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Frontiers of Earth Science

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, Volume 11 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
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EDITORIAL
Headwater regions — physical, ecological, and social approaches to understand these areas: introduction to the special issue
Steven R. FASSNACHT, Ryan W. WEBB, William E. SANFORD
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 443-446.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0667-7
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REVIEW
The significance of small streams
Ellen WOHL
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 447-456.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0647-y
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Headwaters, defined here as first- and second-order streams, make up 70%–80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Hydroclimatological data and analyses from a headwaters region of Mongolia as boundary objects in interdisciplinary climate change research
N.B.H. VENABLE
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 457-468.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0644-1
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Collaborative work on increasingly complex hydroclimatic investigations often crosses disciplinary boundaries. Elements of scientific inquiry, such as data or the results of analyses can become objectified, or capable of being adopted and/or adapted by users from multiple disciplinary realms. These objects often provide a bridge for collaborative endeavors, or are used as tools by individuals pursuing multi-disciplinary work. Boundary object terminology was first formalized and applied by social scientists. However, few examples of the application of this useful framework are found in the hydrologic literature. The construct is applied here to identify and discuss how common research products and processes are used both internally and externally through providing examples from a project examining the historical and paleo proxy-based hydroclimatology of a headwaters region of Mongolia. The boundary object concept is valuable to consider when conducting and critiquing basic research, collaborating across multiple disciplinary teams as when studying climate change issues, as an individual researcher working in a cross boundary sense using methods from differing disciplines to answer questions, and/or when one group adapts the work of another to their own research problems or interpretive needs, as occurred with selected products of this project.

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Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush
Molly E. TEDESCHE, Steven R. FASSNACHT, Paul J. MEIMAN
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 469-481.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0662-z
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In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran’s I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

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Using ground penetrating radar to assess the variability of snow water equivalent and melt in a mixed canopy forest, Northern Colorado
Ryan W. WEBB
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 482-495.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0645-0
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Snow is an important environmental variable in headwater systems that controls hydrological processes such as streamflow, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration. These processes will be affected by both the amount of snow available for melt and the rate at which it melts. Snow water equivalent (SWE) and snowmelt are known to vary within complex subalpine terrain due to terrain and canopy influences. This study assesses this variability during the melt season using ground penetrating radar to survey multiple plots in northwestern Colorado near a snow telemetry (SNOTEL) station. The plots include south aspect and flat aspect slopes with open, coniferous (subalpine fir,Abies lasiocarpa and engelman spruce, Picea engelmanii), and deciduous (aspen, populous tremuooides) canopy cover. Results show the high variability for both SWE and loss of SWE during spring snowmelt in 2014. The coefficient of variation for SWE tended to increase with time during snowmelt whereas loss of SWE remained similar. Correlation lengths for SWE were between two and five meters with melt having correlation lengths between two and four meters. The SNOTEL station regularly measured higher SWE values relative to the survey plots but was able to reasonably capture the overall mean loss of SWE during melt. Ground Penetrating Radar methods can improve future investigations with the advantage of non-destructive sampling and the ability to estimate depth, density, and SWE.

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REVIEW ARTICLE
Effects of mountain pine beetle-killed forests on source water contributions to streamflow in headwater streams of the Colorado Rocky Mountains
Christine E. WEHNER, John D. STEDNICK
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 496-504.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0660-1
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Natural or human-influenced disturbances are important to the health and diversity of forests, which in turn, are important to the water quantity and quality exported from a catchment. However, human-induced disturbances (prescribed fire and harvesting) have been decreasing, and natural disturbances (fires and insects) have been increasing in frequency and severity. One such natural disturbance is the mountain pine beetle (MPB), (Dendroctonus ponderosae) an endemic species. A recent epidemic resulted in the mortality of millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado, USA. Beetle-induced tree mortality brings about changes to the hydrologic cycle, including decreased transpiration and interception with the loss of canopy cover. This study examined the effect of the mountain pine beetle kill on source water contributions to streamflow in snowmelt-dominated headwater catchments using stable isotopes (2H and 18O) as tracers. Study catchments with varying level of beetle-killed forest area (6% to 97%) were sampled for groundwater, surface water, and precipitation. Streams were sampled to assess whether beetle-killed forests have altered source water contributions to streamflow. Groundwater contributions increased with increasing beetle-killed forest area (p=0.008). Both rain and snow contributions were negatively correlated with beetle-killed forest area (p=0.035 and p=0.011, respectively). As the beetle-killed forest area increases, so does fractional groundwater contribution to streamflow.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Spatio-temporal snowmelt variability across the headwaters of the Southern Rocky Mountains
S.R. FASSNACHT, J.I. LÓPEZ-MORENO, C. MA, A.N. WEBER, A.K.D. PFOHL, S.K. KAMPF, M. KAPPAS
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 505-514.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0641-4
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Understanding the rate of snowmelt helps inform how water stored as snow will transform into streamflow. Data from 87 snow telemetry (SNOTEL) stations across the Southern Rocky Mountains were used to estimate spatio-temporal melt factors. Decreases in snow water equivalent were correlated to temperature at these monitoring stations for eight half-month periods from early March through late June. Time explained 70% of the variance in the computed snow melt factors. A residual linear correlation model was used to explain subsequent spatial variability. Longitude, slope, and land cover type explained further variance. For evergreen trees, canopy density was relevant to find enhanced melt rates; while for all other land cover types, denoted as non-evergreen, lower melt rates were found at high elevation, high latitude and north facing slopes, denoting that in cold environments melting is less effective than in milder sites. A change in the temperature sensor about mid-way through the time series (1990 to 2013) created a discontinuity in the temperature dataset. An adjustment to the time series yield larger computed melt factors.

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Effect of snow on mountain river regimes: an example from the Pyrenees
Alba SANMIGUEL-VALLELADO, Enrique MORÁN-TEJEDA, Esteban ALONSO-GONZÁLEZ, Juan Ignacio LÓPEZ-MORENO
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 515-530.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-016-0630-z
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The purpose of this study was to characterize mountain river regimes in the Spanish Pyrenees and to assess the importance of snow accumulation and snowmelt on the timing of river flows. Daily streamflow data from 9 gauging stations in the Pyrenees were used to characterize river regimes. These data were analyzed by hydrological indices, with a focus on periods when snow accumulation and snowmelt occurred. These results were combined with data on Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) (from measurements of depth and density of snow in the main river basins and also simulated by a process-based hydrological model), snowmelting (simulated by a process-based hydrological model), precipitation (from observations), and temperature (from observations). Longitude and elevation gradients in the Pyrenees explain the transition of river regimes from those that mostly had low nival signals (in the west and at low elevations) to those that mostly had high nival signals (low winter runoff and late spring peakflow, in the east and at high elevations). Although trend analyses indicated no statistically significant changes, there was a trend of decreased nival signal over time in most of the analyzed rivers. Our results also demonstrated that snow processes cannot explain all of the interannual variability of river regimes, because the temporal distribution of liquid precipitation and temperature play key roles in hydrography.

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Using isotope methods to study alpine headwater regions in the Northern Caucasus and Tien Shan*
E. RETS, J. CHIZHOVA, N. LOSHAKOVA, I. TOKAREV, M. KIREEVA, N. BUDANTSEVA, Yu.K. VASILCHUK, N. FROLOVA, V. POPOVNIN, P. TOROPOV, E. TERSKAYA, A. SMIRNOV, E. BELOZEROV, M. KARASHOVA
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 531-543.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0668-6
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High mountain areas provide water resources for a large share of the world’s population. The ongoing deglaciation of these areas is resulting in great instability of mountainous headwater regions, which could significantly affect water supply and intensify dangerous hydrological processes.

The hydrological processes in mountains are still poorly understood due to the complexity of the natural conditions, great spatial variation and a lack of observation. A knowledge of flow-forming processes in alpine areas is essential to predict future possible trends in hydrological conditions and to calculate river runoff characteristics. The goal of this study is to gain detailed field data on various components of natural hydrological processes in the alpine areas of the North Caucasus and Central Tien Shan, and to investigate the possibility that the isotopic method can reveal important regularities of river flow formation in these regions. The study is based on field observations in representative alpine river basins in the North Caucasus (the Dzhankuat river basin) and the Central Tien Shan (the Chon-Kyzyl-Suu river basin) during 2013–2015. A mixing-model approach was used to conduct river hydrograph separation. Isotope methods were used to estimate the contribution of different nourishment sources in total runoff and its regime. d18О, dD and mineralization were used as indicators. Two equation systems for the study sites were derived: in terms of water routing and runoff genesis. The Dzhankuat and Chon-Kyzyl-Suu river hydrographs were separated into 4 components: liquid precipitation/meltwaters, surface routed/subsurface routed waters.

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Instream coliform gradients in the Holtemme, a small headwater stream in the Elbe River Basin, Northern Germany
Daniel KARTHE, Pei-Ying LIN, Katja WESTPHAL
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 544-553.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0648-x
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The Holtemme is a small headwater stream in North Germany’s Elbe River Basin. According to German and European legislation, hygienic monitoring is not mandatory for such water bodies which are neither drinking water sources nor categorized as bathing waters. Consequently, relatively little is known about the occurrence of –potentially pathogenic– bacteria and viruses in Germany’s streams and rivers. The Holtemme was selected for a case study because it is relatively well monitored for both chemical water quality and aquatic ecology, but not for hygiene. Originating in the mountains of Harz Nature Park, the 47 km long Holtemme is characterized by a strong longitudinal gradient in chemical water quality, which is related to different land uses and the influx of treated wastewater from two urban areas (Wernigerode and Halberstadt). Waste water loads received by the Holtemme are comparatively high when compared to similarly small streams.

In 2015, total coliform concentrations between more than 200 and 77,010 bacteria per 100 mL, and fecal coliform concentrations between 5 and 24,060 bacteria per 100 mL were observed in the Holtemme’s main channel. The highest concentrations were typically found below the outlets of the two wastewater treatment plants. The treated wastewater contained total and fecal coliform concentrations of up to 200,500 and 83,100 per 100 mL, respectively; however, there were significant temporal variations. While the observed concentrations are unproblematic from a legal perspective (because no maximum permissible limits are defined for streams in Germany), they would exceed the tolerable limits for bathing waters in the EU, indicating moderate to critical pollution limits.

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Macroinvertebrate distribution and aquatic ecology in the Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the Yellow River source region
Na ZHAO, Mengzhen XU, Zhiwei LI, Zhaoyin WANG, Hanmi ZHOU
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 554-564.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-016-0616-x
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The Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the largest plateau peatland in the world, is located in the Yellow River source region. The discharge of the Yellow River increases greatly after flowing through the Ruoergai Wetland. The aquatic ecosystem of the Ruoergai Wetland is crucial to the whole Yellow River basin. The Ruoergai wetland has three main kinds of water bodies: rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands. In this study, macroinvertebrates were used as indicators to assess the aquatic ecological status because their assemblage structures indicate long-term changes in environments with high sensitivity. Field investigations were conducted in July, 2012 and in July, 2013. A total of 72 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to 35 families and 67 genera were sampled and identified. Insecta was the dominant group in the Ruoergai Basin. The alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates at any single sampling site was low, while the alpha diversity on a basin-wide scale was much higher. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands differ markedly. Hydrological connectivity was a primary factor causing the variance of the bio-community. The river channels had the highest alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, followed by marsh wetlands and oxbow lakes. The density and biomass of Gastropoda, collector filterers, and scrapers increased from rivers to oxbow lakes and then to marsh wetlands. The river ecology was particular in the Ruoergai Wetland with the high beta diversity of macroinvertebrates, the low alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, and the low taxa richness, density, and biomass of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera). To maintain high alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates in the Ruoergai Wetland, moderate connectivity of oxbow lakes and marsh wetlands with rivers and measures to control headwater erosion are both crucial.

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Sediment transport in headwaters of a volcanic catchment—Kamchatka Peninsula case study
Sergey R. CHALOV, Anatolii S. TSYPLENKOV, Jan PIETRON, Aleksandra S. CHALOVA, Danila I. SHKOLNYI, Jerker JARSJÖ, Michael MAERKER
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 565-578.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-016-0632-x
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Due to specific environmental conditions, headwater catchments located on volcanic slopes and valleys are characterized by distinctive hydrology and sediment transport patterns. However, lack of sufficient monitoring causes that the governing processes and patterns in these areas are rarely well understood. In this study, spatiotemporal water discharge and sediment transport from upstream sources was investigated in one of the numerous headwater catchments located in the lahar valleys of the Kamchatka Peninsula Sukhaya Elizovskaya River near Avachinskii and Koryakskii volcanoes. Three different subcatchments and corresponding channel types (wandering rivers within lahar valleys, mountain rivers within volcanic slopes and rivers within submountain terrains) were identified in the studied area. Our measurements from different periods of observations between years 2012–2014 showed that the studied catchment was characterized by extreme diurnal fluctuation of water discharges and sediment loads that were influenced by snowmelt patterns and high infiltration rates of the easily erodible lahar deposits. The highest recorded sediment loads were up to 9·104 mg/L which was related to an increase of two orders of magnitude within a one day of observations. Additionally, to get a quantitative estimate of the spatial distribution of the eroded material in the volcanic substrates we applied an empirical soil erosion and sediment yield model – modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE). The modeling results showed that even if the applications of the universal erosion model to different non-agricultural areas (e.g., volcanic catchments) can lead to irrelevant results, the MUSLE model delivered might be acceptable for non-lahar areas of the studied volcanic catchment. Overall the results of our study increase our understanding of the hydrology and associated sediment transport for prediction of risk management within headwater volcanic catchments.

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Modeling potential scenarios of the Tangjiashan Lake outburst and risk assessment in the downstream valley
Vera KIDYAEVA, Sergey CHERNOMORETS, Inna KRYLENKO, Fangqiang WEI, Dmitry PETRAKOV, Pengcheng SU, Hongjuan YANG, Junnan XIONG
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 579-591.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0640-5
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This research is devoted to Tangjiashan Lake, a quake landslide-dammed lake, situated in Sichuan Province, China, which was formed by a landslide triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake on 12 May 2008. A STREAM_2D two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Russia was applied to simulate the process of two flood scenarios: 1, lake dam outbreak, and 2, dam overtopping. An artificial dam outbreak was made after the earthquake to lower the water level of the lake in 2008, which led to a great flood with a maximum water discharge of more than 6400 m3/s. The negative impact of the flood was reduced by a timely evacuation of the population. Flood hazards still remain in the event of new landslides into the lake and lake dam overtopping (Scenario 2), in which case a maximum water discharge at the dam crest would reach 5000 m3/s, placing the population of Shabacun and Shilingzi villages in the zone of flood impact.

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A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China
Jianwen BAI, Zhenyao SHEN, Tiezhu YAN
Front. Earth Sci.. 2017, 11 (3): 592-600.   DOI: 10.1007/s11707-017-0656-x
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An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in follow-up work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

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