In this paper, the machine learning (ML) model is built for slope stability evaluation and meets the high precision and rapidity requirements in slope engineering. Different ML methods for the factor of safety (FOS) prediction are studied and compared hoping to make the best use of the large variety of existing statistical and ML regression methods collected. The data set of this study includes six characteristics, namely unit weight, cohesion, internal friction angle, slope angle, slope height, and pore water pressure ratio. The whole ML model is primarily divided into data preprocessing, outlier processing, and model evaluation. In the data preprocessing, the duplicated data are first removed, then the outliers are filtered by the LocalOutlierFactor method and finally, the data are standardized. 11 ML methods are evaluated for their ability to learn the FOS based on different input parameter combinations. By analyzing the evaluation indicators R 2, MAE, and MSE of these methods, SVM, GBR, and Bagging are considered to be the best regression methods. The performance and reliability of the nonlinear regression method are slightly better than that of the linear regression method. Also, the SVM-poly method is used to analyze the susceptibility of slope parameters.
The concept of steel sheet glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite bar (SSGCB) was put forward. An optimization plan was proposed in the combined form of SSGCB. The composite principle, material selection, and SSGCB preparation technology have been described in detail. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was adopted to perform the combination form optimization of different steel core structures and different steel core contents based on the mechanical properties. Mechanical tests such as uniaxial tensile, shear, and compressive tests were carried out on SSGCB. Parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of steel content on the mechanical properties of SSGCB. The results revealed that the elastic modulus of SSGCB had improvements and increased with the rise of steel content. Shear strength was also increased with the addition of steel content. Furthermore, the yield state of SSGCB was similar to the steel bar, both of which indicated a multi-stage yield phenomenon. The compressive strength of SSGCB was lower than that of GFRP bars and increased with the increase of the steel core content. Stress-strain curves of SSGCB demonstrated that the nonlinear-stage characteristics of SSGCB-8 were much more obvious than other bars.
Damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of a structural system, comprising changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, adversely affecting the system’s performance. Inspecting the elements of structures, particularly critical components, is vital to evaluate the structural lifespan and safety. In this study, an optimization-based method for joint damage identification of moment frames using the time-domain responses is introduced. The beam-to-column connection in a metallic moment frame structure is modeled by a zero-length rotational spring at both ends of the beam element. For each connection, an end-fixity factor is specified, which changes between 0 and 1. Then, the problem of joint damage identification is converted to a standard optimization problem. An objective function is defined using the nodal point accelerations extracted from the damaged structure and an analytical model of the structure in which the nodal accelerations are obtained using the Newmark procedure. The optimization problem is solved by an improved differential evolution algorithm (IDEA) for identifying the location and severity of the damage. To assess the capability of the proposed method, two numerical examples via different damage scenarios are considered. Then, a comparison between the proposed method and the existing damage identification method is provided. The outcomes reveal the high efficiency of the proposed method for finding the severity and location of joint damage considering noise effects.
The performance of the wood-frame buildings after tornadoes has shown that the majority of the wind damage resulted from building envelope failure most typically due to the loss of the roof. To assess the performance and the reliability of low-rise wood-frame residential buildings with a focus on the roofs, fragility analysis can be used to estimate the probability of failure of a roof when constructed with specified nails and sheathing sizes. Thus, this paper examines the fragility of specific types of nails, roof-to-wall (RW) connection details, and sheathing sizes based on the damaged roofs that were previously assessed in the Dunrobin area in Ottawa (Ontario) that was hit with an Enhanced Fujita (EF3) tornado on September 21, 2018. The presented fragility analysis considers four scenarios, including different sheathing and nail sizes. Dead loads, wind loads, and resistance on the sheathing panels were compiled and analyzed to determine the failure of the examined roofs. The eight fragility models suggest that the safest roof sheathing (RS) is the 1.22 m × 1.22 m sheathing panel with 8 d nails, and the safest RW connections is achieved by using H2.5 hurricane clips.
Many bridge design specifications consider multi-lane factors (MLFs) a critical component of the traffic load model. Measured multi-lane traffic data generally exhibit significant lane disparities in traffic loads over multiple lanes. However, these disparities are not considered in current specifications. To address this drawback, a multi-coefficient MLF model was developed based on an improved probabilistic statistical approach that considers the presence of multiple trucks. The proposed MLF model and approach were calibrated and demonstrated through an example site. The model sensitivity analysis demonstrated the significant influence of lane disparity of truck traffic volume and truck weight distribution on the MLF. Using the proposed approach, the experimental site study yielded MLFs comparable with those directly calculated using traffic load effects. The exclusion of overloaded trucks caused the proposed approach, existing design specifications, and conventional approach of ignoring lane load disparity to generate comparable MLFs, while the MLFs based on the proposed approach were the most comprehensive. The inclusion of overloaded trucks caused the conventional approach and design specifications to overestimate the MLFs significantly. Finally, the benefits of the research results to bridge practitioners were discussed.
This research investigated a pavement system on steel bridge decks that use epoxy resin (EP) bonded ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Through FEM analysis and static and dynamic bending fatigue tests of the composite structure, the influences of the interface of the pavement layer, reinforcement, and different paving materials on the structural performance were compared and analyzed. The results show that the resin bonded UHPC pavement structure can reduce the weld strain in the steel plate by about 32% and the relative deflection between ribs by about 52% under standard axial load conditions compared to traditional pavements. The EP bonding layer can nearly double the drawing strength of the pavement interface from 1.3 MPa, and improve the bending resistance of the UHPC structure on steel bridge decks by about 50%; the bending resistance of reinforced UHPC structures is twice that of unreinforced UHPC structure, and the dynamic deflection of the UHPC pavement structure increases exponentially with increasing fatigue load. The fatigue life is about 1.2 × 107 cycles under a fixed force of 9 kN and a dynamic deflection of 0.35 mm, which meets the requirements for fatigue performance of pavements on steel bridge decks under traffic conditions of large flow and heavy load.
In a nuclear powerplant, the rotary equipment, such as a pump directly fitted with hanger in the piping system, experiences torsional and bending loads. Higher crack growth rate occurs because of this torsional load in addition to the bending load. Hence, it is necessary to study the fatigue behavior of piping components under the influence of combined torsional and bending load. In this study, experimental fatigue life evaluation was conducted on a notched stainless steel SA312 Type 304LN straight pipe having an outer diameter of 170 mm. The experimental crack depth was measured using alternating current potential drop technique. The fatigue life of the stainless steel straight pipe was predicted using experiments, Delale and Erdogan method, and area-averaged root mean square–stress intensity factor approach at the deepest and surface points of the notch. Afterward, the fatigue crack growth and crack pattern were discussed. As a result, fatigue crack growth predicted using analytical methods are in good agreement with experimental results.
Crack growth modeling has always been one of the major challenges in fracture mechanics. Among all numerical methods, the extended finite element method (XFEM) has recently attracted much attention due to its ability to estimate the discontinuous deformation field. However, XFEM modeling does not directly lead to reliable results, and choosing a strategy of implementation is inevitable, especially in porous media. In this study, two prevalent XFEM strategies are evaluated: a) applying reduced Young’s modulus to pores and b) using different partitions to the model and enriching each part individually. We mention the advantages and limitations of each strategy via both analytical and experimental validations. Finally, the crack growth is modeled in a natural porous media (Fontainebleau sandstone). Our investigations proved that although both strategies can identically predict the stress distribution in the sample, the first strategy simulates only the initial crack propagation, while the second strategy could model multiple cracks growths. Both strategies are reliable and highly accurate in calculating the stress intensity factor, but the second strategy can compute a more reliable reaction force. Experimental tests showed that the second strategy is a more accurate strategy in predicting the preferred crack growth path and determining the maximum strength of the sample.
This study aims to investigate hydrofracturing in double-layered soil through theoretical and experimental analysis, as multilayered soils where the difference in mechanical properties exists are generally encountered in practical engineering. First, an analytical solution for fracturing pressure in two different concentric regions of soil was presented based on the cavity expansion theory. Then, several triaxial hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out to validate the analytical solution. The comparison between the experimental and analytical results indicates the remarkable accuracy of the derived formula, and the following conclusions were also obtained. First, there is a linear relationship between the fracturing pressure and confining pressure in concentric double-layered cohesive soil. Second, when the internal-layer soil is softer than the external-layer soil, the presence of internal soil on the fracturing pressure approximately brings the weakening effect, and the greater strength distinction between the two layers, the greater the weakening effect. Third, when the internal-layer soil is harder than the external-layer soil, the existence of the internal-layer soil has a strengthening effect on the fracturing pressure regardless of the proportion of internal-layer soil. Moreover, the influence of strength distinction between the two layers on the fracturing pressure is significant when the proportion of internal-layer soil is less than half, while it’s limited when the proportion is more than half. The proposed solution is potentially useful for geotechnical problems involving aspects of cohesive soil layering in a composite formation.
In this paper, a half-plane time-domain boundary element method is applied to obtain the seismic ground response, including a subsurface box-shaped lined tunnel deployed in a linear homogenous elastic medium exposed to obliquely incident SH-waves. Only the boundary around the tunnel is required to be discretized. To prepare an appropriate model by quadratic elements, a double-node procedure is used to receive dual boundary fields at corners as well as change the direction of the normal vector. After encoding the method in a previously confirmed computer program, a numerical study is carried out to sensitize some effective parameters, including frequency content and incident wave angle for obtaining a surface response. The depth and impedance ratio of the lining are assumed to be unvaried. The responses are illustrated in the time and frequency domains as two/three-dimensional graphs. The results showed that subsurface openings with sharp corners distorted the propagation path of the anti-plane waves to achieve the critical states on the ground surface. The present approach can be proposed to civil engineers for preparing simple underground box-shaped models with angular boundaries.
Retained backfill response to wall movement depends on factors that range from boundary conditions to the geometrical characteristic of individual particles. Hence, mechanical understanding of the problem warrants multi-scale analyses that investigate reciprocal relationships between macro and micro effects. Accordingly, this study attempts a multi-scale examination of failure evolution in cohesionless backfills. Therefore, the transition of retained backfills from at-rest condition to the active state is modeled using the discrete element method (DEM). DEM allows conducting virtual experiments, with which the variation of particle and boundary properties is straightforward. Hence, various modes of wall movement (translation and rotation) toward the active state are modeled using two different backfills with distinct particle shapes (spherical and nonspherical) under varying surcharge. For each model, cumulative rotations of single particles are tracked, and the results are used to analyze the evolution of shear bands and their geometric characteristics. Moreover, dependencies of lateral pressure coefficients and coordination numbers, as respective macro and micro behavior indicators, on particle shape, boundary conditions, and surcharge levels are investigated. Additionally, contact force networks are visually determined, and their influences on pressure distribution and deformation mechanisms are discussed with reference to the associated modes of wall movement and particle shapes.
This paper reports on an experimental study on a new self-centring retaining wall system. Four post-tensioned segmental retaining walls (PSRWs) were experimentally tested. Each of the walls was constructed using seven T-shaped concrete segments with a dry stack. The walls were tested under incrementally increasing cyclic lateral load. The effect of the wall height, levels of post-tensioning (PT) force, and bonded versus unbonded condition of PT reinforcement on the structural behavior of the PSRWs was investigated. The results showed that such PSRWs are structurally adequate for water retaining structures. According to the results, increasing the wall height decreases initial strength but increases the deformation capacity of the wall. The larger deformation capacity and ductility of PSRW make it a suitable structural system for fluctuating loads or deformation, e.g., seawall. It was also found that increasing the PT force increases the wall’s stiffness; however, reduces its ductility. The residual drift and the extent of damage of the unbonded PSRWs were significantly smaller than those of the bonded ones. Results suggest that this newly developed self-centring retaining wall can be a suitable structural system to retain lateral loads. Due to its unique deformation capacity and self-centring behavior, it can potentially be used for seawall application.
Current design methods for the internal stability of geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) walls postulate seismic forces as inertial forces, leading to pseudo-static analyses based on active earth pressure theory, which yields unconservative reinforcement loads required for seismic stability. Most seismic analyses are limited to the determination of maximum reinforcement strength. This study aimed to calculate the distribution of the reinforcement load and connection strength required for each layer of the seismic GRS wall. Using the top-down procedure involves all of the possible failure surfaces for the seismic analyses of the GRS wall and then obtains the reinforcement load distribution for the limit state. The distributions are used to determine the required connection strength and to approximately assess the facing lateral deformation. For sufficient pullout resistance to be provided by each reinforcement, the maximum required tensile resistance is identical to the results based on the Mononobe–Okabe method. However, short reinforcement results in greater tensile resistances in the mid and lower layers as evinced by compound failure frequently occurring in GRS walls during an earthquake. Parametric studies involving backfill friction angle, reinforcement length, vertical seismic acceleration, and secondary reinforcement are conducted to investigate seismic impacts on the stability and lateral deformation of GRS walls.
This study investigated the use of recycled tire-derived aggregate (TDA) mixed with kaolin as a method of increasing the ultimate bearing capacity ( UBC) of a strip footing. Thirteen 1g physical modeling tests were prepared in a rigid box of 0.6 m × 0.9 m in plan and 0.6 m in height. During sample preparation, 0%, 20%, 40%, or 60% (by weight) of powdery, shredded, small-sized granular (G 1–4 mm) or large-sized granular (G 5–8 mm) TDA was mixed with the kaolin. A strip footing was then placed on the stabilized kaolin and was caused to fail under stress-controlled conditions to determine the UBC. A rigorous 3D finite element analysis was developed in Optum G-3 to determine the UBC values based on the experimental test results. The experimental results showed that, except for the 20% powdery TDA, the TDA showed an increase in the UBC of the strip footing. When kaolin mixed with 20% G (5–8 mm), the UBC showed a threefold increase over that for the unreinforced case. The test with 20% G (1–4 mm) recorded the highest subgrade modulus. It was observed that the UBC calculated using finite element modeling overestimated the experimental UBC by an average of 9%.
The understanding of compressive and tensile behaviors of polypropylene fiber-reinforced cemented paste backfill (FR-CPB) play crucial roles in the successful implementation of reinforcement technique in underground mine backfilling operations. However, very limited studies have been performed to gain insight into the evolution of compressive and tensile behaviors and associated mechanical properties of FR-CPB under various curing temperatures from early to advanced ages. Thus, this study aims to investigate the time (7, 28, and 90 d)- and temperature (20°C, 35°C, and 45°C)-dependence of constitutive behavior and mechanical properties of FR-CPB. The obtained results show that pre- and post-failure behaviors of FR-CPB demonstrate strongly curing temperature-dependence from early to advanced ages. Moreover, the pseudo-hardening behavior is sensitive to curing temperature, especially at early ages. Furthermore, the mechanical properties including elastic modulus, material stiffness, strengths, brittleness, cohesion, and internal friction angle of FR-CPB show increasing trends with curing temperature as curing time elapses. Additionally, a predictive model is developed to capture the strong correlation between compressive and tensile strength of FR-CPB. The findings of this study will contribute to the successful implementation of FR-CPB technology.
Assessing the durability of concrete is of prime importance to provide an adequate service life and reduce the repairing cost of structures. Freeze–thaw is one such test that indicates the ability of concrete to last a long time without a significant loss in its performance. In this study, the freeze–thaw resistance of polymer concrete containing different polymer contents was explored and compared to various conventional cement concretes. Concretes’ fresh and hardened properties were assessed for their workability, air content, and compressive strength. The mass loss, length change, dynamic modulus of elasticity, and residual compressive strength were determined for all types of concretes subjected to freeze–thaw cycles according to ASTM C666-procedure A. Results showed that polymer concrete (PC) specimens prepared with higher dosages of polymer contents possessed better freeze–thaw durability compared to other specimens. This high durability performance of PCs is mainly due to their impermeable microstructures, absence of water in their structure, and the high bond strength between aggregates and a polymer binder. It is also indicated that the performance of high-strength concrete containing air-entraining admixture is comparable with PC having optimum polymer content in terms of residual compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, mass loss, and length change.
Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) received increased attention in recent years, but MPC-based concrete is rarely reported. The micro-steel fibers (MSF) were added to MPC-based concrete to enhance its ductility due to the high brittleness in tensile and flexural strength properties of MPC. This paper investigates the effect of MSF volume fraction on the mechanical properties of a new pattern of MPC-based concrete. The temperature development curve, fluidity, cubic compressive strength, modulus of elastic, axial compressive strength, and four-point flexural strength were experimentally studied with 192 specimens, and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test was carried out after the specimens were failed. Based on the test results, the correlations between the cubic compressive strength and curing age, the axial and cubic compressive strength of MPC-based concrete were proposed. The results showed that with the increase of MSF volume fraction, the fluidity of fresh MPC-based concrete decreased gradually. MSF had no apparent influence on the compressive strength, while it enhanced the four-point flexural strength of MPC-based concrete. The four-point flexural strength of specimens with MSF volume fraction from 0.25% to 0.75% were 12.3%, 21.1%, 24.6% higher than that of the specimens without MSF, respectively.
This study reports on the effects of multilayer graphene oxide (MGO) on compressive strength, flexural strength, and microstructure of cement mortar. The cement mortar was prepared with type P. II. 52.5 Portland cement, standard sand, and MGO. Four mixes were prepared with inclusion of MGO (0%, 0.02%, 0.04%, and 0.06% by weight of cement). The testing result shows that the compressive of GO-cement mortar increased by 4.84%–13.42%, and the flexural strength increased by 4.37%–8.28% at 3 d. GO-cement mortar’s compressive strength and flexural strength at 7 d increased by 3.84%–12.08% and 2.54%–13.43%, respectively. MGO made little contribution to the increases of compressive strength and flexural strength of cement mortar at 28 d. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and nitrogen (N2) adsorption/desorption tests show that the types of hydration products and crystal grain size did not change after adding MGO. Still, it can help to improve the microstructure of the cement mortar via regulating hydration products and can provide more condensed cores to accelerate hydration. Furthermore, the regulating action of MGO for the microstructure of cement mortar at an early age was better than that at 28 d.