This review article summarizes the new research in solid-state physical chemistry understanding of the microstructure characteristics of semiconductor tin oxide thin films made in the last years in our group. The work mainly focuses on the fabrication technology of semiconductor tin oxides thin films by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) as well as the application of this technology on new micro- and nanostructured materials. It is an interdisciplinary work that integrates the areas of physics, chemistry and materials science.
This review investigates the current application limitations of Mg and Mg alloys. The key issues hindering the application of biodegradable Mg alloys as implants are their fast degradation rate and biological consideration. We have discussed the effect of some selected alloying element additions on the properties of the Mg-based alloy, especially the nutrient elements in human (Zn, Mn, Ca, Sr). Different grain sizes, phase constituents and distributions consequently influence the mechanical properties of the Mg alloys. Solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening are enhanced by the addition of alloying elements, generally improving the mechanical properties. Besides, the hot working process can also improve the mechanical properties. Combination of different processing steps is suggested to be adopted in the fabrication of Mg-based alloys. Corrosion properties of these Mg-based alloys have been measured
Silk fibroin (SF) from the
Chitin is a thermostable biopolymer found in various inorganic--organic skeletal structures of numerous invertebrates including sponges (Porifera). The occurrence of chitin within calcium- and silica-based biominerals in organisms living in extreme natural conditions has inspired development of new (extreme biomimetic) synthesis route of chitin-based hybrid materials
Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the constituent of calcium phosphate based bone cement and it is extensively used as a bone substitute and drug delivery vehicle in various biomedical applications. In the present study we investigated the release kinetics of ciprofloxacin loaded HAP and analyzed its ability to function as a targeted and sustained release drug carrier. Synthesis of HAP was carried out by combustion method using tartaric acid as a fuel and nitric acid as an oxidizer. Powder XRD and FTIR techniques were employed to characterize the phase purity of the drug carrier and to verify the chemical interaction between the drug and carrier. The synthesized powders were sieve separated to make two different drug carriers with different particle sizes and the surface topography of the pellets of the drug carrier was imaged by AFM. Surface area and porosity of the drug carrier was carried out using surface area analyzer. The
Artificial tissue engineering scaffolds can potentially provide support and guidance for the regrowth of severed axons following nerve injury. In this study, a hybrid biomaterial composed of alginate and hyaluronic acid (HA) was synthesized and characterized in terms of its suitability for covalent modification, biocompatibility for living Schwann cells and feasibility to construct three dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Carbodiimide mediated amide formation for the purpose of covalent crosslinking of the HA was carried out in the presence of calcium ions that ionically crosslink alginate. Amide formation was found to be dependent on the concentrations of carbodiimide and calcium chloride. The double-crosslinked composite hydrogels display biocompatibility that is comparable to simple HA hydrogels, allowing for Schwann cell survival and growth. No significant difference was found between composite hydrogels made from different ratios of alginate and HA. A 3D BioPlotterTM rapid prototyping system was used to fabricate 3D scaffolds. The result indicated that combining HA with alginate facilitated the fabrication process and that 3D scaffolds with porous inner structure can be fabricated from the composite hydrogels, but not from HA alone. This information provides a basis for continuing
The effect of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) using 8 mm ? alumina balls was studied. SMAT induced plastic deformation, increased the surface roughness, reduced the grain size and decreased the contact angle (from 64° to 43°) with a corresponding increase in surface energy (from 32 to 53 mJ/m2). Untreated CP-Ti and those treated using alumina balls for 900 s reveals no apatite growth until the 28th day of immersion whereas those treated for 1800 and 2700 s exhibit apatite growth in selective areas and the extent of growth is increased with increase in immersion time in SBF. The study reveals that SMAT using alumina balls is beneficial in imparting the desired surface characteristics, provided the surface contamination is limited, which would otherwise decrease the apatite forming ability.
The composite, 0.5(BiGd0.15Fe0.85O3)---0.5(PbZrO3), was synthesized using the solid-state reaction technique. The formation of the compound was confirmed by XRD with an orthorhombic structure at room temperature. The impedance parameters were studied using an impedance analyzer in a wide range of frequency (102---106 Hz) at different temperatures. The Nyquist plot suggests the contribution of bulk effect and a slight indication of grain boundary effect and the bulk resistance decreases with a rise in temperature. The presence of temperature-dependent relaxation process occurs in the material. Electrical modulus reveals the presence of the hopping mechanism in the materials. The value of exponent
We present here a method for modifying the surface of carbon black (CB) using a simple heat treatment in the presence of a carboxylic acid as well as water or ethylene glycol as a solvent. CB was mixed with maleic acid and either water or ethylene glycol, and heated at 250°C. Unlike the traditional surface modification processes which use heat treatment of carbon with mineral acids the present modification method using a carboxylic acid proved to be simple and time efficient. CB from two different vendors was used, and the modified samples were characterized by TGA, BET surface area measurement, XRD, particle size and zeta potential measurements, and FTIR. It was found that several material properties, including thermal stability and surface area, of the modified CB are significantly altered relative to the parental carbon samples. This method provides a rapid and simple route to tailor new materials with desired properties.
The FeS coated Fe nanoparticles were prepared by using high temperature reactions between the commercial Fe nanoparticles and the S powders in a sealed quartz tube. The simple method developed in this work is effective for large scale synthesis of FeS/Fe nanoparticles with tunable shell/core structures, which can be obtained by controlling the atomic ratio of Fe to S. The structural, magnetic and photocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles were investigated systematically. The good photocatalytic performance originating from the FeS shell in degradation of methylene blue under visible light and the high saturation magnetization originating from the ferromagnetic Fe core make the FeS/Fe nanoparticles a good photocatalyst that can be collected and recycled easily with a magnet. An exchange bias up to 11 mT induced in Fe by FeS was observed in the Fe/FeS nanoparticles with ferro/antiferromagnetic interfaces. The enhanced coercivi-ty up to 32 mT was ascribed to the size effect of Fe core.