The torso plays an important role in the human-like operation of humanoids. In this paper, a method is proposed to analyze the behavior of the human torso by using inertial and magnetic sensing tools. Experiments are conducted to characterize the motion performance of the human torso during daily routine operations. Furthermore, the forces acting on the human body during these operations are evaluated to design and validate the performance of a humanoid robot.
Static balancing for a manipulator’s weight is necessary in terms of energy saving and performance improvement. This paper proposes a method to design balancing devices for articulated robots in industry, based on robotic dynamics. Full design details for the balancing system using springs are presented from two aspects: One is the optimization for the position of the balancing system; the other is the design of the spring parameters. As examples, two feasible balancing devices are proposed, based on different robotic structures: The first solution consists of linkages and springs; the other consists of pulleys, cross mechanisms and (hydro-) pneumatic springs. Then the two solutions are compared. Pneumatic, hydro-pneumatic and mechanical springs are discussed and their parameters are decided according to the requirements of torque compensation. Numerical results show that with the proper design using the methodology presented in this paper, an articulated robot can be statically balanced perfectly in all configurations. This paper therefore provides a design method of the balancing system for other similar structures.
In recent years, various cable-driven parallel robots have been investigated for their advantages, such as low structural weight, high acceleration, and large workspace, over serial and conventional parallel systems. However, the use of cables lowers the stiffness of these robots, which in turn may decrease motion accuracy. A linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller can provide all the states of a system for the feedback, such as position and velocity. Thus, the application of such an optimal controller in cable-driven parallel robots can result in more efficient and accurate motion compared to the performance of classical controllers such as the proportional-integral-derivative controller. This paper presents an approach to apply the LQ optimal controller on cable-driven parallel robots. To employ the optimal control theory, the static and dynamic modeling of a 3-DOF planar cable-driven parallel robot (Feriba-3) is developed. The synthesis of the LQ optimal control is described, and the significant experimental results are presented and discussed.
This study proposes an algorithm for maximizing strip width in orthogonal turn-milling based on variable eccentric distance. The machining error model is first established based on the local cutting profile at the contact line. The influencing factors of the strip width are then investigated to analyze their features and determine an optimizing strategy. The optimized model for maximum machining strip width is formulated by adopting a variable eccentric distance. Hausdorff distance and Fréchet distance are introduced in this study to implement the constraint function of the machining error in the optimized model. The computing procedure is subsequently provided. Simulations and experiments have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
For a repetitive command path, pre-compensating the contouring error by modifying the command path is practical. To obtain the pre-compensation value with better accuracy, this paper proposes the use of a back propagation neural network to extract the function of systematic contouring errors. Furthermore, by using the extracted function, the contouring error can be easily pre-compensated. The experiment results verify that the proposed compensation method can effectively reduce contouring errors.
Fiber metal laminates have many advantages over traditional laminates (e.g., any type of fiber and resin material can be placed anywhere between the metallic layers without risk of failure of the composite fabric sheets). Furthermore, the process requirements to strictly control the temperature and punch force in fiber metal laminates are also less stringent than those in traditional laminates. To further explore the novel method, this study conducts a finite element method-based (FEM-based) strain analysis on multilayer blanks by using the 3A method. Different forming modes such as wrinkling and fracture are discussed by using experimental and numerical studies. Hydroforming is used for multilayer forming. The Barlat 2000 yield criteria and DYNAFORM/LS-DYNA are used for the simulations. Optimal process parameters are determined on the basis of fixed die-binder gap and variable cavity pressure. The results of this study will enhance the knowledge on the mechanics of multilayer structures formed by using the 3A method and expand its commercial applications.
The interface wave traveling along the boundary of two materials has been studied for nearly a century. However, experiments, engineering applications, and interface wave applications to the non-destructive inspection of interlaminar composite have developed slowly. In this research, an experiment that applies Stoneley waves (a type of interfacial wave between two solid half-spaces) is implemented to detect the damage in a multilayer structure. The feasibility of this method is also verified. First, the wave velocity and wave structure of Stoneley waves at a perfectly bonded aluminum-steel interface are obtained by solving the Stoneley wave dispersion equation of two elastic half-spaces. Thereafter, an experiment is conducted to measure the Stoneley wave velocity of an aluminum-steel laminated beam and to locate interlaminar cracks by referring to the Stoneley wave velocity and echo wave time. Results indicate that the location error is less than 2%. Therefore, Stoneley waves show great potential as a non-destructive inspection method of a multilayer structure.
For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.
The main scope of the current study is to develop a systematic stochastic model to capture the undesired uncertainty and random noises on the key parameters affecting the catalyst temperature over the coldstart operation of automotive engine systems. In the recent years, a number of articles have been published which aim at the modeling and analysis of automotive engines’ behavior during coldstart operations by using regression modeling methods. Regarding highly nonlinear and uncertain nature of the coldstart operation, calibration of the engine system’s variables, for instance the catalyst temperature, is deemed to be an intricate task, and it is unlikely to develop an exact physics-based nonlinear model. This encourages automotive engineers to take advantage of knowledge-based modeling tools and regression approaches. However, there exist rare reports which propose an efficient tool for coping with the uncertainty associated with the collected database. Here, the authors introduce a random noise to experimentally derived data and simulate an uncertain database as a representative of the engine system’s behavior over coldstart operations. Then, by using a Gaussian process regression machine (GPRM), a reliable model is used for the sake of analysis of the engine’s behavior. The simulation results attest the efficacy of GPRM for the considered case study. The research outcomes confirm that it is possible to develop a practical calibration tool which can be reliably used for modeling the catalyst temperature.
The energy consumption of crushing is directly affected by the mechanical properties of cement materials. This research provides a theoretical proof for the mechanism of the stress relaxation of cement clinkers under high temperature. Compression stress relaxation under various high temperatures is discussed using a specially developed load cell, which can measure stress and displacement under high temperatures inside an autoclave. The cell shows that stress relaxation dramatically increases and that the remaining stress rapidly decreases with an increase in temperature. Mechanical experiments are conducted under various temperatures during the cooling process to study the changes in the grinding resistance of the cement clinker with temperature. The effects of high temperature on the load-displacement curve, compressive strength, and elastic modulus of cement clinkers are systematically studied. Results show that the hardening phenomenon of the clinker becomes apparent with a decrease in temperature and that post-peak behaviors manifest characteristics of the transformation from plasticity to brittleness. The elastic modulus and compressive strength of cement clinkers increase with a decrease in temperature. The elastic modulus increases greatly when the temperature is lower than 1000 °C. The compressive strength of clinkers increases by 73.4% when the temperature drops from 1100 to 800 °C.
Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted on the single crystal nickel-based superalloy, DD6, with different crystallographic orientations (i.e., , , and ) and strain dwell types (i.e., tensile, compressive, and balanced types) at a certain high temperature. Given the material anisotropy and mean stress, both orientation factor and stress range were introduced to the Smith, Watson, and Topper (SWT) stress model to predict the fatigue life. Experimental results indicated that the fatigue properties of DD6 depend on both crystallographic orientation and loading types. The fatigue life of the tensile, compressive, and balanced strain dwell tests are shorter than those of continuous cycling tests without strain dwell because of the important creep effect. The predicted results of the proposed modified SWT stress method agree well with the experimental data.
Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a Newtonian fluid and the flow laminar with no wall slip.