The interfacial wear between silicon and amorphous silica in water environment is critical in numerous applications. However, the understanding regarding the micro dynamic process is still unclear due to the limitations of apparatus. Herein, reactive force field simulations are utilized to study the interfacial process between silicon and amorphous silica in water environment, exploring the removal and damage mechanism caused by pressure, velocity, and humidity. Moreover, the reasons for high removal rate under high pressure and high velocity are elucidated from an atomic perspective. Simulation results show that the substrate is highly passivated under high humidity, and the passivation layer could alleviate the contact between the abrasive and the substrate, thus reducing the damage and wear. In addition to more Si-O-Si bridge bonds formed between the abrasive and the substrate, new removal pathways such as multibridge bonds and chain removal appear under high pressure, which cause higher removal rate and severer damage. At a higher velocity, the abrasive can induce extended tribochemical reactions and form more interfacial Si-O-Si bridge bonds, hence increasing removal rate. These results reveal the internal cause of the discrepancy in damage and removal rate under different conditions from an atomic level.
The general discrete scheme of time-varying Reynolds equation loses the information of the previous step, which makes it unreasonable. A discretization formula of the Reynolds equation, which is based on the Crank–Nicolson method, is proposed considering the physical message of the previous step. Gauss–Seidel relaxation and distribution relaxation are adopted for the linear operators of pressure during the numerical solution procedure. In addition to the convergent criteria of pressure distribution and load, an estimation framework is developed to investigate the relative error of the most important term in the Reynolds equation. Smooth surface with full contacts and mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication is tested for validation. The asperity contact and sinusoidal wavy surface are examined by the proposed discrete scheme. Results show the precipitous decline in the boundary of the contact area. The relative error suggests that the pressure distribution is reliable and reflects the accuracy and effectiveness of the developed method.
Seven-degree-of-freedom redundant manipulators with link offset have many advantages, including obvious geometric significance and suitability for configu-ration control. Their configuration is similar to that of the experimental module manipulator (EMM) in the Chinese Space Station Remote Manipulator System. However, finding the analytical solution of an EMM on the basis of arm angle parameterization is difficult. This study proposes a high-precision, semi-analytical inverse method for EMMs. Firstly, the analytical inverse kinematic solution is established based on joint angle parameterization. Secondly, the analytical inverse kinematic solution for a non-offset spherical–roll–spherical (SRS) redundant manipulator is derived based on arm angle parameterization. The approximate solution of the EMM is calculated in accordance with the relationship between the joint angles of the EMM and the SRS manipulator. Thirdly, the error is corrected using a numerical method through the analytical inverse solution based on joint angle parameterization. After selecting the stride and termination condition, the precise inverse solution is computed for the EMM based on arm angle parameterization. Lastly, case solutions confirm that this method has high precision, and the arm angle parameterization method is superior to the joint angle parameterization method in terms of parameter selection.
3D metal printing process has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to advantages, such as flexibility and rapid prototyping. This study aims to investigate the orientation effect of electropolishing characteristics on different surfaces of 316L stainless steel fabricated by laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), considering that the rough surface of 3D printed parts is a key factor limiting its applications in the industry. The electropolishing characteristics on the different surfaces corresponding to the building orientation in selective laser melting are studied. Experimental results show that electrolyte temperature has critical importance on the electropolishing, especially for the vertical direction to the layering plane. The finish of electropolished surfaces is affected by the defects generated during L-PBF process. Thus, the electropolished vertical surface has higher surface roughness Sa than the horizontal surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra show that the electropolished horizontal surface has higher Cr/Fe element ratio than the vertical surface. The electropolished horizontal surface presents higher corrosion resistance than the vertical surface by measuring the anodic polarization curves and fitting the equivalent circuit of experimental electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
This study presents an improved compound control algorithm that substantially enhances the anti-disturbance performance of a gear-drive gyro-stabilized platform with a floating gear tension device. The tension device can provide a self-adjustable preload to eliminate the gap in the meshing process. However, the weaker gear support stiffness and more complex meshing friction are also induced by the tension device, which deteriorates the control accuracy and the ability to keep the aim point of the optical sensors isolated from the platform motion. The modeling and compensation of the induced complex nonlinearities are technically challenging, especially when base motion exists. The aim of this research is to cope with the unmeasured disturbances as well as the uncertainties caused by the base lateral motion. First, the structural properties of the gear transmission and the friction-generating mechanism are analyzed, which classify the disturbances into two categories: Time-invariant and time-varying parts. Then, a proportional-integral controller is designed to eliminate the steady-state error caused by the time-invariant disturbance. A proportional multiple-integral-based state augmented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate and compensate for the time-varying disturbance that can be approximated as a polynomial function. The effectiveness of the proposed compound algorithm is demonstrated by comparative experiments on a gear-drive pointing system with a floating gear tension device, which shows a maximum 76% improvement in stabilization precision.
Safe and effective autonomous navigation in dynamic environments is challenging for four-wheel independently driven steered mobile robots (FWIDSMRs) due to the flexible allocation of multiple maneuver modes. To address this problem, this study proposes a novel multiple mode-based navigation system, which can achieve efficient motion planning and accurate tracking control. To reduce the calculation burden and obtain a comprehensive optimized global path, a kinodynamic interior–exterior cell exploration planning method, which leverages the hybrid space of available modes with an incorporated exploration guiding algorithm, is designed. By utilizing the sampled subgoals and the constructed global path, local planning is then performed to avoid unexpected obstacles and potential collisions. With the desired profile curvature and preselected mode, a fuzzy adaptive receding horizon control is proposed such that the online updating of the predictive horizon is realized to enhance the trajectory-following precision. The tracking controller design is achieved using the quadratic programming (QP) technique, and the primal–dual neural network optimization technique is used to solve the QP problem. Experimental results on a real-time FWIDSMR validate that the proposed method shows superior features over some existing methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy.
Taping is often used to protect patterned wafers and reduce fragmentation during backgrinding of silicon wafers. Grinding experiments using coarse and fine resin-bond diamond grinding wheels were performed on silicon wafers with tapes of different thicknesses to investigate the effects of taping on peak-to-valley (PV), surface roughness, and subsurface damage of silicon wafers after grinding. Results showed that taping in backgrinding could provide effective protection for ground wafers from breakage. However, the PV value, surface roughness, and subsurface damage of silicon wafers with taping deteriorated compared with those without taping although the deterioration extents were very limited. The PV value of silicon wafers with taping decreased with increasing mesh size of the grinding wheel and the final thickness. The surface roughness and subsurface damage of silicon wafers with taping decreased with increasing mesh size of grinding wheel but was not affected by removal thickness. We hope the experimental finding could help fully understand the role of taping in backgrinding.