Early detection of cancer has multitude of advantages like early diagnosis, reduced risk, ease in the treatment and follow up of recurrence. New and developed techniques are always under research to control the spreading malignancy. Graphene is an emerging star in biomedical field as it exhibits exceptional thermal, electrical and optical properties. Here, we review application of graphene-based materials in developing biosensing devices for the detection of different cancer biomarkers at concentrations down to sub-toxic levels. Different analytical methodologies chosen for sensing have been undertaken and their performance and background have been discussed. The trend of use of these methodologies can also be perceived from the graphical data presented.
Silicon-based material is considered to be one of the most promising anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its rich sources, non-toxicity, low cost and high theoretical specific capacity. However, it cannot maintain a stable electrode structure during repeated charge/discharge cycles, and therefore long cycling life is difficult to be achieved. To address this problem, herein a simple and efficient method is developed for the fabrication of an integrated composite anode consisting of SiO-based active material and current collector, which exhibits a core–shell structure with nitrogen-doped carbon coating on SiO/P micro-particles. Without binder and conductive agent, the volume expansion of SiO active material in the integrated composite anode is suppressed to prevent its pulverization. At a current density of 500 mA·g−1, this integrated composite anode exhibits a reversible specific capacity of 458 mA·h·g−1 after 200 cycles. Furthermore, superior rate performance and cycling stability are also achieved. This work illustrates a potential method for the fabrication of integrated composite anodes with superior electrochemical properties for high-performance LIBs.
A ternary single-walled carbon nanotubes/RuO2/polyindole (SWCNT/RuO2/PIn) nanocomposite was fabricated by the oxidation polymerization of indole on the prefabricated SWCNT/RuO2 binary nanocomposites. The nanocomposite was measured by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS and XPS, together with the electrochemical technique. The electrochemical results demonstrated that the symmetric supercapacitor used SWCNT/RuO2/PIn as electrodes presented 95% retention rate after 10000 cycles, superior capacitive performance of 1203 F·g−1 at 1 A·g−1, and high energy density of 33 W·h·kg−1 at 5000 W·kg−1. The high capacitance performance of SWCNT/RuO2/PIn nanocomposite was mainly ascribed to the beneficial cooperation effect among components. This indicated that the SWCNT/RuO2/PIn nanocomposite would be a good candidate for high-performance supercapacitors.
Dispersed TiO2 hollow spheres were successfully prepared which was obtained via Ostwald ripening under solvothermal conditions without any templates or surfactants. Then, the AgI/TiO2 was synthesized by the deposition−precipitation process. Finally, Ag/AgI/TiO2 was obtained by a photocatalytic reduction way. Their characteristics were analyzed by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, N2 adsorption−desorption measurements and UV-vis absorption spectra. To demonstrate the potential applications of such composites, their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was studied by microcalorimetry for the first time, and their photocatalytic performance for degradation of different organic dyes under simulated UV and visible light was discussed. The results indicated that Ag/AgI/TiO2 hollow spheres revealed elevated antibacterial and photocatalytic activity because of their unique morphology, hollow structure and high surface area. The mechanism of the excellent antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgI/TiO2 hollow spheres are discussed which are attributed to the synergetic effect of Ag, AgI and TiO2. It suggested that the new Ag/AgI/TiO2 photocatalyst has broad application prospects in solar cell, sensor, antibacterial, catalysis and nanotechnology.
Upconversion (UC) lanthanide nanomaterials have attracted enormous attention in the last two decades thanks to their unique ability to convert low-energy infrared photons into high-energy photons. In this mini-review, we briefly discussed the recent achievements related to the direct utilization of UC optical nanomaterials for photocatalysis and photovoltaic applications. In particular, selected examples of UC-containing devices/nanocomposites with improved performance were covered. In addition, we outlined some challenges and future trends associated with the widespread usage of UC nanomaterials.
In the past few decades, many novel non-metal doped ZnO materials have developed hasty interest due to their adaptable properties such as low recombination rate and high activity under the solar light exposure. In this article, we compiled recent research advances in non-metal (S, N, C) doped ZnO, emphasizing on the related mechanism of catalysis and the effect of non-metals on structural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic characteristics of ZnO. This review will enhance the knowledge about the advancement in ZnO and will help in synthesizing new ZnO-based materials with modified structural and photocatalytic properties.
Rare-earth coordination polymers (RECPs), as a family member of coordination polymers (CPs), have been prepared and studied widely. Thanks to their characteristic properties and functions, RECPs have already been used in various application fields ranging from catalysis to drug delivery. In recent years, CPs with tunable morphologies and sizes have drawn increasing interest and attractive attention. This review presents the recent research progress of RECP micro/nanomaterials, and emphasizes the preparation, properties and broad applications of these fascinating materials.
In the last decade, the surface plasmon resonance-enhanced solar water splitting (SWS) has been actively investigated for improved hydrogen production. In this mini-review, we briefly introduce the mechanisms for plasmon-enhanced SWS and then review some representative studies related to these mechanisms. In addition, we also briefly discuss how metal oxide geometry affects the SWS activity in combined metal--semiconductor nanostructures. Finally, we summarize the recent discoveries and proposed a future vision for plasmon-enhanced SWS with metal oxide nanostructures.