Mar 2009, Volume 4 Issue 1

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    Lidong ZHAO, Pia KUTSCHMANN, Binyou FU, Dingyong HE

    In the present study, a cored wire of 304 L stainless steel as sheath material and NiB and WC-12Co as filler materials was designed and deposited to produce a new wear resistant coating containing amorphous phase by arc spraying. The microstructure of the coating was investigated. The porosity and hardness of the coating were determined. The wear performance of the coating was evaluated. The XRD and TEM analyses showed that there are high volume of amorphous phase and very fine crystalline grains in the coating. DTA measurements revealed that the crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred at 579.2°C. Because metallurgical processes for single droplets were non-homogenous during spraying, the lamellae in the coating have different hardness values, which lie between about 700 and 1250 HV100 g. The abrasive wear test showed that the new Fe-based coating was very wear resistant.

    Zude ZHOU, Desheng JIANG, Quan LIU

    This paper introduces fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on a fiber optic grating sensor developed to be embedded on mechanical equipment for digital monitoring and health diagnosis. The theoretical and experimental researches on the new-style FBG sensor (FBGS) technology, high-speed demodulation, and data transmission are discussed. The transmission characteristics between the FBG and the detection interface, modeling and compensation method for online distributed multi-parameter digital monitoring and methods for data processing, synchronous sampling, and long-term dynamic digital monitoring using embedded technology are also presented. The acquired information by an FBGS can be used for the optimization of maintenance schedules and refinement of mechanical equipment design. It is a challenge to gather real-time data from components working at high speed and in a severe environment of high temperature, high pressure, and high rotation speed. Currently, there are no sensors or technologies available for digital monitoring and health diagnosis under this rigorous situation for use in mechanical engineering operation safety. As a result, this paper introduces an online distributed and integrated digital monitoring system and health diagnosis. The new principle and new method will contribute to modern measurements in science and technology, mechanical engineering, and large mechanical equipment operation safety.

    Ren HUANG, Feiyun XU, Ruwen CHEN

    The typical time series models such as ARMA, AR, and MA are founded on the normality and stationarity of a system and expressed by a linear difference equation; therefore, they are strictly limited to the linear system. However, some nonlinear factors are within the practical system; thus, it is difficult to fit the model for real systems with the above models. This paper proposes a general expression for linear and nonlinear auto-regressive time series models (GNAR). With the gradient optimization method and modified AIC information criteria integrated with the prediction error, the parameter estimation and order determination are achieved. The model simulation and experiments show that the GNAR model can accurately approximate to the dynamic characteristics of the most nonlinear models applied in academics and engineering. The modeling and prediction accuracy of the GNAR model is superior to the classical time series models. The proposed GNAR model is flexible and effective.

    Xueyan TANG, I-Ming CHEN

    This article describes the development of an XYZ flexure-based micromanipulator, with the features of decoupled kinematic structure, large motion range, high positioning precision, and fast response. The large motion range of flexure mechanisms is quantified by a given definition. Based on the given definition, large motion is achieved in the mechanical design of the XYZ-flexure parallel mechanism (FPM). To ensure high positioning precision and fast dynamic response, a hybrid control algorithm with both position control and vibration control are designed, using the H-theory. The controller strongly solves the three common problems of flexure mechanisms simultaneously, including unmodeled uncertainties, the external disturbances and vibration caused by inherent low damping.

    Desheng LI, Zhiyuan LU, Tianwu DONG

    By studying the special characteristics of permanent and electronic magnets, a levitated vehicle model with hybrid magnets is established. The mathematical model of the vehicle is built based on its dynamics equation by studying its machine structure and working principle. Based on the model, the basic characteristics and the effect between the excluding forces from permanent magnets in three different spatial directions are analyzed, statics characteristics of the interference forces in three different spatial directions are studied, and self-adjusting equilibrium characteristics and stabilization are analyzed. Based on the structure above, the vehicle can levitate steadily by control system adjustment.

    Yiliang ZHANG, Song YANG, Xuedong XU

    Metal magnetic memory test (MMMT), which is a new subject in the field of nondestructive examination, can determine regions of stress concentration by testing the distribution of the magnetic field of metal structures so as to effectively diagnose premature defects. MMMT and other test methods are applied in the study to put a propylene purifier of a temperature-jump accident and a leaked ammonia vessel through safety evaluation. Results are as follows: The margin of safety declines after the purifier is overburnt; several stress concentrations are observed within the overburnt area and the level of stress concentration rises after one-month operation; and overpressure operation of the purifier must be strictly avoided and carefully monitored during later operation. Cracks are observed on the ammonia vessel after one year’s service. Extremely high residual stress is the primary cause of cracks. After four years in service, the residual stresses existing in the area of the base metal and weld zone are still greater than 0.5sS, which results in numerous cracks due to stress corrosion. From the MMMT result of the ammonia vessel’s defects, it can be seen that the derivative of magnetic density (dHp/dx) is an important reference variable. Within the 31 leakage points, 67.7% of them whose dHp/dx values are more than 10, and 96.8% of them whose dHp/dx values are more than 8.

    Juanjuan WANG, Yunshan WANG, Fudong ZHU

    The laser homogenizing equipment was devised using the ring scanning principle. Its working principle is explained. A laser scanning ring facula is obtained when the laser beam goes through the equipment’s optical system rotating with high-frequency. The scanning ring facula’s mathematic model is established based on the temperature field’s superposing principle. The ring facula’s light intensity distribution and temperature distribution characteristics are achieved by simulating its temperature field. By studying the effect of parameters on the temperature field, the best parameter can be found. Results show that favorable temperature distribution characteristics can be attained by choosing appropriate parameters, and even the thermal effect can be realized by utilizing the circumference power compensating for the heat exchange lost in the horizontal direction. The uniform hardness layer and better process quality can be attained using the ring facula optimized for metal laser heat treatment.

    Zhiyi YU, Guoyu WANG, Shuliang CAO

    This paper presents an extended two-fluid model based on the Navier-Stokes equations and the standard k-? turbulence model, to simulate the three-dimensional air-water bubbly flow in turbo machinery. In the governing equations, the drag force and added mass force are added and the additional source terms arising from fluctuations of gas volume fraction are considered. The discrete equations are solved using a developed two-phase semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations, consistent (SIMPLEC) algorithm in body-fitted coordinates with a staggered grid system. Simulation is then carried out for the pure liquid flow and air-water two-phase flow with the inlet gas volume fraction being 15% in a multiphase rotodynamic pump impeller and the pump head performance is predicted. Comparison with experimental results shows the reliability and commonality of the numerical model.

    Yanming QUAN, Wenwang ZHONG

    It is difficult to machine polymer matrix composites reinforced by carbon fibre, and the hole-making process is the most necessary machining process for composite plate products. Conventional drills have a very short life in the drilling of this kind of composites and the quality of the hole is very poor. In this paper, the cemented or plated diamond core tools are tested to make holes in carbon fibre/epoxy composite plates. The effects of machining parameters, cooling and chip removal on the tool life, and the hole quality are investigated. Results indicate that the material removal mechanism of the two kinds of diamond tools is not like the cutting effect of the conventional solid twist drilling but similar to that of grinding. Satisfactory effects in making holes in the composites are obtained— quite acceptable machined hole quality, low costs, and long wear-resistant endurance.

    Xuedong CHEN, Zhixin LI

    Spring-damping elements are used to simplify the internal interaction in the proposed finite element (FE) model of an ultra-precision linear stage. The dynamics behavior is studied. The comparison between mode shapes from the eigenvalue analysis shows that the components, except the translator, can represent system dynamics characteristics. A reduction approach is used to simplify the system in a dynamic studied. There is little difference between the vibration mode and the response analysis. The experimental modal analysis proves the validity of the reduction approach, which can be generalized to the development and dynamics characteristic study of a complex system model to obviously save computational resource.

    Ruolong QI, Weijun LIU, Hongyou BIAN, Lun LI

    The most important components used in aerospace, ships, and automobiles are designed with free form surfaces. An impeller is one of the most important components that is difficult to machine because of its twisted blades. Rough machining is recognized as the most crucial procedure influencing machining efficiency and is critical for the finishing process. An integrated rough machining course with detailed algorithms is presented in this paper. An algorithm for determining the minimum distance between two surfaces is applied to estimate the tool size. The space between two blades that will be cleared from the roughcast is divided to generate CC points. The tool axis vector is confirmed based on flank milling using a simple method that could eliminate global interference between the tool and the blades. The result proves that the machining methodology presented in this paper is useful and successful.

    Qiong Zhou, Qi An

    An edge detection method for the measurement of steel plate’s thermal expansion is proposed in this paper, where the shrinkage of a steel plate is measured when temperature drops. First, images are picked up by an imaging system; a method of regional edge detection based on grayscales’ sudden change is then applied to detect the edges of the steel plate; finally, pixel coordinates of the edge position are transformed to physical coordinates through calibration parameters. The experiment shows that the real-time, high precision, and non-contact measurement of the steel plate’s edge position under high temperature can be realized using the imaging measurement method established in this paper.

    Kejun XIANG, Zhanqiang LIU, Xing AI

    By analyzing the reasoning of a high-speed cutting database system, a case modifying method is put forward. According to the variables’ difference of the solution part in a case, a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and similarity calculation are used to modify a case. The constraint relationship of discrete variables is described by establishing a rule knowledge base. The algorithm of CSP is used to solve the discrete variable constraint problem. On the basis of the high-speed cutting theory, a similarity calculation formula is deduced to calculate the consecutive variables. The CSP and similarity calculation are applied to case modifying, which is possible to automatically modify cases in the high-speed cutting database system.

    Jiamei JIN, Chunsheng ZHAO

    A linear ultrasonic motor using a quadrate plate transducer was developed for precision positioning. This motor consists of two pairs of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 piezoelectric ceramic elements, which are piezoelectrically excited into the second-bending mode of the motor stator’s neutral surface in two orthogonal directions, on which the tops of four projections move along an elliptical trajectory, which in turn drives a contacted slider into linear motion via frictional forces. The coincident frequency of the stator is easily obtained for its coincident characteristic dimension in two orthogonal directions. The performance characteristics achieved by the motor are: 1) a maximum linear speed of more than 60 mm/s; 2) a stroke of more than150 mm; 3) a driving force of more than 5.0 N; and 4) a response time of about 2 ms.

  • Research Article
    Jinpeng YANG

    The NO2 density error retrieved by the traditional method of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was analyzed. The technique for reducing the error is proposed and used to obtain the NO2 density of Chengdu through DOAS.

    Shengwen ZHANG, Guicheng WANG, Liang ZHANG, Xifeng FANG

    To promote the research and development of modern digital and intelligent manufacturing technology and overcome shortcomings of computerized numerical control(CNC) programming for complex components, an innovative idea has been proposed to introduce knowledge based engineering (KBE) into the field of CNC programming within the integrated environment of CAD/CAPP/CAM. This paper constructs the architecture of CNC programming based on KBE within CAD/CAPP/CAM and explores the key technology of applying KBE to CNC programming — knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge reasoning, and generalized knowledge base system of CNC programming. The integration of the CAD/CAM system and the CAPP system of enterprises has been achieved by taking the powerful CAD/CAM system of UG NX as a platform. The prototype system of CNC programming for complex components based on KBE within CAD/CAPP/CAM has been developed by means of UG/Open,VC++6.0, and SQL Sever 2000. Finally, a frame example, one of the complex components of a marine diesel, is presented, and the academic production and the intelligence of the system are verified.