>Ni>Zn, respectively.

    Cheng Chen, Wenshan Guo, Huu Hao Ngo

    • The sources and pathways of pesticides into stormwater runoff were diverse.

    • Factors affecting pesticides in stormwater runoff were critically reviewed.

    • Pesticides mitigation strategies were included in this review.

    • The current knowledge gap of the pesticides in stormwater runoff was identified.

    Recently, scientific interest has grown in harvesting and treating stormwater for potable water use, in order to combat the serious global water scarcity issue. In this context, pesticides have been identified as the key knowledge gap as far as reusing stormwater is concerned. This paper reviewed the presence of pesticides in stormwater runoff in both rural and urban areas. Specifically, the sources of pesticide contamination and possible pathways were investigated in this review. Influential factors affecting pesticides in stormwater runoff were critically identified as: 1) characteristics of precipitation, 2) properties of pesticide, 3) patterns of pesticides use, and 4) properties of application surface. The available pesticide mitigation strategies including best management practice (BMP), low impact development (LID), green infrastructure (GI) and sponge city (SC) were also included in this paper. In the future, large-scale multi-catchment studies that directly evaluate pesticide concentrations in both urban and rural stormwater runoff will be of great importance for the development of effective pesticides treatment approaches and stormwater harvesting strategies.

    Muhammad Kashif Shahid, Yunjung Kim, Young-Gyun Choi

    MEP were separated from mill scale at low magnetic intensity i.e., 300 to 500 gauss.

    The phosphate adsorption capacity of MEP was determined 6.41 mg/g.

    MEP packed-bed columns were successfully regenerated with alkaline solution.

    Phosphate is a major pollutant in water, causing serious environmental and health consequences. In present study, the phosphate adsorption on novel magnetite-enriched particles (MEP) was comprehensively investigated. A new method and device were introduced for the separation of MEP from the mill scale at low magnetic intensity. Particles were characterized with different techniques such as XRD, XRF, SEM and EDS. The XRD and XRF analysis of MEP identified the dominant existence of crystalline magnetite. Furthermore, the morphological analysis of MEP confirmed the agglomerate porous morphology of magnetite. Oxygen and iron, the main constituents of magnetite were acknowledged during the elemental analysis using EDS. The phosphate adsorption on MEP is well explained using various isotherm and kinetic models, exhibiting the monolayer adsorption of phosphate on the surface of MEP. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined 6.41 mg/g. Based on particle size (45–75 and 75–150 µm) and empty bed contact time (1 and 2 h), four columns were operated for 54 days. MEP were appeared successful to remove all phosphate concentration from the column influent having 2 mg/L concentration. The operated column reactors were successfully regenerated with alkaline solution. The results indicated potential for practical application of the MEP for phosphate removal.

    Chao Liu, Hancheng Dai, Lin Zhang, Changchun Feng

    Impacts of industrial restructuring and upgrade on air quality & health are assessed.

    An integrated approach combining different models is used for the assessment.

    Industrial technology upgrading is more effective than economic restructuring.

    Ozone is much more difficult to mitigate than PM2.5.

    In this study, we have analyzed possible policy options to improve the air quality in an industrialized region—Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH) in China. A comprehensive model framework integrating GAINS-China, GEOS-Chem, and IMED/HEL is established to investigate the impacts of various policies on air pollution and health effects. The model establishes a data interface between economic input/output data and the emission inventory of atmospheric pollutants in the BTH region. Based on in-depth analyses of pollutant emission standards, industrial structure, pollution-intensive industries, and emission intensities in BTH and Pearl River Delta, several scenarios are constructed to explore the effectiveness of policy pathways in improving air quality in the BTH region. These scenarios include two categories: the category of “Industrial Technology Upgrade Policy” scenarios that focuses on reducing the emission intensity of industries vs. that of “Industrial Structure Adjustment Policy” scenarios that focuses on adjusting the proportion of industrial value-added. Our results show that the policy path of industrial technology upgrading can be effective and feasible, while economic structure adjustment shows complex and mixed effectiveness. We also find that the proposed policies and measures will be efficient to reduce pollution of primary pollutants and fine particles, but may not effectively mitigate ambient ozone pollution. Ozone pollution is projected to become increasingly severe in BTH, placing a challenge to pollution mitigation strategies that requires further adjustments to address it.

    Aoshuang Jing, Tao Liu, Xie Quan, Shuo Chen, Yaobin Zhang

    Novel carriers with favorable electrophilicity and hydrophilicity were prepared.

    Novel carriers had the capability of nitrification-enhancing.

    NH4+-N removal efficiency of IFFAS process rose up to 20% with novel carriers.

    Nitrosomonadales and Nitrospirales were identified as the functional nitrifiers.

    The population of Nitrospirales increased by 4.51%.

    The integrated floating fixed-film activated sludge (IFFAS) process is an ideal preference for nitrification attributing to the longer sludge age for nitrifiers. However, as the core of this process, conventional carriers made of polymer materials usually exhibit negative charge and hydrophobicity on the surface, which is unbeneficial to nitrifying biofilm formation. In this study, novel clinoptilolite composite carriers with favorable hydrophilicity, positive charge and nitrification-enhancing capability were made and implemented in IFFAS system. In comparison with conventional carriers, the novel clinoptilolite composite carriers displayed positive charges on the surface (11.7±1.1 mV, pH 7.0) with increased hydrophilicity (surface contact angle dropped to 76.7°). The novel-carriers-based reactors achieved significantly better NH4+-N removal efficiency at different influent concentrations, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and shock loads (NH4+-N removal efficiency rose up to 20% comparing with the control reactors filled with polyethylene (PE) carriers or activated sludge). High-throughput sequencing (HTS) results indicated the novel clinoptilolite composite carriers provided favorable niche for more types of bacteria, especially for Nitrosomonadales and Nitrospirales (the functional nitrifiers in the system). The population of Nitrospirales increased by 4.51% by using novel clinoptilolite composite carriers comparing with using PE carriers, which ensured enhanced nitrification process. This study was expected to provide a practical option for enhancing wastewater nitrification performance with the novel clinoptilolite composite carrier.

    Yuanyuan Zhang, Masashi Kuroda, Shunsuke Arai, Fumitaka Kato, Daisuke Inoue, Michihiko Ike

    Removal of selenate in saline wastewater by activated sludge was examined.

    Sequencing batch reactor was operated under alternating anoxic/oxic conditions.

    Above 97% removal of soluble selenium (Se) was achieved continuously.

    Major Se removal mechanism varied depending on the length of aeration period.

    Various Se-reducing bacteria likely contributed to coordinately to Se removal.

    Selenium (Se)-containing industrial wastewater is often coupled with notable salinity. However, limited studies have examined biological treatment of Se-containing wastewater under high salinity conditions. In this study, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with activated sludge was applied to treat selenate in synthetic saline wastewater (3% w/v NaCl) supplemented with lactate as the carbon source. Start-up of the SBR was performed with addition of 1–5 mM of selenate under oxygen-limiting conditions, which succeeded in removing more than 99% of the soluble Se. Then, the treatment of 1 mM Se with cycle duration of 3 days was carried out under alternating anoxic/oxic conditions by adding aeration period after oxygen-limiting period. Although the SBR maintained soluble Se removal of above 97%, considerable amount of solid Se remained in the effluent as suspended solids and total Se removal fluctuated between about 40 and 80%. Surprisingly, the mass balance calculation found a considerable decrease of Se accumulated in the SBR when the aeration period was prolonged to 7 h, indicating very efficient Se biovolatilization. Furthermore, microbial community analysis suggested that various Se-reducing bacteria coordinately contributed to the removal of Se in the SBR and main contributors varied depending on the operational conditions. This study will offer implications for practical biological treatment of selenium in saline wastewater.

    Mehvish Mumtaz, Yixiang Bao, Wenchao Li, Lingxiao Kong, Jun Huang, Gang Yu

    Kendrick mass defect was used for PFASs screening in textile finishing agents (TFAs).

    Total oxidizable precursor assay provides insight into unknown precursors.

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate was found as impurity in short ECF technology based TFAs.

    Perfluorooctanoate was also detected in C6 telomerization based TFAs.

    Long chain precursors were also observed in both types of TFAs.

    Organofluorinated surfactants are widely employed in textile finishing agents (TFAs) to achieve oil, water, and stain repellency. This has been regarded as an important emission source of per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the environment. China is the biggest manufacturer of clothes, and thus TFA production is also a relevant industrial activity. Nevertheless, to date, no survey has been conducted on PFAS contents in commercially available TFAs. In the present study, TFA products were investigated by the Kendrick mass defect method. The quantification results demonstrated a significant presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (0.37 mg/L) in TFAs manufactured by electrochemical fluorination technology. The products obtained by short-chain PFAS-based telomerization were dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (mean concentration: 0.29 mg/L), whose values exceeded the limits stated in the European Chemical Agency guidelines (0.025 mg/L). Moreover, the total oxidizable precursor assay indicated high levels of indirectly quantified precursors with long alkyl chains (C7–C9). Together, these results suggest that there is currently a certain of environmental and health risks in China that originates from the utilization of TFAs, and a better manufacturing processes are required to reduce such risks.

    Shicheng Wei, Cuiping Zeng, Yaobin Lu, Guangli Liu, Haiping Luo, Renduo Zhang

    A La-doped Co-Cu-Fe catalyst was synthesized for the antipyrine (ANT) removal.

    The La-doped catalyst had higher ANT removal than the control (95% vs. 54%).

    La reduced the particle size and increased the specific surface area of catalyst.

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel lanthanum (La) doped catalyst and to investigate antipyrine removal in wastewater using the Fenton-like process with the catalyst. The La-doped Co-Cu-Fe catalyst was synthesized using the modified hydrothermal method. Results showed that the La-doped catalyst had higher specific surface area and lower particle size than the catalyst without La doping (i.e., the control) (267 vs. 163 m2/g and 14 vs. 32 nm, respectively). Under the conditions of catalyst dosage 0.5 g/L, H2O2 concentration 1.70 g/L, and NaHCO3 0.1 g/L, the antipyrine removal within 60 min using the Fenton-like process with the La-doped catalyst was much higher than that with the control (95% vs. 54%). The hydroxyl radical concentration with the La-doped catalyst within 60 min was two times higher than that with the control (49.2 vs. 22.1 mg/L). The high catalytic activity of La-doped catalyst was mainly attributed to its high specific surface area based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result. Our La-doped catalyst should have great potential to remove antipyrine in wastewater using the heterogeneous Fenton-like process.

    Jianzhi Huang, Huichun Zhang

    Manganese oxides (MnOx) have been demonstrated to be effective materials to activate Oxone (i.e., PMS) to degrade various contaminants. However, the contribution of direct oxidation by MnOx to the total contaminant degradation under acidic conditions was often neglected in the published work, which has resulted in different and even conflicting interpretations of the reaction mechanisms. Here, the role of MnOx (as both oxidants and catalysts) in the activation of Oxone was briefly discussed. The findings offered new insights into the reaction mechanisms in PMS-MnOx and provided a more accurate approach to examine contaminant degradation for water/wastewater treatment.