In this paper, we present the elementary principles of nonlinear quantum mechanics (NLQM), which is based on some problems in quantum mechanics. We investigate in detail the motion laws and some main properties of microscopic particles in nonlinear quantum systems using these elementary principles. Concretely speaking, we study in this paper the wave-particle duality of the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the stability of microscopic particles described by NLQM, invariances and conservation laws of motion of particles, the Hamiltonian principle of particle motion and corresponding Lagrangian and Hamilton equations, the classical rule of microscopic particle motion, the mechanism and rules of particle collision, the features of reflection and the transmission of particles at interfaces, and the uncertainty relation of particle motion as well as the eigenvalue and eigenequations of particles, and so on. We obtained the invariance and conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum and angular momentum for the microscopic particles, which are also some elementary and universal laws of matter in the NLQM and give further the methods and ways of solving the above questions. We also find that the laws of motion of microscopic particles in such a case are completely different from that in the linear quantum mechanics (LQM). They have a lot of new properties; for example, the particles possess the real wave-corpuscle duality, obey the classical rule of motion and conservation laws of energy,momentum and mass, satisfy minimum uncertainty relation, can be localized due to the nonlinear interaction, and its position and momentum can also be determined, etc. From these studies, we see clearly that rules and features of microscopic particle motion in NLQM is different from that in LQM. Therefore, the NLQM is a new physical theory, and a necessary result of the development of quantum mechanics and has a correct representation of describing microscopic particles in nonlinear systems, which can solve problems disputed for about a century by scientists in the LQM field. Hence, the NLQM built is very necessary and correct. The NLQM established can promote the development of physics and can enhance and raise the knowledge and recognition levels to the essences of microscopic matter. We can predict that nonlinear quantum mechanics has extensive applications in physics, chemistry, biology and polymers, etc.