Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with only one pathogenic gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). To identify the potential pathogenic mutations in a Chinese patient with CF, we conducted Sanger sequencing on the genomic DNA of the patient and his parents and detected all 27 coding exons of CFTR and their flanking intronic regions. The patient is a compound heterozygote of c.2909G>A, p.Gly970Asp in exon 18 and c.1210-3C>G in cis with a poly-T of 5T (T5) sequence, 3 bp upstream in intron 9. The splicing effect of c.1210-3C>G was verified via minigene assay in vitro, indicating that wild-type plasmid containing c.1210-3C together with T7 sequence produced a normal transcript and partial exon 10-skipping-transcript, whereas mutant plasmid containing c.1210-3G in cis with T5 sequence caused almost all mRNA to skip exon 10. Overall, c.1210-3C>G, the newly identified pathogenic mutation in our patient, in combination with T5 sequence in cis, affects the CFTR gene splicing and produces nearly no normal transcript in vitro. Moreover, this patient carries a p.Gly970Asp mutation, thus confirming the high-frequency of this mutation in Chinese patients with CF.
Metabolic reprogramming, such as abnormal utilization of glucose, addiction to glutamine, and increased de-novo lipid synthesis, extensively occurs in proliferating cancer cells, but the underneath rationale has remained to be elucidated. Based on the concept of the degree of reduction of a compound, we have recently proposed a calculation termed as potential of electron transfer (PET), which is used to characterize the degree of electron redistribution coupled with metabolic transformations. When this calculation is combined with the assumed model of electron balance in a cellular context, the enforced selective reprogramming could be predicted by examining the net changes of the PET values associated with the biochemical pathways in anaerobic metabolism. Some interesting properties of PET in cancer cells were also discussed, and the model was extended to uncover the chemical nature underlying aerobic glycolysis that essentially results from energy requirement and electron balance. Enabling electron transfer could drive metabolic reprogramming in cancer metabolism. Therefore, the concept and model established on electron transfer could guide the treatment strategies of tumors and future studies on cellular metabolism.
Few studies have described the key features and prognostic roles of lung microbiota in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). We prospectively enrolled consecutive SCAP patients admitted to ICU. Bronchoscopy was performed at bedside within 48 h of ICU admission, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The primary outcome was clinical improvements defined as a decrease of 2 categories and above on a 7-category ordinal scale within 14 days following bronchoscopy. Sixty-seven patients were included. Multivariable permutational multivariate analysis of variance found that positive bacteria lab test results had the strongest independent association with lung microbiota (R2=0.033; P=0.018), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI; R2=0.032; P=0.011) and plasma MIP-1β level (R2=0.027; P=0.044). Random forest identified that the families Prevotellaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Staphylococcaceae were the biomarkers related to the positive bacteria lab test results. Multivariable Cox regression showed that the increase in α-diversity and the abundance of the families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae were associated with clinical improvements. The positive bacteria lab test results, AKI, and plasma MIP-1β level were associated with patients’ lung microbiota composition on ICU admission. The families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae on admission predicted clinical improvements.
Relapse is the main problem after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The outcome of a second allo-HSCT (HSCT2) for relapse post-HSCT has shown promising results in some previous studies. However, little is known about the efficacy of HSCT2 in patients with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia (AL) post-chemotherapy plus modified donor lymphocyte infusion (post-Chemo+m-DLI) after the first allo-HSCT (HSCT1). Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of HSCT2 in 28 patients with relapsed/refractory AL post-Chemo+m-DLI in our center. With a median follow-up of 918 (457–1732) days, 26 patients (92.9%) achieved complete remission, and 2 patients exhibited persistent disease. The probabilities of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) 1 year after HSCT2 were 25.0% and 21.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality on day 100 and at 1 year post-HSCT2 were 7.1%±4.9% and 25.0%±8.4%. The cumulative incidences of relapse were 50.0%±9.8% and 53.5%±9.9% at 1 and 2 years post-HSCT2, respectively. Risk stratification prior to HSCT1 and percentage of blasts before HSCT2 were independent risk factors for OS post-HSCT2, and relapse within 6 months post-HSCT1 was an independent risk factor for DFS and relapse post-HSCT2. Our findings suggest that HSCT2 could be a salvage option for patients with relapsed AL post-Chemo+m-DLI.
Severe aplastic anemia II (SAA-II) progresses from non-severe aplastic anemia (NSAA). The unavailability of efficacious treatment has prompted the need for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (haplo-BMT) in patients lacking a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of haplo-BMT for patients with SAA-II. Twenty-two patients were included and followed up, and FLU/BU/CY/ATG was used as conditioning regimen. Among these patients, 21 were successfully engrafted, 19 of whom survived after haplo-BMT. Four patients experienced grade II–IV aGvHD, including two with grade III–IV aGvHD. Six patients experienced chronic GvHD, among whom four were mild and two were moderate. Twelve patients experienced infections during BMT. One was diagnosed with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and one with probable EBV disease, and both recovered after rituximab infusion. Haplo-BMT achieved 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival rate of 86.4%±0.73% after a median follow-up of 42 months, indicating its effectiveness as a salvage therapy. These promising outcomes may support haplo-BMT as an alternative treatment strategy for patients with SAA-II lacking HLA-matched donors.
Consecutively hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China were retrospectively enrolled from January 2020 to March 2020 to investigate the association between the use of renin–angiotensin system inhibitor (RAS-I) and the outcome of this disease. Associations between the use of RAS-I (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)), ACEI, and ARB and in-hospital mortality were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models in overall and subgroup of hypertension status. A total of 2771 patients with COVID-19 were included, with moderate and severe cases accounting for 45.0% and 36.5%, respectively. A total of 195 (7.0%) patients died. RAS-I (hazard ratio (HR)=0.499, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.325–0.767) and ARB (HR=0.410, 95% CI 0.240–0.700) use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19. For patients with hypertension, RAS-I and ARB applications were also associated with a reduced risk of mortality with HR of 0.352 (95% CI 0.162–0.764) and 0.279 (95% CI 0.115–0.677), respectively. RAS-I exhibited protective effects on the survival outcome of COVID-19. ARB use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19.
Macrolide and corticosteroid resistance has been reported in patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia (MPP). MP clearance is difficult to achieve through antibiotic treatment in sensitive patients with severe MPP (SMPP). SMPP in children might progress to airway remodeling and even bronchiolitis/bronchitis obliterans. Therefore, identifying serum biomarkers that indicate MPP progression and exploring new targeted drugs for SMPP treatment require urgency. In this study, serum samples were collected from patients with general MPP (GMPP) and SMPP to conduct proteomics profiling. The Fc fragment of the IgG-binding protein (FCGBP) was identified as the most promising indicator of SMPP. Biological enrichment analysis indicated uncontrolled inflammation in SMPP. ELISA results proved that the FCGBP level in patients with SMPP was substantially higher than that in patients with GMPP. Furthermore, the FCGBP levels showed a decreasing trend in patients with GMPP but the opposite trend in patients with SMPP during disease progression. Connectivity map analyses identified 25 possible targeted drugs for SMPP treatment. Among them, a mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) inhibitor, which is a macrolide compound and a cell proliferation inhibitor, was the most promising candidate for targeting SMPP. To our knowledge, this study was the first proteomics-based characterization of patients with SMPP and GMPP.
We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of single-course initial regimens in patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). In this trial (NCT01823315), 276 patients were analyzed. Patients were allocated to three initiated regimens: single-course methotrexate (MTX), single-course MTX+ dactinomycin (ACTD), and multi-course MTX (control arm). The primary endpoint was the complete remission (CR) rate by initial drug(s). The primary CR rate was 64.4% with multi-course MTX in the control arm. For the single-course MTX arm, the CR rate was 35.8% by one course; it increased to 59.3% after subsequent multi-course MTX, with non-inferiority to the control (difference −5.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) –19.4% to 9.2%, P=0.014). After further treatment with multi-course ACTD, the CR rate (93.3%) was similar to that of the control (95.2%, P=0.577). For the single-course MTX+ACTD arm, the CR rate was 46.7% by one course, which increased to 89.1% after subsequent multi-course, with non-inferiority (difference 24.7%, 95% CI 12.8%–36.6%, P<0.001) to the control. It was similar to the CR rate by MTX and further ACTD in the control arm (89.1% vs. 95.2%, P=0.135). Four patients experienced recurrence, with no death, during the 2-year follow-up. We demonstrated that chemotherapy initiation with single-course MTX may be an alternative regimen for patients with low-risk GTN.
The local microenvironment is essential to stem cell-based therapy for ischemic stroke, and spatiotemporal changes of the microenvironment in the pathological process provide vital clues for understanding the therapeutic mechanisms. However, relevant studies on microenvironmental changes were mainly confined in the acute phase of stroke, and long-term changes remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the microenvironmental changes in the subacute and chronic phases of ischemic stroke after stem cell transplantation. Herein, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) were transplanted into the ischemic brain established by middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery. Positron emission tomography imaging and neurological tests were applied to evaluate the metabolic and neurofunctional alterations of rats transplanted with stem cells. Quantitative proteomics was employed to investigate the protein expression profiles in iPSCs-transplanted brain in the subacute and chronic phases of stroke. Compared with NSCs-transplanted rats, significantly increased glucose metabolism and neurofunctional scores were observed in iPSCs-transplanted rats. Subsequent proteomic data of iPSCs-transplanted rats identified a total of 39 differentially expressed proteins in the subacute and chronic phases, which are involved in various ischemic stroke-related biological processes, including neuronal survival, axonal remodeling, antioxidative stress, and mitochondrial function restoration. Taken together, our study indicated that iPSCs have a positive therapeutic effect in ischemic stroke and emphasized the wide-ranging microenvironmental changes in the subacute and chronic phases.