Remanufacturing Technology
The main objective of this Special Column is to bring together the new and innovative ideas, experiences and research results from researchers and practitioners on all aspects of Remanufacturing Technology.
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    Jiali ZHAO, Shitong PENG, Tao LI, Shengping LV, Mengyun LI, Hongchao ZHANG
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2019, 14(4): 474-488.

    The rise of the engine remanufacturing industry has resulted in increased possibilities of energy conservation during the remanufacturing process, and scheduling could exert significant effects on the energy performance of manufacturing systems. However, only a few studies have specifically addressed energy-efficient scheduling for remanufacturing. Considering the uncertain processing time and routes and the operation characteristics of remanufacturing, we used the crankshaft as an illustrative case and built a fuzzy job-shop scheduling model to minimize the energy consumption during remanufacturing. An improved adaptive genetic algorithm was developed by using the hormone modulation mechanism to deal with the scheduling problem that simultaneously involves parallel machines, batch machines, and uncertain processing routes and time. The algorithm demonstrated superior performance in terms of optimal value, run time, and convergent generation in comparison with other algorithms. Computational results indicated that the optimal scheduling scheme is expected to generate 1.7 kW∙h of energy saving for the investigated problem size. In addition, the scheme could improve the energy efficiency of the crankshaft remanufacturing process by approximately 5%. This study provides a basis for production managers to improve the sustainability of remanufacturing through energy-aware scheduling.

    Haiyang LU, Yanle LI, Fangyi LI, Xingyi ZHANG, Chuanwei ZHANG, Jiyu DU, Zhen LI, Xueju RAN, Jianfeng LI, Weiqiang WANG
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2019, 14(4): 402-411.

    The theoretical and technological achievements in the damage mechanism and evaluation model obtained through the national basic research program “Key Fundamental Scientific Problems on Mechanical Equipment Remanufacturing” are reviewed in this work. Large centrifugal compressor impeller blanks were used as the study object. The materials of the blanks were FV520B and KMN. The mechanism and evaluation model of ultra-high cycle fatigue, erosion wear, and corrosion damage were studied via theoretical calculation, finite element simulation, and experimentation. For ultra-high cycle fatigue damage, the characteristics of ultra-high cycle fatigue of the impeller material were clarified, and prediction models of ultra-high cycle fatigue strength were established. A residual life evaluation technique based on the “b-HV-N” (where b was the nonlinear parameter, HV was the Vickers hardness, and N was the fatigue life) double criterion method was proposed. For erosion wear, the flow field of gas-solid two-phase flow inside the impeller was simulated, and the erosion wear law was clarified. Two models for erosion rate and erosion depth calculation were established. For corrosion damage, the electrochemical and stress corrosion behaviors of the impeller material and welded joints in H2S/CO2 environment were investigated. KISCC (critical stress intensity factor) and da/dt (crack growth rate, where a is the total crack length and t is time) varied with H2S concentration and temperature, and their variation laws were revealed. Through this research, the key scientific problems of the damage behavior and mechanism of remanufacturing objects in the multi-strength field and cross-scale were solved. The findings provide theoretical and evaluation model support for the analysis and evaluation of large centrifugal compressor impellers before remanufacturing.

    Zhongde SHAN, Fuzhen SUN, Yang LIU
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2019, 14(4): 393-401.

    In accordance with the requirement of manufacturing dies quickly and economically, a hybrid forming method of stamping dies for automobile panels is proposed. The method combines digital patternless casting and high-power laser cladding. An experimental study is conducted on the hybrid forming process and its trial production and application in the manufacturing of stamping dies for typical panels. Results prove that the laser cladding layer exceeds HRC60 (Rockwell hardness) and thus meets the production efficiency requirement of automobile dies. The rate of defects is well controlled. Compared with traditional technology, this technology has remarkable advantages and advancement.

    Le WANG, Yuelan DI, Ying LIU, Haidou WANG, Haoxing YOU, Tao LIU
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2019, 14(4): 452-460.

    Thermally grown oxide (TGO) may be generated in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) after high-temperature oxidation. TGO increases the internal stress of the coatings, leading to the spalling of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate the growth characteristics, microstructure, and composition of TGO after high-temperature oxidation for 0, 10, 30, and 50 h, and the results were systematically compared. Acoustic emission (AE) signals and the strain on the coating surface under static load were measured with AE technology and digital image correlation. Results showed that TGO gradually grew and thickened with the increase in oxidation time. The thickened TGO had preferential multi-cracks at the interface of TGO and the bond layer and delayed the strain on the surface of the coating under tensile load. TGO growth resulted in the generation of pores at the interface between the TGO and bond layer. The pores produced by TGO under tensile load delayed the generation of surface cracks and thus prolonged the failure time of TBCs.

    Le CHEN, Xianlin WANG, Hua ZHANG, Xugang ZHANG, Binbin DAN
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2019, 14(4): 412-421.

    A timing decision-making method for predecisional remanufacturing is presented. The method can effectively solve the uncertainty problem of remanufacturing blanks. From the perspective of reliability, this study analyzes the timing decision-making interval for predecisional remanufacturing of mechanical products during the service period and constructs an optimal timing model based on energy consumption and cost. The mapping relationships between time and energy consumption are predicted by using the characteristic values of performance degradation of products combined with the least squares support vector regression algorithm. Application of game theory reveals that when the energy consumption and cost are comprehensively optimal, this moment is the best time for predecisional remanufacturing. Used engine blades are utilized as an example to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.

    Zhongde SHAN, Zhi GUO, Dong DU, Feng LIU, Wenjiang LI
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2020, 15(2): 328-337.

    Sand mold 3D printing technology based on the principle of droplet ejection has undergone rapid development in recent years and has elicited increasing attention from engineers and technicians. However, current sand mold 3D printing technology exhibits several problems, such as single-material printing molds, low manufacturing efficiency, and necessary post-process drying and heating for the manufacture of sand molds. This study proposes a novel high-efficiency print forming method and device for multi-material casting molds. The proposed method is specifically related to the integrated forming of two-way coating and printing and the short-flow manufacture of roller compaction and layered heating. These processes can realize the high-efficiency print forming of high-performance sand molds. Experimental results demonstrate that the efficiency of sand mold fabrication can be increased by 200% using the proposed two-way coating and printing method. The integrated forming method for layered heating and roller compaction presented in this study effectively shortens the manufacturing process for 3D-printed sand molds, increases sand mold strength by 63.8%, and reduces resin usage by approximately 30%. The manufacture of multi-material casting molds is demonstrated on typical wheeled cast-iron parts. This research provides theoretical guidance for the engineering application of sand mold 3D printing.

    Hong PENG, Han WANG, Daojia CHEN
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2019, 14(4): 422-433.

    Remanufacturing route optimization is crucial in remanufacturing production because it exerts a considerable impact on the eco-efficiency (i.e., the best link between economic and environmental benefits) of remanufacturing. Therefore, an optimization model for remanufacturing process routes oriented toward eco-efficiency is proposed. In this model, fault tree analysis is used to extract the characteristic factors of used products. The ICAM definition method is utilized to design alternative remanufacturing process routes for the used products. Afterward, an eco-efficiency objective function model is established, and simulated annealing (SA) particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to select the manufacturing process route with the best eco-efficiency. The proposed model is then applied to the remanufacturing of a used helical cylindrical gear, and optimization of the remanufacturing process route is realized by MATLAB programming. The proposed model’s feasibility is verified by comparing the model’s performance with that of standard SA and PSO.