Sep 2008, Volume 3 Issue 3

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  • FENG Jinzhi, LI Jun, Goodall R. M.
    This paper studies the development of integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors. First, a non-linear vehicle dynamic model and motor drive strategy are presented, which are followed by an investigation of the integrated control of stabilization, steering, and traction for the vehicle. Meanwhile a reformulated Kalman filter is developed and applied to estimate the required feedback by the control system. Finally, the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed integrated controller are examined and assessed by real-time simulation based on host-target computer technology provided by Matlab/Simulink.
  • DENG Fei, WU Bin, HE Cunfu
    The application of the time reversal method in pipe-like structures based on finite element method (FEM) is investigated. A steel pipe model measuring 70 mm × 3.5 mm is used to analyze the reflection coefficient of the L(0,2) mode with the time reversal process. Simulation results show that the time reversal array method is beneficial to the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of a guided wave inspection system. As the intercepting window is widened, more energy is included in re-emitted signals, which leads to a large reflection coefficient of the L(0,2) mode. In parallel, a circumferential locating method based on the time reversal method is described. The time reversal process used for guided wave inspection leads to the temporal and spatial focusing. When the time reversal signals are re-emitted, the angular profile obtained at the axial location of the defect can be used to determine the circumferential location of the defect. Except for a pipe with one defect, the circumferential locating method has been verified on another pipe model with two defects. Meanwhile, the elements number of the time reversal array has been discussed for enhancing the discrimination of the defect circumferential location.
  • SHI Zengliang, LIU Dali, YAN Xiaolong, GAO Zhongmin, BAI Shiying
    MgxZn1-xO (0 < x ? 0.12) thin films with the wurtzite structure have been successfully grown on c-Al2O3 substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry, and transmission measurements are performed to study the characteristics of MgxZn1-xO thin films. Results show that with increasing Mg content, the diffraction peak of MgxZn1-xO thin films shifts towards a higher diffraction angle (the biggest shift is 0.22°), and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the diffraction peak is broadened. Meanwhile, a blue-shift occurs at the near-band-edge (NBE) emission peak and the largest blue-shift of the band gap of the MgxZn1-xO films is 113 meV with Mg content x = 0.12. Therefore, the energy band gap of the MgxZn1-xO films is determined by Mg content in the thin films and the energy band gap increases with an increase of Mg content.
  • HUA Shunming, ZHANG Hongzhuang, CHENG Guangming, FAN Zunqiang, LIU Jianfang
    A piezoelectric film-actuated motion platform with high resolution, which can run in two directions within a horizontal plane, is presented. On the basis of the analysis of the working principle of a stick-slip mechanism, a mathematical model describing its dynamic behavior is set up and simulated. Experiments of the motion performance and carrying ability on the prototype are conducted. Results show that this type of platform has advantages including a simple structure, small volume, light weight, stable step length, and large traveling range. When the driving voltage is less than 30 V, step error is less than 0.5 ?m. The carrying ability of the platform is terrific and about 7–8 times its weight.
  • ZHANG Xiaoxing, YAO Yao, TANG Ju, ZHOU Qian, XU Zhongrong
    This paper designs four types of gas insulated substation (GIS) defect models based on partial discharge (PD) characteristics and its defections. The GIS gray intensity images are constructed based on the mass specimens gathered by the ultra-high frequency and high-speed sampling systems. The multi-fractal dimension is founded on the box-counting dimension and multi-fractal theories. The GIS gray intensity images distillation methods, based on multi-fractal characteristics, is put forward. The box-counting dimension, multi-fractal dimension, and discharge centrobaric characteristics of the PD images are also extracted. The characteristic variables are then classified by the radial basis function (RBF) network. Identified results show that the methods can effectively elevate the discrimination of the four types of defects in GIS.
  • XU Zhongming, DING Lingyun, HUANG Ping, XU Zhongming
    An interfacial potential barrier theory to calculate friction and wear is proposed by considering the micro interaction of frictional surfaces. The theory suggests that the performance of friction and wear depends on the magnitude and distribution of the interfacial potential barrier on contact surfaces. The calculation methods of the interfacial potential barrier and standard interfacial potential barrier are then studied and the formulas to calculate the friction force, friction coefficient, and quantity of adhesion wear are derived based on the theory. With its independence and stability, the standard interfacial potential barrier can be used as an index to describe the frictional performance of materials. The calculation results of the friction force with some existing experimental data are consistent with the experimental results performed with an ultra high vacuum atomic-force microscope, which proves that the theory and method are feasible.
  • DONG Yangbin, JIANG Jinping, HE Yan
    By analyzing the operation characteristics of two subtasks that have resource dependency on each other, this paper demonstrates the impact of progress relation between the two subtasks on the whole task’s progress, and then puts forward a self-organizing principle called balance principle that keeps the individual profit between robots equal. Furthermore, an algorithm is designed for adjusting subtask selection on the basis of this principle. Simulation shows the validity of the algorithm on self-organizing task allocation in a multi-robot system.
  • BAI Yue, GAO Qingjia, LI Haiwen, WU Yihui, XUAN Ming
    A design method for a flywheel rotor composed of a composite rim and a metal hub is proposed by studying the connection between the rotor and the driving machine. The influence of some factors such as the rotor material, configuration, connection, and fracture techniques on energy density is analyzed. The results show that the ratio of the inner radius to outer radius of the rim is the key factor, and is determined by the rim material. Optimizing the hub can further efficiently improve energy density. The composite flywheel rotor is produced and its rotation stress has been tested at the speed of 20 krpm. The emulation results are consistent with testing results, which proves that the introduced design method is useful.
  • WANG Xuyue, XU Weixing, CHEN Hua, WANG Jinsong
    Based on the basic platform of BP neural networks, a BP network model is established to predict the bending angle in the laser bending process of an aluminum alloy sheet (1–2 mm in thickness) and to optimize laser bending parameters for bending control. The sample experimental data is used to train the BP network. The nonlinear regularities of sample data are fitted through the trained BP network; the predicted results include laser bending angles and parameters. Experimental results indicate that the prediction allowance is controlled less than 5%–8% and can provide a theoretical and experimental basis for industry purpose.
  • WANG Shihua, XU Bugong, WANG Shihua, ZHOU Yeming, LIU YunHui
    A remote control system that can control a mobile robot in real time via the internet is proposed. To compensate for the network delay and counteract its impact on the teleoperation system, a predictive control scheme based on the modified Smith predictor proposed is selected. To ensure the stability and transparency of the system, a dynamic model manager is designed based on the information exchange between the sensors at the master and slave sides. To precisely predict the time delay, a new timer synchronization algorithm is proposed. To decrease delay- jitter, a new data buffer scheme is performed. Force feedback and a virtual predictive display are introduced to enhance the real-time efficiency of teleoperation. The usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed method and system are proven by teleoperation experiments via the internet over a long distance.
  • WANG Bangfeng, CHEN Renwen
    An online monitoring system was developed for rapidly determining the exact location of the holing position in an oil pipeline by monitoring and analyzing the characteristics of the strain wave caused by the hole. The system has a master-slaver computer structure based on a remote wireless network. The master system takes charge of managing and controlling the whole system, identifying the holing stress wave, and calculating the holing position. The slaver system is responsible for sampling the strain wave signal from the pipeline. The characteristics of the strain wave signal are extracted by a Hilbert-Huang transform based on a signal processing approach. The exact holing position can be obtained by a time delay locating method with stress wave characteristics. The experimental results of the in-service pipeline show that the average locating error of the system is less than 10 m, the accuracy ratio for the holing alarm is more than 90%, and the time that the system takes to respond to the leakage is less than 10 s.
  • LIU Wei, JIA Zhenyuan, WANG Fuji, ZHANG Yongshun, GUO Dongming
    The geometrical nonlinearity of a giant magnetostrictive thin film (GMF) can be clearly detected under the magnetostriction effect. Thus, using geometrical linear elastic theory to describe the strain, stress, and constitutive relationship of GMF is inaccurate. According to nonlinear elastic theory, a nonlinear deformation model of the bimorph GMF is established based on assumptions that the magnetostriction effect is equivalent to the effect of body force loaded on the GMF. With Taylor series method, the numerical solution is deduced. Experiments on TbDyFe/Polyimide (PI)/SmFe and TbDyFe/Cu/SmFe are then conducted to verify the proposed model, respectively. Results indicate that the nonlinear deflection curve model is in good conformity with the experimental data.
  • CAO Lixin, GONG Hu, LIU Jian
    Based on differential geometry, the contact problems of two surfaces are discussed in this paper. The relationship between the contact status of two surfaces and that of offset surfaces are also analyzed. For a 5-axis NC machining, some research such as optimization of cutter location and calculation of the geometrical cusp height are important. The research results indicate that the relative normal curvature is an important geometrical invariant for describing the contact state of two surfaces. For point contact two surfaces, the calculation equation for the second order remained error is given. For line contact two surfaces, the condition of the second order line contact is that the principal directions and curvatures of the two surfaces are the same along the contact curve. If two surfaces keep the second order line contact, their two offset surfaces will also keep the second order line contact, and their third order remained errors are also uniform with that of the two offset surfaces.
  • HUO Fengwei, JIN Zhuji, KANG Renke, GUO Dongming, YANG Chun
    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel surface topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simulation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distribution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturbance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteristics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface profiler based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.
  • WANG Meixia, LIU Cunfang, ZHOU Qiangtai
    This paper proposes a new mathematical model to calculate flow characteristics of the adiabatic capillary tube, which is aimed at solving problems existing in some earlier models. The Stocker’s model was modified with consideration of various effects due to sub-cooling, area concentration, and rolling diameter. The new model can be used not only for R22, but also for its substitutes such as R410A and R407C. A comparison of simulation results of the modified model with those in literature showed that the errors are within 10%. The flow characteristics are finally analyzed.
  • PU Jinhuan, YIN Chenliang, ZHANG Jianwu
    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recursive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost functions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the problem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limitation of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.
  • ZHANG Jiantao, ZHU Hua, ZHAO Chunsheng
    Modal disturbance of a rod-shaped ultrasonic motor using bending vibrations can cause problems such as low motor efficiency, instability, and poor control. In this paper, a dynamic analysis model of a stator is created on the basis of the finite element method (FEM) and Hamilton principle. The modal frequency sensitivities of the stator to the structure parameters are investigated by modal analysis. Accordingly, the structure parameters of the stator are modified to separate working modes from disturbance modes. A rod-shaped ultrasonic motor stator is fabricated, and the experimental results of its amplitude frequency response characteristics show that the purpose of modal separation is achieved. The frequency separation between working modes and disturbance modes is more than 2 kHz. The validity of the method is verified.
  • ZHANG Bopeng
    This paper presents the principle of self-generation of machining precision by explaining its basic concept and five necessary conditions for forming a system with self-organization capability. A self-generation system is a kind of system with self-organization capability. The self-generation of machining precision for solid balls with super precision is emphatically explained. From the viewpoint of self-organization, there are three types of systems including system S1 with the self-regulation capability, S2 with the self-determination capability of goals, and S3 with the self-organization capability. Although they are all closed loop control systems, they have different constructions and functions. Necessary conditions for achieving self-generation of machining precision are given. Establishment of the system for machining solid balls with super precision is discussed. Self-generation of machining precision for solid balls with super precision on the basis of the capability of self-removal of errors is presented. Self-generation includes the ability of self-removal of errors for solid balls, convergence of self-removal of errors, self-generation of precision, and self-generating system for the given.