Site-specific seismic hazard analysis is crucial for designing earthquake resistance structures, particularly in seismically active regions. Shear wave velocity ( V S) is a key parameter in such analysis, although the economy and other factors restrict its direct field measurement in many cases. Various V S–SPT– N correlations are routinely incorporated in seismic hazard analysis to estimate the value of V S. However, many uncertainties question the reliability of these estimated V S values. This paper comes up with a statistical approach to take care of such uncertainties involved in V S calculations. The measured SPT– N values from all the critical boreholes were converted into statistical parameters and passed through various correlations to estimate V S at different depths. The effect of different soil layers in the boreholes on the Vs estimation was also taken into account. Further, the average shear wave velocity of the top 30 m soil cover ( V S30) is estimated after accounting for various epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties. The scattering nature of the V S values estimated using different V S– N correlations was reduced significantly with the application of the methodology. Study results further clearly demonstrated the potential of the approach to eliminate various uncertainties involved in the estimation of V S30 using general and soil-specific correlations.
The mechanical properties of CFRP-confined rectangular concrete-filled stainless steel tube (CFSST) stub columns under axial compression were experimentally studied. A total of 28 specimens (7 groups) were fabricated for the axial compression test to study the influences of length-to-width ratio, CFRP constraint coefficient, and the thickness of stainless steel tube on the axial compression behavior. The specimen failure modes, the stress development of stainless steel tube and CFRP wrap, and the load–strain ratio curves in the loading process were obtained. Meanwhile, the relationship between axial and transverse deformations of each specimen was analyzed through the typical relative load−strain ratio curves. A bearing capacity prediction method was proposed based on the twin-shear strength theory, combining the limit equilibrium state of the CFRP-confined CFSST stub column under axial compression. The prediction method was calibrated by the test data in this study and other literature. The results show that the prediction method is of high accuracy.
Microbial geotechnology or biogeotechnology is a new branch of geotechnical engineering. It involves the use of microbiology for traditional geotechnical applications. Many new innovative soil improvement methods have been developed in recent years based on this approach. A proper understanding of the various approaches and the performances of different methods can help researchers and engineers to develop the most appropriate geotechnical solutions. At present, most of the methods can be categorized into three major types, biocementation, bioclogging, and biogas desaturation. Similarities and differences of different approaches and their potential applications are reviewed. Factors affecting the different processes are also discussed. Examples of up-scaled model tests and pilot trials are presented to show the emerging applications. The challenges and problems of biogeotechnology are also discussed.
This paper provides insight into the seismic behavior of a full-scale precast reinforced concrete wall under in-plane cyclic loading combined with out-of-plane loading replicated by sand backfill to simulate the actual condition of basement walls. The tested wall exhibited flexural cracks, owing to the high aspect ratio and considerable out-of-plane movement due to lateral pressure from the backfill. The wall performed satisfactorily by exhibiting competent seismic parameters and deformation characteristics governed by its ductile response in the nonlinear phase during the test with smaller residual drift. Numerical analysis was conducted to validate experimental findings, which complied with each other. The numerical model was used to conduct parametric studies to study the effect of backfill density and aspect ratio on seismic response of the proposed precast wall system. The in-plane capacity of walls reduced, while deformation characteristics were unaffected by the increase in backfill density. An increase in aspect ratio leads to a reduction in in-plane capacity and an increase in drift. Curves between the ratio of in-plane yield capacity and design shear load of walls are proposed for the backfill density, which may be adopted to determine the in-plane yield capacity of the basement walls based on their design shear.
In this paper, the effect of usage of the permeability reducing admixture (PRA) having different action mechanisms on hardened state properties of cementitious systems containing mineral additives is examined. For this aim, three commercial PRAs were used during investigation. The effective parameters in the first and third PRAs were air-entraining and high-rate air-entraining, respectively. The second one contained the insoluble calcium carbonate residue and had a small amount of the air-entraining property. Mortar mixes with binary and ternary cementitious systems were prepared by partially replacing cement with fly ash and metakaolin. The hardened state properties of mortar mixtures such as compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, water absorption, drying shrinkage and freeze–thaw resistance were investigated. The ternary cement-based mixture having both fly ash and metakaolin was selected as the most successful mineral-additive bearing mix in regard to hardened state properties. In this sense, PRA-B, with both insoluble residues and a small amount of air-entraining properties, showed the best performance among the mixtures containing PRA. The combined use of mineral additive and PRA had a more positive effect on the properties of the mixes.
In the recent era, piled raft foundation (PRF) has been considered an emergent technology for offshore and onshore structures. In previous studies, there is a lack of illustration regarding the load sharing and interaction behavior which are considered the main intents in the present study. Finite element (FE) models are prepared with various design variables in a double-layer soil system, and the load sharing and interaction factors of piled rafts are estimated. The obtained results are then checked statistically with nonlinear multiple regression (NMR) and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling, and some prediction models are proposed. ANN models are prepared with Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm for load sharing and interaction factors through backpropagation technique. The factor of safety (FS) of PRF is also estimated using the proposed NMR and ANN models, which can be used for developing the design strategy of PRF.
On June 24, 2021, a 40-year-old reinforced concrete flat plate structure building in Miami suffered a sudden partial collapse. This study analyzed the overall performance and key components of the collapsed building based on the building design codes (ACI-318 and GB 50010). Punching shear and post-punching performances of typical slab-column joints are also studied through the refined finite element analysis. The collapse process was simulated and visualized using a physics engine. By way of these analyses, weak design points of the collapsed building are highlighted. The differences between the reinforcement detailing of the collapsed building and the requirements of the current Chinese code are discussed, together with a comparison of the punching shear and post-punching performances. The simulated collapse procedure and debris distribution are compared with the actual collapse scenes.
In this study, average-interpolating radial basis functions (RBFs) are successfully integrated with central high-resolution schemes to achieve a higher-order central method. This proposed method is used for simulation of generalized coupled thermoelasticity problems including shock (singular) waves in their solutions. The thermoelasticity problems include the LS (systems with one relaxation parameter) and GN (systems without energy dissipation) theories with constant and variable coefficients. In the central high resolution formulation, RBFs lead to a reconstruction with the optimum recovery with minimized roughness on each cell: this is essential for oscillation-free reconstructions. To guarantee monotonic reconstructions at cell-edges, the nonlinear scaling limiters are used. Such reconstructions, finally, lead to the total variation bounded (TVB) feature. As RBFs work satisfactory on non-uniform cells/grids, the proposed central scheme can handle adapted cells/grids. To have cost effective and accurate simulations, the multiresolution–based grid adaptation approach is then integrated with the RBF-based central scheme. Effects of condition numbers of RBFs, computational complexity and cost of the proposed scheme are studied. Finally, different 1-D coupled thermoelasticity benchmarks are presented. There, performance of the adaptive RBF-based formulation is compared with that of the adaptive Kurganov-Tadmor (KT) second-order central high-resolution scheme with the total variation diminishing (TVD) property.