Supramolecular self-assembly has proven to be a reliable approach towards versatile nanomaterials based on multiple weak intermolecular forces. In this review, the development of bio-inspired supramolecular self-assembly into soft materials and their applications are summarized. Molecular systems used in bio-inspired “bottom-up self-assembly” involve small organic molecules, peptides or proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses. Self-assembled soft nanomaterials have been exploited in various applications such as inorganic nanomaterial synthesis, drug or gene delivery, tissue engineering, and so on.
In the last 15 years biomineralization, in particular biosilicification (i.e., the formation of biogenic silica, SiO2), has become an exciting source of inspiration for the development of novel bionic approaches, following “Nature as model”. Among the silica forming organisms there are the sponges that have the unique property to catalyze their silica skeletons by a specific enzyme termed silicatein. In the present review we summarize the present state of knowledge on silicatein-mediated “biosilica” formation in marine sponges, the involvement of further molecules in silica metabolism and their potential application in biomedicine. Recent advancements in the production of bone replacement material and in the potential use as a component in the treatment of osteoporosis are highlighted.
Solvent played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate phase of the chitosan/calcium phosphate composites. In this investigation, ethanol-acetic acid mixtures were employed as solvents, and various calcium phosphate phases, such as brushite, amorphous calcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite, were introduced into the chitosan/calcium phosphate composites by using
A new type of collagen mimetic peptide, (PKG)
For reconstruction of irregular bone defects, injectable biomaterials are more appropriate than the preformed biomaterials. We herein develop a biomimetic
Cobalt and cobalt oxide nanocrystals were synthesized on Si substrates from aqueous cobalt nitrate [Co(NO3)2·6H2O] powder via chemical vapor deposition method. Scanning electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope observations show different morphologies, such as continuous films, nano-bars, nano-dices, and nano-strings, depending on the synthesis temperature. The crystal structure characterization was conducted using X-ray diffraction methods. Furthermore, the properties of the samples were characterized using Raman spectroscopic analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer. The morpholo- gy change was discussed in terms of synthesis environments and chemical interactions between cobalt, oxygen, and silicon.
Direct mixture of Au3+ with glutathione (GSH), which act as both reduction agents and stabilizers, in aqueous solution gave rise to production of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with uniform sizes of around 21 nm. The GSH stabilizer Au NPs in solution show immediate aggregation after addition of 1 mol/L NaCl aqueous solution containing Pb2+ ions. The Pb2+-induced aggregation in Au NP solution is monitored by both colorimetric response and UV-vis spectroscopy. A rather broad linear range (from 0.1 to 30 μmol/L) and low detection limit (0.1 μmol/L) are explored for Au NP sensors used for detection of Pb2+ ions. Furthermore, the response of GSH-stabilized Au NPs toward Pb2+ ions is specific compared with other possible interferants (Hg2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, and Ba2+).
Combining with XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to discern the self-assembled structures of β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs) threaded onto the polymer backbone in the polyrotaxanes (PRs) by means of the relative changes of absorption intensity of the characteristic peaks of β-CDs at 1153 and 1025 cm-1. For quantitative analysis, six parameters are proposed to describe the relative absorption intensity variations of these peaks associated with a channel-type crystal structure or a dispersed structure of β-CDs entrapped. Among them, absorbance ratio (AR), relative absorbance difference (RAD) and transmittance difference (TD) values are suitable. When the AR, RAD and TD data get below 1.04, 4.8 and 1.27, respectively, the PRs obtained would possess a dispersed structure. If these values go beyond 1.32, 34.5 and 9.47, respectively, they would hold a channel-type crystal structure. This finding provides a useful judgment to distinguish the self-assembled structures of β-CDs residing along the polymer backbone in the PRs.