Filled skutterudite is currently one of the most promising intermediate-temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials, having good thermoelectric transport performance and excellent mechanical properties. For the preparation of high-efficiency filled skutterudite TE devices, it is important to have p- and n-type filled skutterudite TE materials with matching performance. However, the current TE properties of p-type Fe-based filled skutterudite materials are worse than n-type filled skutterudite materials. Therefore, how to obtain high-performance p-type Fe-based filled skutterudite materials is the key to preparation of high-efficiency skutterudite-based TE devices. This review summarizes some methods for optimizing the thermal transport performance of p-type filled skutterudite materials at the atomic-molecular and nano-mesoscopic scale that have been used in recent years. These methods include doping, multi-atom filling, and use of low-dimensional structure and of nanocomposite. In addition, the synergistic optimization methods of the electrical and thermal transport parameters and advanced preparation technologies of p-type filled skutterudite materials in recent years are also briefly summarized. These optimizational methods and advanced preparation technologies can significantly improve the TE properties of p-type Fe-based filled skutterudite materials.
Recent advances in nanotechnology have attracted significant attention to nanodiamonds (NDs) in both industrial and research areas thanks to their remarkable intrinsic properties: large specific area, poor cytotoxicity, chemical resistance, magnetic and optical properties, ease of large-scale production, and surface reactivity make them suitable for numerous applications, including electronics, optics, sensors, polishing materials, and more recently, biological purposes. Growing interest in diamond platforms for bioimaging and chemotherapy is observed. Given the outstanding features of these particles and their ease of tuning, current and future applications in medicine have the potential to display innovative imaging applications and to be used as tools for monitoring and tracking drug delivery in vivo.
Porosity parameters are one of the structural properties of the extracellular microenvironment that have been shown to have a great impact on the cellular phenotype and various biological activities such as diffusion of fluid, initial protein adsorption, permeability, cell penetration and migration, ECM deposition, angiogenesis, and rate and pattern of new tissue formation. The heterogeneity of the study protocols and research methodologies do not allow reliable meta-analysis for definite findings. As such, despite the huge available literature, no generally accepted consensus is defined for the porosity requirements of specific tissue engineering applications. However, based on the biomimetic approach, the biological substitutes should replicate the 3D local microenvironment of the recipient site with matching porosity parameters to best support local cells during tissue regeneration. Ideally, the porosity of biomaterials should mimic the porosity of the substituting natural tissue and match the clinical requirements. Careful analysis of the impact of architectures (i.e., porosity) on biophysical, biochemical, and biological behaviors will support designing smart biomaterials with customized architectural and functional properties that are patient and defect site-specific.
The design and development of multifunctional nano-drug delivery systems (NDDSs) is a solution that is expected to solve some intractable problems in traditional cancer treatment. In particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are novel hybrid porous nanomaterials which are constructed by the coordination of metal cations or clusters and organic bridging ligands. Benefiting from their intrinsic superior properties, MOFs have captivated intensive attentions in drug release and cancer theranostic. Based on what has been achieved about MOF-based DDSs in recent years, this review introduces different stimuli-responsive mechanisms of them and their applications in cancer diagnosis and treatment systematically. Moreover, the existing challenges and future opportunities in this field are summarized. By realizing industrial production and paying attention to biosafety, their clinical applications will be enriched.
A hydrothermal deposition method was utilized to fabricate Ca-P composite coating induced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyvinylpyrrolidone/deoxyribonucleic acid (PVP/DNA)20 multilayer on AZ31 alloy. The surface morphology and compositions were characterized by SEM, EDS, FTIR and XRD. Besides, the corrosion resistance and degradation behavior of the coating were tested via electrochemical polarization, impedance spectroscopy and immersion measurements. Results show that the main components of Ca-P coatings are hydroxyapatite, Ca3(PO4)2 and Mg3(PO4)2·nH2O. The LbL-assembled DNA and PVP promote the adsorption of Ca-P deposits on the sample surface, and structures and functional groups of the polyelectrolyte in the outermost layer are the primary influencing factor for the induction of the Ca-P coating. Carboxyl groups have the best biomineralization effect among all related functional groups. The enhanced corrosion resistance and adhesion highlight a promising use of (PVP/DNA)20-induced Ca-P coatings in the field of biomedical magnesium alloys.
Wearable gas sensors can improve early warning provision for workers in special worksites and can also be used as flexible electronic platforms. Here, the flexible multifunctional gas sensor was prepared by grafting graphene oxide (GO)-Ag onto cotton fabric after swelling. The maximum bacterial inhibition rate of GO-150/cotton fabric was 95.6% for E. coli and 87.6% for S. aureus, while retaining the original high moisture permeability of cotton fabric. So GO/cotton fabric can resist the multiplication of bacteria. At the same time, GO can greatly improve the UV protection performance of cotton fabric used in garments. With increase of the GO concentration, the UV protection ability of composite fabric is enhanced. Finally, GO-Ag/cotton fabric sensors had stable NH3 gas-sensitive properties and good washing stability. In conclusion, these cotton fabric sensors with antibacterial properties, UV resistance and highly sensitive gas-sensitive properties have potential applications in wearable early warning devices and textile products.
Beads free polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/NiO nanofibers with an average diameter of 400 nm were successfully prepared through the electrospinning method. NiO nanograins were formed along the axis of the nanofiber due to the calcination of as-spun fibers for 24 h at 450 °C and their presence was confirmed by FESEM. NiO nanograins were characterized by XRD, XPS and FTIR. The characterization results showed the presence of NiO in nanograins and its polycrystalline nature with ionic states. The sensing studies of NiO nanograins were performed towards the pulmonary disease breath markers and they showed better response towards formaldehyde vapour at 350 °C. Calcined NiO grains showed a good response towards the 11–1145 ppm of formaldehyde vapour at the operating temperature of 350 °C. NiO nanograins also showed quick response time (37 s) and recovery time (14 s) towards 46 ppm of formaldehyde. A sensing mechanism was proposed for the formaldehyde vapour interaction at 350 °C with NiO nanograins.
This work reports the immobilization of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on cotton fabrics (CFs). The ZnO and AuNPs containing CF composite materials demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activity towards degradation of the model organic dye molecule. A two-step method was used to first create zinc oxide nanorods (ZnONRs) on the CF fibers. Subsequently, these ZnONRs were decorated with cationic polymer-capped AuNPs to yield the composite materials. A one-pot synthetic route was developed to synthesize polymer-capped AuNPs. The water-soluble cationic polymers used here are polyguanidino oxanorbornenes (PGONs) at 20 kDa and polyamino oxanorbornenes (PAONs) at 20 kDa. UV–vis was utilized to monitor the composite materials’ photocatalytic activity in degrading model organic dye molecules. All the materials were characterized by FTIR, UV–visible DRS, SEM, EDX, and XRD. The composite materials exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and recyclability in the presence of UV light.