Jun 2008, Volume 3 Issue 2

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  • LIU Xiong-jun, LIU Xin, KWEK Leong-Chuan, OH ChooHiap
    Optical orbital angular-momentum (OAM) has more complex mechanics than the spin degree of photons, and may have a broad range of application. Manipulating atomic states via OAM has become an interesting topic. In this paper, we first review the general theory of generating adiabatic gauge field in ultracold atomic systems by coupling atoms to external optical fields with OAM, and point out the applications of the generated adiabatic gauge field. Then, we review our work in this field, including the generation of macroscopic superposition of vortex-antivortex states and spin Hall effect (SHE) in cold atoms.
  • ZHANG Yun
    Quantum information and quantum optics are rapidly advancing areas of modern physics. As an important device in quantum optics and quantum information, the optical parametric amplifier/oscillator (OPA/O) has been extensively studied and applied to the generation of non-classical state since the 1980s. This article reviews the progress in the generation of non-classical state from an OPO/A and application of twin beams in quantum optics and quantum information.
  • LIU Yu-fang, ZHAI Hong-sheng, GAO Ya-li
    The product angular momentum polarization of the reaction of H+NH is calculated via the quasiclassical trajectory method (QCT) based on the extended London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (LEPS) potential energy surface (PES) at a collision energy of 5.1 kcal/mol. The calculated results of the vector correlations are denoted by using the angular distribution functions. The polarization-dependent differential cross sections (PDDCSs) demonstrate that the rotational angular momentum of the product H2 is aligned and oriented along the direction perpendicular to the scattering plane. Vector correlation shows that the angular momentum of the product H2 is aligned in the plane perpendicular to the velocity vector. It suggests that the reaction proceeds preferentially when the reactant velocity vector lies in a plane containing all three atoms. The orientation and alignment of the product angular momentum affects the scattering direction of the product molecules. The polarization-dependent differential cross sections (PDD-CSs) reveal that scattering is predominantly in the backward hemisphere.
  • TIAN Dou-xiang, WANG Cang-long, DUAN Wen-shan, WANG Xiao-yun
    The linear wave equation for the simple cubic lattice is given in this paper. The dispersion relations of both longitudinal and transverse waves are given analytically for the acoustic mode and the optical mode, respectively.
  • CHENG Wei, MARX David, REN Shang-fen
    Microscopic phonon theory of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is reviewed in this paper. Phonon modes of Si and Ge NCs with various sizes of up to 7 nm are investigated by valence force field theory. Phonon modes in spherical SiGe alloy NCs approximately 3.6 nm (containing 1147 atoms) in size have been investigated as a function of the Si concentration. Phonon density-of-states, quantum confinement effects, as well as Raman intensities are discussed.
  • HUANG Rao, MA Li-bo, WANG Yong-qian, CAO Ze-xian, YE Jian-ping
    High-density silicon nanoparticles with well-controlled sizes were grown onto cold substrates in amorphous SiNx and SiC matrices by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Strong, tunable photoluminescence across the whole visible light range has been measured at room temperature from such samples without invoking any post-treatment, and the spectral features can find a qualitative explanation in the framework of quantum confinement effect. Moreover, the decay time was for the first time brought down to within one nanosecond. These excellent features make the silicon nanostructures discussed here very promising candidates for light-emitting units in photonic and optoelectronic applications.
  • DONG Zhi-wei, ZHANG Chun-feng, LIU Kang-jun, YAN Yong-li, QIAN Shi-xiong, DENG Hong
    A brief introduction on the advance in the fabrication technology of ZnO materials was given. Related research on the multi-photon excitation processes in several kinds of ZnO materials under intense pump conditions by fs pulses were reviewed. Stimulated emission properties in ZnO microtubes and nanowires have also been dealt with. Possible nonlinear effects that emerged under the extremely intense field were discussed.
  • HUANG Chao-guang, TIAN Yu, WU Xiao-ning, GUO Han-ying
    It is shown that all vacuum solutions of Einstein field equation with a positive cosmological constant are the solutions of a model of dS gauge theory of gravity. Therefore, the model is expected to pass the observational tests on the scale of solar systems and explain the indirect evidence of gravitational wave from the binary pulsars PSR1913+16.
  • ELHADJ Zeraoulia, C.SPROTT J.
    This paper offers an overview of some important issues concerning the robustness of chaos in dynamical systems and their applications to the real world.
  • PANG Xiao-feng
    In this paper, we present the elementary principles of nonlinear quantum mechanics (NLQM), which is based on some problems in quantum mechanics. We investigate in detail the motion laws and some main properties of microscopic particles in nonlinear quantum systems using these elementary principles. Concretely speaking, we study in this paper the wave-particle duality of the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the stability of microscopic particles described by NLQM, invariances and conservation laws of motion of particles, the Hamiltonian principle of particle motion and corresponding Lagrangian and Hamilton equations, the classical rule of microscopic particle motion, the mechanism and rules of particle collision, the features of reflection and the transmission of particles at interfaces, and the uncertainty relation of particle motion as well as the eigenvalue and eigenequations of particles, and so on. We obtained the invariance and conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum and angular momentum for the microscopic particles, which are also some elementary and universal laws of matter in the NLQM and give further the methods and ways of solving the above questions. We also find that the laws of motion of microscopic particles in such a case are completely different from that in the linear quantum mechanics (LQM). They have a lot of new properties; for example, the particles possess the real wave-corpuscle duality, obey the classical rule of motion and conservation laws of energy,momentum and mass, satisfy minimum uncertainty relation, can be localized due to the nonlinear interaction, and its position and momentum can also be determined, etc. From these studies, we see clearly that rules and features of microscopic particle motion in NLQM is different from that in LQM. Therefore, the NLQM is a new physical theory, and a necessary result of the development of quantum mechanics and has a correct representation of describing microscopic particles in nonlinear systems, which can solve problems disputed for about a century by scientists in the LQM field. Hence, the NLQM built is very necessary and correct. The NLQM established can promote the development of physics and can enhance and raise the knowledge and recognition levels to the essences of microscopic matter. We can predict that nonlinear quantum mechanics has extensive applications in physics, chemistry, biology and polymers, etc.