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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

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    2019, Vol.12  No.3

    Vortex beam with low spatial coherence is called partially coherent vortex (PCV) beam. In contrast with a coherent vortex (CV) beam whose intensity distribution maintains a doughnut profile during propagation in free space, the intensity of a PCV beam evolves gradually from a doughnut profile to a Gaussian profile upon propagation. The most exciting property of a PCV beam is that its spectral degree of coherence (SCD) displays ring dislocations (i.e., cohe [Detail] ...

    Table of Contents

, Volume 12 Issue 3

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REVIEW ARTICIE
Review on partially coherent vortex beams
Jun ZENG, Rong LIN, Xianlong LIU, Chengliang ZHAO, Yangjian CAI
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 229-248.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0901-x
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Ever since vortex beams were proposed, they are known for owning phase singularity and carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the past decades, coherent optics developed rapidly. Vortex beams have been extended from fully coherent light to partially coherent light, from scalar light to vector light, from integral topological charge (TC) to fractional TC. Partially coherent vortex beams have attracted tremendous interest due to their hidden correlation singularity and unique propagation properties (e.g., beam shaping, beam rotation and self-reconstruction). Based on the sufficient condition for devising a genuine correlation function of partially coherent beam, partially coherent vortex beams with nonconventional correlation functions (i.e., non-Gaussian correlated Schell-model functions) were introduced recently. This timely review summarizes basic concepts, theoretical models, generation and propagation of partially coherent vortex beams.

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REVIEW ARTICLE
Development of optical-thermal coupled model for phosphor-converted LEDs
Xinglu QIAN, Jun ZOU, Mingming SHI, Bobo YANG, Yang LI, Ziming WANG, Yiming LIU, Zizhuan LIU, Fei ZHENG
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 249-267.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0857-2
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In this review, first, we discussed the effect of phosphor features on optical properties by the software simulation in detail. A combination of these parameters: phosphor material, phosphor particle size and particle distribution, phosphor layer concentration, phosphor layer thickness, geometry, and location of the phosphor layer, will result in the final optical performance of the phosphor layer. Secondly, we introduced how to improve light extraction efficiency with various proposed methods. Thirdly, we summarized the thermal models to predict the phosphor temperature and the junction temperature. To stabilize the optical performance of phosphor-converted light emitting diodes (PC-LEDs), much effort has been made to reduce the junction temperature of the LED chips. The phosphor temperature, a critical reliability concern for PC-LEDs, should be attracted academic interest. Finally, we summed up optical-thermal coupled model for phosphors and summarized future optical- thermal issues exploring the light quality for LEDs. We foresee that optical-thermal coupled model for PC-LEDs should be paid more attention in the future.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Optimization of organic light emitting diode for HAT-CN based nano-structured device by study of injection characteristics at anode/organic interface
Neha JAIN, O. P. SINHA, Sujata PANDEY
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 268-275.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0848-y
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To increase the current density of the hole only device, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) material has been inserted in the device at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic interface. Since HAT-CN molecule can withdraw electrons, it can alter electronic properties of the electrodes and hence inserted between the organic/metal interfaces. This paper deals with the optimization of the thickness of organic-metal layers to enhance the efficiency. Also, efforts have been made to increase the current density and reduce the operating voltage of the device. The material 2, 7-bis [N, N-bis (4-methoxy-phenyl) amino]-9, 9-spirobifluorene (Meo-Spiro-TPD) is used to simulate the hole only device because it is a thermally stable hole transport material. Simulated results shows that better current density values can be achieved compared to fabricated one by optimizing the organic metal layer thickness. The best optimized layer thickness of 22 nm for Alq3, 25 nm for CBP* doped with Ir(ppy)3, 9 nm for Meo-Spiro TPD and 4 nm for HAT-CN which results in current density of 0.12 A/cm2 with a reduction in operating voltage by approximately 2 V.

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Design and fabrication of compact Ge-on-SOI coupling structure
Jianfeng GAO, Junqiang SUN, Heng ZHOU, Jialin JIANG, Yang ZHOU
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 276-285.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0844-7
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In this paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a simple approach to fabricate vertical integrated structure for coupling between active germanium (Ge) waveguide and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide. The active Ge waveguide is sputtered after etching the underlying passive silicon (Si) waveguide. This method scuttles away from the difficulty involved in the waveguide fabrication by avoiding the etching process for the Ge waveguide, and thereby the waveguide quality is improved. The influences of the coupling structural parameters on the coupling loss are analyzed and discussed. The optimizing parameters are obtained for the fabrication. The minimal coupling loss is experimentally measured about 2.37 dB, and variation tendency of coupling loss against the structural parameters is consistent with the theoretical result. The proposed approach offers an effective path for vertical coupling between Ge and SOI optical components.

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Nano-film aluminum-gold for ultra-high dynamic-range surface plasmon resonance chemical sensor
Briliant Adhi PRABOWO, I Dewa Putu HERMIDA, Robeth Viktoria MANURUNG, Agnes PURWIDYANTRI, Kou-Chen LIU
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 286-295.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0864-y
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An analytical and experimental study of nano-film aluminum (Al) for ultra-high dynamic range surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is presented in this article. A thin film of 16 nm Al is proposed for metallic sensing layer for SPR sensor. For the protective layer, a 10 nm of gold (Au) layer was configured on top of Al as a protection layer. This ultra-high dynamic range of SPR biosensor reached the bulk refractive index sample limit up to 1.45 RIU. For the analytical study, with the assumption of anisotropic refractive indices experiment, the dynamic range showed a refractive index value of around 1.58 RIU. The refractive index value limit achieved by the proposed sensing design is potentially implemented in various applications, such as in chemical detection and environmental monitoring study with high refractive index solution sample. The experimental results are presented as a proof-of-concept of the proposed idea.

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MIMO-WiMAX system incorporated with diverse transformation for 5G applications
Lavish KANSAL, Vishal SHARMA, Jagjit Singh MALHOTRA
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 296-310.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0841-x
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Wireless systems and standards are now progressing toward the implementation of fifth generation (5G) to combat with an expected and explosive growth of demands of wireless services in future. Consequently, wireless interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology at its physical layer is being utilized for the uplink and downlink transmission to afford the high spectral efficiency in fading environments. However, the 5G implementation requires additional improvements to meet the futuristic stress. This work proposes an innovative solution that combines WiMAX system with multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology to meet the required elevated data rates as desired by the growing application needs of 5G. MIMO is capable to fulfil the vision of 5G to realize a huge number of base stations equipped with a large number of terminals to be served in the same time-frequency resource without severe inter-user interference. Furthermore, the proposed system is demonstrated incorporation with discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and fractional Fourier transforms (FrFTs) in the physical layer of the WiMAX system. The evaluated outcomes exemplify a considerable improvement in bit error rate (BER) performance in contrast with the earlier reported work.

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Two-dimensional beam shaping and homogenization of high power laser diode stack with rectangular waveguide
Yuchen SONG, Yunfeng CHEN, Jianguo XIN, Teng SUN
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 311-316.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0831-z
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In this paper, the research work of two-dimensional beam shaping and homogenization of high power laser diode (LD) stack by a rectangular waveguide is presented. Both the theoretical simulation and experiment results have shown that the diode stack beam can be shaped into a uniform square spot with a dimension of 10 mm × 10 mm and the non-uniformity less than 5% along both directions of slow axis and fast axis, the shaped beam has a uniform pumping depth over 10 mm, which is well to be used for a rectangular laser medium end pumping.

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Edge detection on terahertz pulse imaging of dehydrated cutaneous malignant melanoma embedded in paraffin
Jiayu LI, Yijun XIE, Ping SUN
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 317-323.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0861-1
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Terahertz pulse imaging of cutaneous malignant melanoma dehydrated by ethanol and embedded in paraffin was carried out across a frequency range of 0.2–1.4 THz. First, the tissue images based on the time-domain electric-field amplitude information were acquired. Then the areas of normal and cancerous tissues were determined using multi-scale, multi-azimuth and multi-structural element mathematical morphology. The physical meaning of the image was analyzed by calculation of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of cutaneous malignant melanoma in different areas. The refractive index of both normal and cancerous tissues showed anomalous dispersion. The refractive index of cancerous tissues tended to vary between 0.2 and 0.7 THz, while that of normal and fat tissues remain almost unchanged. The absorption of cancerous tissues was higher, with a maximum at 0.37 THz. We concluded that both the refractive index and absorption coefficient differ considerably between normal and cancerous tissues, and the areas of normal and abnormal tissues can be identified using THz pulse imaging combined with mathematical morphology. The method for edge detection of terahertz pulse imaging of cutaneous malignant melanoma provides a reference for the safe surgical removal of malignant tumors.

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High accuracy object detection via bounding box regression network
Lipeng SUN, Shihua ZHAO, Gang LI, Binbing LIU
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 324-331.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0853-1
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As one of the primary computer vision problems, object detection aims to find and locate semantic objects in digital images. Different with object classification, which only recognizes an object to a certain class, object detection also needs to extract accurate locations of objects. In the state-of-the-art object detection algorithms, bounding box regression plays a critical role in order to achieve high localization accuracy. Almost all the popular deep learning based object detection algorithms have utilized bounding box regression for fine tuning of object locations. However, while bounding box regression is widely used, there is few study focused on the underlying rationale, performance dependencies, and performance evaluation. In this paper, we proposed a dedicated deep neural network for bounding box regression, and presented several methods to improve its performance. Some ad hoc experiments are conducted to prove the effectiveness of the network. Also, we apply the network as an auxiliary module to the faster R-CNN algorithm and test them on some real-world images. Experiment results show certain performance improvements on detection accuracy in term of mean IOU.

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Ship hull flexure measurement based on integrated GNSS/LINS
Di WU, Yu JIA, Li WANG, Yueqiang SUN
Front. Optoelectron.. 2019, 12 (3): 332-340.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0867-8
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For precision carrier-based landing aid, the position of reference point on the top of island shall be precisely transferred to the landing point on the deck, so the position transfer error caused by the hull flexure is not negligible. As the existing method is not very applicable to measure the hull flexure, a new technique based on integrated Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Laser Gyro Inertial Navigation System (GNSS/LINS) is proposed in this paper. This integrated GNSS/LINS based measurement method is designed to monitor the hull flexure and set up an integrated GNSS/LINS measurement model based on raw pseudo-range and pseudo-range rate measurement and carrier phase differential positioning measurement to effectively eliminate the measurement error caused by cycle slip and multi-path effect from GNSS. It is shown by demonstration test and analysis that this technique has the capability to precisely measure the hull flexure, with the accuracy being better than 0.02 m.

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