With the development of new materials and ultra-precision processing technology, the sizes of measured objects increase, and the requirements for machining accuracy and surface quality become more exacting. The traditional measurement method based on reference datum is inadequate for measuring a high-precision object when the quality of the reference datum is approximately within the same order as that of the object. Self-referenced measurement techniques provide an effective means when the direct reference-based method cannot satisfy the required measurement or calibration accuracy. This paper discusses the reconstruction algorithms for self-referenced measurement and connects lateral shearing interferometry and multi-probe error separation. In lateral shearing interferometry, the reconstruction algorithms are generally categorized into modal or zonal methods. The multi-probe error separation techniques for straightness measurement are broadly divided into two-point and three-point methods. The common features of the lateral shearing interferometry method and the multi-probe error separation method are identified. We conclude that the reconstruction principle in lateral shearing interferometry is similar to the two-point method in error separation on the condition that no yaw error exists. This similarity may provide a basis or inspiration for the development of both classes of methods.
Ultra-precision machining technologies are the essential methods, to obtain the highest form accuracy and surface quality. As more research findings are published, such technologies now involve complicated systems engineering and been widely used in the production of components in various aerospace, national defense, optics, mechanics, electronics, and other high-tech applications. The conception, applications and history of ultra-precision machining are introduced in this article, and the developments of ultra-precision machining technologies, especially ultra-precision grinding, ultra-precision cutting and polishing are also reviewed. The current state and problems of this field in China are analyzed. Finally, the development trends of this field and the coping strategies employed in China to keep up with the trends are discussed.
Ultraprecision diamond machining and high volume molding for affordable high precision high performance optical elements are becoming a viable process in optical industry for low cost high quality microoptical component manufacturing. In this process, first high precision microoptical molds are fabricated using ultraprecision single point diamond machining followed by high volume production methods such as compression or injection molding. In the last two decades, there have been steady improvements in ultraprecision machine design and performance, particularly with the introduction of both slow tool and fast tool servo. Today optical molds, including freeform surfaces and microlens arrays, are routinely diamond machined to final finish without post machining polishing. For consumers, compression molding or injection molding provide efficient and high quality optics at extremely low cost. In this paper, first ultraprecision machine design and machining processes such as slow tool and fast too servo are described then both compression molding and injection molding of polymer optics are discussed. To implement precision optical manufacturing by molding, numerical modeling can be included in the future as a critical part of the manufacturing process to ensure high product quality.
Large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are widely used in the laser path of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems. The most common method of manufacturing half-meter KDP crystals is ultra-precision fly cutting. When processing KDP crystals by ultra-precision fly cutting, the dynamic characteristics of the fly cutting machine and fluctuations in the fly cutting environment are translated into surface errors at different spatial frequency bands. These machining errors should be suppressed effectively to guarantee that KDP crystals meet the full-band machining accuracy specified in the evaluation index. In this study, the anisotropic machinability of KDP crystals and the causes of typical surface errors in ultra-precision fly cutting of the material are investigated. The structures of the fly cutting machine and existing processing parameters are optimized to improve the machined surface quality. The findings are theoretically and practically important in the development of high-energy laser systems in China.
Predictive models for machining operations have been significantly improved through numerous methods in recent decades. This study proposed a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach for the micro end-milling of Al6061-T6. Finite element (FE) simulations were performed under different cutting conditions to obtain realistic numerical predictions of chip flow, burr formation, and cutting forces. FE modeling displayed notable advantages, such as capability to easily handle any type of tool geometry and any side effect on chip formation, including thermal aspect and material property changes. The proposed 3D FE model considers the effects of mill helix angle and cutting edge radius on the chip. The prediction capability of the FE model was validated by comparing numerical model and experimental test results. Burr dimension trends were correlated with force profile shapes. However, the FE predictions overestimated the real force magnitude. This overestimation indicates that the model requires further development.
The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the design of a memory bit to minimize the energy required to write data at the bit level. By straining a ferromagnetic nickel nano-dot by means of a piezoelectric substrate, its magnetization vector rotates between two stable states defined as a 1 and 0 for digital memory. The memory bit geometry, actuation mechanism and voltage control law were used as design variables. The approach used was to decompose the overall design process into simpler sub-problems whose structure can be exploited for a more efficient solution. This method minimizes the number of fully dynamic coupled finite element analyses required to converge to a near optimal design, thus decreasing the computational time for the design process. An in-plane sample design problem is presented to illustrate the advantages and flexibility of the procedure.
This paper describes an application of magneto-rheological (MR) grease dampers as seismic dampers for a three-story steel structure. MR fluid is widely known as a smart material with rheological properties that can be varied by magnetic field strength. This material has been applied to various types of devices, such as dampers, clutches, and engine mounts. However, the ferromagnetic particles dispersed in MR fluid settle out of the suspension after a certain interval because of the density difference between the particles and their carrier fluid. To overcome this defect, we developed a new type of controllable working fluid using grease as the carrier of magnetic particles. MR grease was introduced into a cylindrical damper, and the seismic performance of the damper was subsequently studied via numerical analysis. The analysis results of the MR grease damper were compared with those of other seismic dampers. We confirmed that the MR grease damper is an effective seismic damper.
Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage’s topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the investigations needed to gain further insight into the lamina splendens and the progression of joint disease.
Similitude design plays a vital role in the analysis of vibration and shock problems encountered in large engineering equipment. Similitude design, including dimensional analysis and governing equation method, is founded on the dynamic similitude theory. This study reviews the application of similitude design methods in engineering practice and summarizes the major achievements of the dynamic similitude theory in structural vibration and shock problems in different fields, including marine structures, civil engineering structures, and large power equipment. This study also reviews the dynamic similitude design methods for thin-walled and composite material plates and shells, including the most recent work published by the authors. Structure sensitivity analysis is used to evaluate the scaling factors to attain accurate distorted scaling laws. Finally, this study discusses the existing problems and the potential of the dynamic similitude theory for the analysis of vibration and shock problems of structures.
Most of the XY positioning stages proposed in previous studies are mainly designed by considering only a single performance indicator of the stage. As a result, the other performance indicators are relatively weak. In this study, a 2-degree-of-freedom linear compliant positioning stage (LCPS) is developed by mechatronic design to balance the interacting performance indicators and realize the desired positioning stage. The key parameters and the coupling of the structure and actuators are completely considered in the design. The LCPS consists of four voice coil motors (VCMs), which are conformally designed for compactness, and six spatial leaf spring parallelograms. These parallelograms are serially connected for a large travel range and a high out-of-plane payload capacity. The mechatronic model is established by matrix structural analysis for structural modeling and by Kirchhoff’s law for the VCMs. The sensitivities of the key parameters are analyzed, and the design parameters are subsequently determined. The analytical model of the stage is confirmed by experiments. The stage has a travel range of 4.4 mm× 7.0 mm and a 0.16% area ratio of workspace to the outer dimension of the stage. The values of these performance indicators are greater than those of any existing stage reported in the literature. The closed-loop bandwidth is 9.5 Hz in both working directions. The stage can track a circular trajectory with a radius of 1.5 mm, with 40 mm error and a resolution of lower than 3 mm. The results of payload tests indicate that the stage has at least 20 kg out-of-plane payload capacity.