Quantum computers are promising in dealing with hard problems. However, due to the decoherence effect, quantum gates are very fragile. Thus, realizing robust quantum gates is the ultimate goal of quantum manipulation. Notably, geometric phases are intrinsic noise-resilient, and thus fast geometric quantum gates are ideal building blocks for quantum computers. It is predicted that modern superconducting quantum chips can readily support fast geometric quantum computation. It i[Detail] ...
The equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter, i.e., the thermodynamic relationship between the binding energy per nucleon, temperature, density, as well as the isospin asymmetry, has been a hot topic in nuclear physics and astrophysics for a long time. The knowledge of the nuclear EOS is essential for studying the properties of nuclei, the structure of neutron stars, the dynamics of heavy ion collision (HIC), as well as neutron star mergers. HIC offers a unique way to create nuclear matter with high density and isospin asymmetry in terrestrial laboratory, but the formed dense nuclear matter exists only for a very short period, one cannot measure the nuclear EOS directly in experiments. Practically, transport models which often incorporate phenomenological potentials as an input are utilized to deduce the EOS from the comparison with the observables measured in laboratory. The ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model has been widely employed for investigating HIC from the Fermi energy (40 MeV per nucleon) up to the CERN Large Hadron Collider energies (TeV). With further improvement in the nuclear mean-field potential term, the collision term, and the cluster recognition term of the UrQMD model, the newly measured collective flow and nuclear stopping data of light charged particles by the FOPI Collaboration can be reproduced. In this article we highlight our recent results on the studies of the nuclear EOS and the nuclear symmetry energy with the UrQMD model. New opportunities and challenges in the extraction of the nuclear EOS from transport models and HIC experiments are discussed.
The nature of dark matter is one of the greatest mysteries in modern physics and astronomy. A wide variety of experiments have been carried out worldwide to search for the evidence of particle dark matter. Chinese physicists started experimental search for dark matter about ten years ago, and have produced results with high scientific impact. In this paper, we present an overview of the dark matter program in China, and discuss recent results and future directions.
Superconducting metal dichalcogenides (MDCs) present several similarities to the other layered superconductors like cuprates. The superconductivity in atomically thin MDCs has been demonstrated by recent experiments, however, the investigation of the superconductivity intertwined with other orders are scarce. Investigating the pseudogap in atomic layers of MDCs may help to understand the superconducting mechanism for these true two-dimensional (2D) superconducting systems. Herein we report a pseudogap opening in the tunneling spectra of thin layers of SnSe2 epitaxially grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). A significant V-shaped pseudogap was observed to open near the Fermi level (EF) in the STS. And at elevated temperatures, the gap gradually evolves to a shallow dip. Our experimental observations provide direct evidence of a pseudogap state in the electron-doped SnSe2 atomic layers on the HOPG surface, which may stimulate further exploration of the mechanism of superconductivity at 2D limit in MDCs.
We review application of the SU(4) model of strongly-correlated electrons to cuprate and iron-based superconductors. A minimal self-consistent generalization of BCS theory to incorporate antiferromagnetism on an equal footing with pairing and strong Coulomb repulsion is found to account systematically for the major features of high-temperature superconductivity, with microscopic details of the parent compounds entering only parametrically. This provides a systematic procedure to separate essential from peripheral, suggesting that many features exhibited by the high-Tc data set are of interest in their own right but are not central to the superconducting mechanism. More generally, we propose that the surprisingly broad range of conventional and unconventional superconducting and superfluid behavior observed across many fields of physics results from the systematic appearance of similar algebraic structures for the emergent effective Hamiltonians, even though the microscopic Hamiltonians of the corresponding parent states may differ radically from each other.
Topological metals (TMs) are a kind of special metallic materials, which feature nontrivial band crossings near the Fermi energy, giving rise to peculiar quasiparticle excitations. TMs can be classified based on the characteristics of these band crossings. For example, according to the dimensionality of the crossing, TMs can be classified into nodal-point, nodal-line, and nodal-surface metals. Another important property is the type of dispersion. According to degree of the tilt of the local dispersion around the crossing, we have type-I and type-II dispersions. This leads to significant distinctions in the physical properties of the materials, owing to their contrasting Fermi surface topologies. In this article, we briefly review the recent advances in this research direction, focusing on the concepts, the physical properties, and the material realizations of the type-II nodal-point and nodal-line TMs.
Using theoretical analysis and numerical calculation method, the axial adiabatic compression of a spinning non-ideal gas in a cylinder with a smooth surface is investigated. We show that the axial pressure of a spinning gas will gradually become lower than that of a stationary gas during continuous compression, even though the initial axial pressure of the spinning gas is larger than that of the stationary gas at the same initial temperature and average density. This phenomenon indicates that the axial compressibility of gas is improved in a rotating system. In addition, the effect of different forms of virial coefficient B(T) on pressure and temperature changes in spinning and stationary gases are investigated. Research on the axial compressibility of spinning non-ideal gas can provide useful references for fields that require high compression of gases, such as laser fusion, laboratory astrophysics, and Z-pinch experiments.
Quantum gates, which are the essential building blocks of quantum computers, are very fragile. Thus, to realize robust quantum gates with high fidelity is the ultimate goal of quantum manipulation. Here, we propose a nonadiabatic geometric quantum computation scheme on superconducting circuits to engineer arbitrary quantum gates, which share both the robust merit of geometric phases and the capacity to combine with optimal control technique to further enhance the gate robustness. Specifically, in our proposal, arbitrary geometric single-qubit gates can be realized on a transmon qubit, by a resonant microwave field driving, with both the amplitude and phase of the driving being timedependent. Meanwhile, nontrivial two-qubit geometric gates can be implemented by two capacitively coupled transmon qubits, with one of the transmon qubits’ frequency being modulated to obtain effective resonant coupling between them. Therefore, our scheme provides a promising step towards fault-tolerant solid-state quantum computation.
We study N-cluster correlation functions in four- and five-dimensional (4D and 5D) bond percolation by extensive Monte Carlo simulation. We reformulate the transfer Monte Carlo algorithm for percolation [Phys. Rev. E72, 016126 (2005)] using the disjoint-set data structure, and simulate a cylindrical geometry Ld−1 × ∞, with the linear size up to L = 512 for 4D and 128 for 5D. We determine with a high precision all possible N-cluster exponents, for N =2 and 3, and the universal amplitude for a logarithmic correlation function. From the symmetric correlator with N=2, we obtain the correlationlength critical exponent as 1/ν=1.4610(12) for 4D and 1/ν=1.737(2) for 5D, significantly improving over the existing results. Estimates for the other exponents and the universal logarithmic amplitude have not been reported before to our knowledge. Our work demonstrates the validity of logarithmic conformal field theory and adds to the growing knowledge for high-dimensional percolation.