Evaluating the in situ concrete compressive strength by means of cores cut from hardened concrete is acknowledged as the most ordinary method, however, it is very difficult to predict the compressive strength of concrete since it is affected by many factors such as different mix designs, methods of mixing, curing conditions, compaction, etc. In this paper, considering the experimental results, three different models of multiple linear regression model (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN), and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are established, trained, and tested within the Matlab programming environment for predicting the 28 days compressive strength of concrete with 173 different mix designs. Finally, these three models are compared with each other and resulted in the fact that ANN and ANFIS models enables us to reliably evaluate the compressive strength of concrete with different mix designs, however, multiple linear regression model is not feasible enough in this area because of nonlinear relationship between the concrete mix parameters. Finally, the sensitivity analysis (SA) for two different sets of parameters on the concrete compressive strength prediction are carried out.
In recent few years, significant improvement has been made in developing largescale 3D printers to accommodate the need of industrial-scale 3D printing. It is of great feasibility to construct structural components and buildings by means of 3D concrete printing. The major issues of this innovative technique focus on the preparation and optimization of concrete materials which possess favourable printable properties as well as the measurement and evaluation methods of their workability. This paper firstly introduces three largescale 3D printing systems that have been successfully applied in construction industry. It then summarizes the commonly used raw materials in concrete manufacturing. Critical factors that should be particularly controlled in material preparation are specified. Easy-extrusive, easy-flowing, well-buildable, proper setting time and low shrinkage are significant for concrete mixture to meet the critical requirements of a freeform construction process. Thereafter, measuring methods that can be employed to assess the fresh and hardened properties of concrete at early stages are suggested. Finally, a few of evaluation methods are presented which may offer certain assistance for optimizing material preparation. The objective of this work is to review current design methodologies and experimental measurement and evaluation methods for 3D printable concrete materials and promote its responsible use with largescale 3D printing technology.
Predicting the tunneling-induced maximum ground surface settlement is a complex problem since the settlement depends on plenty of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This study investigates the efficiency and feasibility of six machine learning (ML) algorithms, namely, back-propagation neural network, wavelet neural network, general regression neural network (GRNN), extreme learning machine, support vector machine and random forest (RF), to predict tunneling-induced settlement. Field data sets including geological conditions, shield operational parameters, and tunnel geometry collected from four sections of tunnel with a total of 3.93 km are used to build models. Three indicators, mean absolute error, root mean absolute error, and coefficient of determination the (R2) are used to demonstrate the performance of each computational model. The results indicated that ML algorithms have great potential to predict tunneling-induced settlement, compared with the traditional multivariate linear regression method. GRNN and RF algorithms show the best performance among six ML algorithms, which accurately recognize the evolution of tunneling-induced settlement. The correlation between the input variables and settlement is also investigated by Pearson correlation coefficient.
In the present work, carbon nano/microparticles obtained by controlled pyrolysis of peanut (PS) and hazelnut (HS) shells are presented. These materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). When added to cement paste, up to 1 wt%, these materials led to an increase of the cement matrix flexural strength and of toughness. Moreover, with respect to plain cement, the total increase in electromagnetic radiation shielding effect when adding 0.5 wt% of PS or HS in cement composites is much higher in comparison to the ones reported in the literature for CNTs used in the same content.
This paper is categorized into two parts. (1) A frame work to design the aircraft wing structure and (2) analysis of a morphing airfoil with auxetic structure. The developed design frame work in the first part is used to arrive at the sizes of the various components of an aircraft wing structure. The strength based design is adopted, where the design loads are extracted from the aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads acting on a wing structure are converted to equivalent distributed loads, which are further converted point loads to arrive at the shear forces, bending and twisting moments along the wing span. Based on the estimated shear forces, bending and twisting moments, the strength based design is employed to estimate the sizes of various sections of a composite wing structure. A three dimensional numerical model of the composite wing structure has been developed and analyzed for the extreme load conditions. Glass fiber reinforced plastic material is used in the numerical analysis. The estimated natural frequencies are observed to be in the acceptable limits. Furthermore, the discussed design principles in the first part are extended to the design of a morphing airfoil with auxetic structure. The advantages of the morphing airfoil with auxetic structure are (i) larger displacement with limited straining of the components and (ii) unique deformation characteristics, which produce a theoretical in-plane Poisson’s ratio of −1. Aluminum Alloy AL6061-T651 is considered in the design of all the structural elements. The compliance characteristics of the airfoil are investigated through a numerical model. The numerical results are observed to be in close agreement with the experimental results in the literature.
In view of China’s development trend of green building and building industrialization, based on the emerging requirements of the structural engineering community, the development and proposition of novel resource-saving high-performance steel-concrete composite structural systems with adequate safety and durability has become a kernel development trend in structural engineering. This paper provides a state of the art review of China’s cutting-edge research and technologies in steel-concrete composite structures in recent years, including the building engineering, the bridge engineering and the special engineering. This paper summarizes the technical principles and applications of the long-span bi-directional composite structures, the long-span composite transfer structures, the comprehensive crack control technique based on uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (URSP) connectors, the steel plate concrete composite (SPCC) strengthen technique, and the innovative composite joints. By improving and revising traditional structure types, the comprehensive superiority of steel-concrete composite structures is well elicited. The research results also indicate that the high-performance steel-concrete composite structures have a promising popularizing prospect in the future.
The objectives of this study are to review and evaluate the developments and applications of pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer composites in civil and structural engineering and review advances in research and developments. Several case applications are reviewed. The paper presents a state-of-the-art review of fundamental research on the behavior of pultruded fiber reinforced polymer closed sections and highlights gaps in knowledge and areas of potential further research.
A brief overview of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of circular cylinders is first given as most of VIV studies have been focused on this particular bluff cross-section. A critical literature review of VIV of bridge decks that highlights physical mechanisms central to VIV from a renewed perspective is provided. The discussion focuses on VIV of bridge decks from wind-tunnel experiments, full-scale observations, semi-empirical models and computational fluids dynamics (CFD) perspectives. Finally, a recently developed reduced order model (ROM) based on truncated Volterra series is introduced to model VIV of long-span bridges. This model captures successfully salient features of VIV at “lock-in” and unlike most phenomenological models offers physical significance of the model kernels.
Fragility curves are commonly used in civil engineering to assess the vulnerability of structures to earthquakes. The probability of failure associated with a prescribed criterion (e.g., the maximal inter-storey drift of a building exceeding a certain threshold) is represented as a function of the intensity of the earthquake ground motion (e.g., peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration). The classical approach relies on assuming a lognormal shape of the fragility curves; it is thus parametric. In this paper, we introduce two non-parametric approaches to establish the fragility curves without employing the above assumption, namely binned Monte Carlo simulation and kernel density estimation. As an illustration, we compute the fragility curves for a three-storey steel frame using a large number of synthetic ground motions. The curves obtained with the non-parametric approaches are compared with respective curves based on the lognormal assumption. A similar comparison is presented for a case when a limited number of recorded ground motions is available. It is found that the accuracy of the lognormal curves depends on the ground motion intensity measure, the failure criterion and most importantly, on the employed method for estimating the parameters of the lognormal shape.
With increasing environmental pressure to reduce solid waste and to recycle as much as possible, the concrete industry has adopted a number of methods to achieve this goal by replacement of waste glass with concrete composition materials. Due to differences in mixture design, placement and consolidation techniques, the strength and durability of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) may be different than those of conventional concrete. Therefore, replacement of waste glass with fine aggregate in SCC should deeply be investigated compared to conventional concretes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of glass replacement with fine aggregate on the SCC properties. In present study, fine aggregate has been replaced with waste glass in six different weight ratios ranging from 0% to 50%. Fresh results indicate that the flow-ability characteristics have been increased as the waste glass incorporated to paste volume. Nevertheless, compressive, flexural and splitting strengths of concrete containing waste glass have been shown to decrease when the content of waste glass is increased. The strength reduction of concrete in different glass replacement ratios is not remarkable, thus it can be produced SCC with waste glass as fine aggregate in a standard manner.
This paper presents a comprehensive review of modeling of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete. Such modeling is essential for investigating the chemical expansion mechanism and the subsequent influence on the mechanical aspects of the material. The concept of ASR and the mechanism of expansion are first outlined, and the state-of-the-art of modeling for ASR, the focus of the paper, is then presented in detail. The modeling includes theoretical approaches, meso- and macroscopic models for ASR analysis. The theoretical approaches dealt with the chemical reaction mechanism and were used for predicting pessimum size of aggregate. Mesoscopic models have attempted to explain the mechanism of mechanical deterioration of ASR-affected concrete at material scale. The macroscopic models, chemo-mechanical coupling models, have been generally developed by combining the chemical reaction kinetics with linear or nonlinear mechanical constitutive, and were applied to reproduce and predict the long-term behavior of structures suffering from ASR. Finally, a conclusion and discussion of the modeling are given.
We propose a method to estimate the natural frequencies of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded in an elastic medium. Each of the nested tubes is treated as an individual bar interacting with the adjacent nanotubes through the inter-tube Van der Waals forces. The effect of the elastic medium is introduced through an elastic model. The mathematical model is finally reduced to an eigen value problem and the eigen value problem is solved to arrive at the inter-tube resonances of the MWCNTs. Variation of the natural frequencies with different parameters are studied. The estimated results from the present method are compared with the literature and results are observed to be in close agreement.
The utilization of urban underground space (UUS) offers an effective solution to urban problems but may also negatively affect urban development. Therefore, UUS development needs better concerted guidelines to coordinate various urban systems and the multiple components of the underground world. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which should be viewed as important yardsticks for UUS development, do not explicitly mention urban underground space, although many of them are affected by both the positive and negative consequences of its development. To fill this gap, this review lays the foundations of relevant UUS concepts and uses exemplary cases to reveal that 11 out of 17 SDGs can be linked with UUS uses. These linkages also manifest that land administration, integrated planning, architectural design, and construction technology are critical dimensions for increasing the contributions of UUS to the realization of SDGs. To achieve multi-disciplinary synergies among these four critical dimensions, a collaborative approach framework based on spatial data infrastructure is required. Thus, this work provides academics and practitioners with a holistic view of sustainable UUS development.
Using of rubber asphalt can both promote the recycling of waste tires and improve the performance of asphalt pavement. However, the segregation of rubber asphalt caused by the poor storage stability always appears during its application. Storage stability of asphalt and rubber is related to the compatibility and also influenced by rubber content. In this study, molecular models of different rubbers and chemical fractions of asphalt were built to perform the molecular dynamics simulation. The solubility parameter and binding energy between rubber and asphalt were obtained to evaluate the compatibility between rubber and asphalt as well as the influence of rubber content on compatibility. Results show that all three kinds of rubber are commendably compatible with asphalt, where the compatibility between asphalt and cis-polybutadiene rubber (BR) is the best, followed by styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and natural rubber (NR) is the worst. The optimum rubber contents for BR asphalt, SBR asphalt, and NR asphalt were determined as 15%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. In addition, the upper limits of rubber contents were found as between 25% and 30%, between 20% and 25%, and between 25% and 30%, respectively.
This paper reports on modern developments related to nanotechnology of cement and concrete. Recent advances in instrumentation and design of advanced nano-composite materials is discussed. New technological directions and historical milestones in nanoengineering and nanomodi?cation of cement-based materials are presented. It is concluded that there is a strong potential of nanotechnology to improve the performance of cement-based materials.
Reinforced concretes (RC) have been widely used in constructions. In construction, one of the critical elements carrying a high percentage of the weight is columns which were not used to design to absorb large dynamic load like surface bursts. This study focuses on investigating blast load parameters to design of RC columns to withstand blast detonation. The numerical model is based on finite element analysis using LS-DYNA. Numerical results are validated against blast field tests available in the literature. Couples of simulations are performed with changing blast parameters to study effects of various scaled distances on the nonlinear behavior of RC columns. According to simulation results, the scaled distance has a substantial influence on the blast response of RC columns. With lower scaled distance, higher peak pressure and larger pressure impulse are applied on the RC column. Eventually, keeping the scaled distance unchanged, increasing the charge weight or shorter standoff distance cause more damage to the RC column. Intensive studies are carried out to investigate the effects of scaled distance and charge weight on the damage degree and residual axial load carrying capacity of RC columns with various column width, longitudinal reinforcement ratio and concrete strength. Results of this research will be used to assessment the effect of an explosion on the dynamic behavior of RC columns.
This paper presents an efficient hybrid control approach through combining the idea of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control algorithm. The proposed LQR-PID controller, while having the advantage of the classical PID controller, is easy to implement in seismic-excited structures. Using an optimization procedure based on a cuckoo search (CS) algorithm, the LQR-PID controller is designed for a seismic- excited structure equipped with an active tuned mass damper (ATMD). Considering four earthquakes, the performance of the proposed LQR-PID controller is evaluated. Then, the results are compared with those given by a LQR controller. The simulation results indicate that the LQR-PID performs better than the LQR controller in reduction of seismic responses of the structure in the terms of displacement and acceleration of stories of the structure.
In the framework of finite element meshes, a novel continuous/discontinuous deformation analysis (CDDA) method is proposed in this paper for modeling of crack problems. In the present CDDA, simple polynomial interpolations are defined at the deformable block elements, and a link element is employed to connect the adjacent block elements. The CDDA is particularly suitable for modeling the fracture propagation because the switch from continuous deformation analysis to discontinuous deformation analysis is natural and convenient without additional procedures. The SIFs (stress intensity factors) for various types of cracks, such as kinked cracks or curved cracks, can be easily computed in the CDDA by using the virtual crack extension technique (VCET). Both the formulation and implementation of the VCET in CDDA are simple and straightforward. Numerical examples indicate that the present CDDA can obtain high accuracy in SIF results with simple polynomial interpolations and insensitive to mesh sizes, and can automatically simulate the crack propagation without degrading accuracy.
On June 24, 2021, a 40-year-old reinforced concrete flat plate structure building in Miami suffered a sudden partial collapse. This study analyzed the overall performance and key components of the collapsed building based on the building design codes (ACI-318 and GB 50010). Punching shear and post-punching performances of typical slab-column joints are also studied through the refined finite element analysis. The collapse process was simulated and visualized using a physics engine. By way of these analyses, weak design points of the collapsed building are highlighted. The differences between the reinforcement detailing of the collapsed building and the requirements of the current Chinese code are discussed, together with a comparison of the punching shear and post-punching performances. The simulated collapse procedure and debris distribution are compared with the actual collapse scenes.
In the present study, the free vibration of laminated functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite beams is analyzed. The laminated beam is made of perfectly bonded carbon nanotubes reinforced composite (CNTRC) layers. In each layer, single-walled carbon nanotubes are assumed to be uniformly distributed (UD) or functionally graded (FG) distributed along the thickness direction. Effective material properties of the two-phase composites, a mixture of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and an isotropic polymer, are calculated using the extended rule of mixture. The first-order shear deformation theory is used to formulate a governing equation for predicting free vibration of laminated functionally graded carbon nanotubes reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) beams. The governing equation is solved by the finite element method with various boundary conditions. Several numerical tests are performed to investigate the influence of the CNTs volume fractions, CNTs distributions, CNTs orientation angles, boundary conditions, length-to-thickness ratios and the numbers of layers on the frequencies of the laminated FG-CNTRC beams. Moreover, a laminated composite beam combined by various distribution types of CNTs is also studied.
In the recent years, the phase field method for simulating fracture problems has received considerable attention. This is due to the salient features of the method: 1) it can be incorporated into any conventional finite element software; 2) has a scalar damage variable is used to represent the discontinuous surface implicitly and 3) the crack initiation and subsequent propagation and branching are treated with less complexity. Within this framework, the linear momentum equations are coupled with the diffusion type equation, which describes the evolution of the damage variable. The coupled nonlinear system of partial differential equations are solved in a ‘staggered’ approach. The present work discusses the implementation of the phase field method for brittle fracture within the open-source finite element software, FEniCS. The FEniCS provides a framework for the automated solutions of the partial differential equations. The details of the implementation which forms the core of the analysis are presented. The implementation is validated by solving a few benchmark problems and comparing the results with the open literature.
This paper presents the effect on compressive strength and self-healing capability of bacterial concrete with the addition of calcium lactate. Compared to normal concrete, bacterial concrete possesses higher durability and engineering concrete properties. The production of calcium carbonate in bacterial concrete is limited to the calcium content in cement. Hence calcium lactate is externally added to be an additional source of calcium in the concrete. The influence of this addition on compressive strength, self-healing capability of cracks is highlighted in this study. The bacterium used in the study is bacillus subtilis and was added to both spore powder form and culture form to the concrete. Bacillus subtilis spore powder of 2 million cfu/g concentration with 0.5% cement was mixed to concrete. Calcium lactates with concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 2.5% of cement, was added to the concrete mixes to test the effect on properties of concrete. In other samples, cultured bacillus subtilis with a concentration of 1×105 cells/mL was mixed with concrete, to study the effect of bacteria in the cultured form on the properties of concrete. Cubes of 100 mm×100 mm×100 mm were used for the study. These cubes were tested after a curing period of 7, 14, and 28 d. A maximum of 12% increase in compressive strength was observed with the addition of 0.5% of calcium lactate in concrete. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy examination showed the formation of ettringite in pores; calcium silicate hydrates and calcite which made the concrete denser. A statistical technique was applied to analyze the experimental data of the compressive strengths of cementations materials. Response surface methodology was adopted for optimizing the experimental data. The regression equation was yielded by the application of response surface methodology relating response variables to input parameters. This method aids in predicting the experimental results accurately with an acceptable range of error. Findings of this investigation indicated the influence of added calcium lactate in bio-concrete which is quite impressive for improving the compressive strength and self-healing properties of concrete.
This paper presents the findings of an experimental program seeking to understand the effect of mineral admixtures on fresh and hardened properties of sustainable self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixes where up to 80% of Portland cement was replaced with fly ash, silica fume, or ground granulated blast furnace slag. Compressive strength of SCC mixes was measured after 3, 7, and 28 days of moist curing. It was concluded in this study that increasing the dosage of fly ash increases concrete flow but also decreases segregation resistance. In addition, for the water-to-cement ratio of 0.36 used in this study, it was observed that the compressive strength decreases compared to control mix after 28 days of curing when cement was partially replaced by 10%, 30%, and 40% of fly ash. However, a fly ash replacement ratio of 20% increased the compressive strength by a small margin compared to the control mix. Replacing cement with silica fume at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% was found to increase compressive strength of SCC mixes compared to the control mix. However, the highest 28 day compressive strength of 95.3 MPa occurred with SCC mixes in which 15% of the cement was replaced with silica fume.
Bridge girders exposed to aggressive environmental conditions are subject to time-variant changes in resistance. There is therefore a need for evaluation procedures that produce accurate predictions of the load-carrying capacity and reliability of bridge structures to allow rational decisions to be made about repair, rehabilitation and expected life-cycle costs. This study deals with the stability of damaged steel I-beams with web opening subjected to bending loads. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model using ABAQUS for the elastic flexural torsional analysis of I-beams has been used to assess the effect of web opening on the lateral buckling moment capacity. Artificial neural network (ANN) approach has been also employed to derive empirical formulae for predicting the lateral-torsional buckling moment capacity of deteriorated steel I-beams with different sizes of rectangular web opening using obtained FE results. It is found out that the proposed formulae can accurately predict residual lateral buckling capacities of doubly-symmetric steel I-beams with rectangular web opening. Hence, the results of this study can be used for better prediction of buckling life of web opening of steel beams by practice engineers.
Super-long span bridges demand high design requirements and involve many difficulties when constructed, which is an important indicator to reflect the bridge technical level of a country. Over the past three decades, a large percentage of the new long-span bridges around the world were built in China, and thus, abundant technological innovations and experience have been accumulated during the design and construction. This paper aims to review and summarize the design and construction practices of the superstructure, the substructure, and the steel deck paving of the long-span bridges during the past decades as well as the current operation status of the existing long-span bridges in China. A future perspective was given on the developing trend of high-speed railway bridge, bridge over deep-sea, health monitoring and maintenance, intellectualization, standard system, and information technology, which is expected to guide the development direction for the construction of future super long-span bridges and promote China to become a strong bridge construction country.
The concept of structural robustness and relevant design guidelines have been in existence in the progressive collapse literature since the 1970s following the partial collapse of the Ronan Point apartment building; however, in the more general context, research on the evaluation and enhancement of structural robustness is still relatively limited. This paper is aimed to provide a general overview of the current state of research concerning structural robustness. The focus is placed on the quantification and the associated evaluation methodologies, rather than specific measures to ensure prescriptive robustness requirements. Some associated concepts, such as redundancy and vulnerability, will be discussed and interpreted in the general context of robustness such that the corresponding methodologies can be compared quantitatively using a comparable scale. A framework methodology proposed by the authors is also introduced in line with the discussion of the literature.
Plastic concrete is an engineering material, which is commonly used for construction of cut-off walls to prevent water seepage under the dam. This paper aims to explore two machine learning algorithms including artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) to predict the compressive strength of bentonite/sepiolite plastic concretes. For this purpose, two unique sets of 72 data for compressive strength of bentonite and sepiolite plastic concrete samples (totally 144 data) were prepared by conducting an experimental study. The results confirm the ability of ANN and SVM models in prediction processes. Also, Sensitivity analysis of the best obtained model indicated that cement and silty clay have the maximum and minimum influences on the compressive strength, respectively. In addition, investigation of the effect of measurement error of input variables showed that change in the sand content (amount) and curing time will have the maximum and minimum effects on the output mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of model, respectively. Finally, the influence of different variables on the plastic concrete compressive strength values was evaluated by conducting parametric studies.
This paper presents the exact and complete fundamental singular solutions for the boundary value problem of a n-layered elastic solid of either transverse isotropy or isotropy subject to body force vector at the interior of the solid. The layer number n is an arbitrary nonnegative integer. The mathematical theory of linear elasticity is one of the most classical field theories in mechanics and physics. It was developed and established by many well-known scientists and mathematicians over 200 years from 1638 to 1838. For more than 150 years from 1838 to present, one of the remaining key tasks in classical elasticity has been the mathematical derivation and formulation of exact solutions for various boundary value problems of interesting in science and engineering. However, exact solutions and/or fundamental singular solutions in closed form are still very limited in literature. The boundary-value problems of classical elasticity in n-layered and graded solids are also one of the classical problems challenging many researchers. Since 1984, the author has analytically and rigorously examined the solutions of such classical problems using the classical mathematical tools such as Fourier integral transforms. In particular, he has derived the exact and complete fundamental singular solutions for elasticity of either isotropic or transversely isotropic layered solids subject to concentrated loadings. The solutions in n-layered or graded solids can be calculated with any controlled accuracy in association with classical numerical integration techniques. Findings of this solution formulation are further used in the companion paper for mathematical verification of the solutions and further applications for exact and complete solutions of other problems in elasticity, elastodynamics, poroelasticty and thermoelasticity. The mathematical formulations and solutions have been named by other researchers as Yue’s approach, Yue’s treatment, Yue’s method and Yue’s solution.
Increasing the bending and shear capacities of reinforced concrete members is an interesting issue in structural engineering. In recent years, many studies have been carried out to improve capacities of reinforced concrete members such as using post and pre-tensioning, Fiber Reinforced Polymer and other techniques. This paper proposes a novel and significant technique to increase the flexural capacity of simply supported reinforced concrete beams. The proposed method uses a new reinforcement bar system having bent-up bars, covered with rubber tubes. This technique will avoid interaction of bent-up bars with concrete. They are located in the zone where compressive and tensile forces act against one another. The compressive force in the upper point of the bent-up bars is exerted to the end point of these bars located under neutral axis. Moreover, the tensile stress is decreased in reinforcements located under the neutral axis. This will cause the Reinforced Concrete (RC) beam to endure extra loading before reaching yield stress. These factors may well be considered as reasons to increase bending capacity in the new system. The laboratory work together with finite element method analysis were carried out in this investigation. Furthermore, bending capacity, ductility, strength, and cracking zone were assessed for the new proposed system and compared with the conventional model. Both the FEM simulation and the experimental test results revealed that the proposed system has significant impact in increasing the load bearing capacity and the stiffness of the RC beams. In the present study, an equation is formulated to calculate bending capacity of a new reinforcement bar system beam.
Fibers obtained from different parts of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) have been under investigation for possible use in construction. Studies have been carried out investigating the engineering properties and possible applications of these fibers. However, the experimental methods employed and the values of mechanical and physical properties recorded by various authors are inconsistent. It has therefore become necessary to organize information which would be useful in the design of oil palm fiber cement composites and help researchers and engineers make informed decisions in further research and application. This review provides information about fibers from different parts of the oil palm, their properties, enhancement techniques, current and potential application in cement composites.