Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small molecule metabolites of oxygen that are prone to participate in redox reactions
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the predominant serine/threonine phosphatase in eukaryotic cells. In the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), decreased PP2A activities were observed, which is suggested to be involved in neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation, disturbed amyloid precursor protein (APP) secretion and neurodegeneration in AD brain. Based on our research and other previous findings, decreased PP2Ac level, decreased PP2A holoenzyme composition, increased level of PP2A inhibitors, increased PP2Ac Leu309 demethylation and Tyr307 phosphorylation underlie PP2A inactivation in AD. β-amyloid (Aβ) over-production, estrogen deficiency and impaired homocysteine metabolism are the possible up-stream factors that inactivate PP2A in AD neurons. Further studies are required to disclose the role of PP2A in Alzheimer’s disease.
Lymphography is often used for the diagnosis of lymphatic metastasis in oncology. Determination of lymphatic metastasis is extremely important for accurate cancer staging, which may directly guide the clinical therapeutic scheme. In recent years, the technology of lymphography has developed rapidly on the basis of traditional lymphography, with the appearance of computed tomography (CT) lymphography, nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography, contrast-enhanced lymphosonography, and so on; the diagnostic accuracy has also been improved. The imaging principles and methods of these various technologies of lymphography are reviewed in this paper, and their applications and significance in oncology are also discussed in detail.
The interaction by co-stimulatory molecules 4-1BB and 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) plays an important role in the activation, proliferation and differentiation of T lymphocytes. The function of 4-1BB/4-1BBL expressed by the immune cells has been the focus for many tumor immunotherapy efforts. In this study, 4-1BBL was expressed in non-immune cells and non-tumor cells, and the role of 4-1BBL in lymphocyte activation and tumor suppression was investigated. The plasmid p4-1BBL containing the full length of mouse 4-1BBL cDNA sequence was constructed, and the plasmid was transfected into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells and murine muscle cells by means of lipofectin-mediated or naked plasmid DNA injection into the muscle directly. The study demonstrated that the molecule 4-1BBL expressed by BHK cells
DNA double-strand break (DSB) is generally regarded as the most lethal of all DNA lesions after radiation. Ku80, DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) proteins are major DSB repair proteins. In this study, survival fraction at 2Gy (SF2) values of eight human tumor cell lines (including four human cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa, SiHa, C33A, Caski, three human breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and one human lung carcinoma cell line A549) were acquired by clone formation assay, and western blot was applied to detect the expressions of Ku80, DNA-PKcs and ATM protein. The correlativity of protein expression with SF2 value was analyzed by Pearson linear correlation analysis. We found that the expression of same protein in different cell lines and the expression of three proteins in the same cell line had a significant difference. The SF2 values were also different in eight tumor cell lines and there was a positive correlativity between the expression of DNA-PKcs and SF2 (
The role of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in predicting prognosis after stroke in the Asian population has not been investigated. We hypothesized that elevated levels of hsCRP were associated with worsening prognosis after stroke in Chinese patients. Two hundred and ninety consecutive patients with first-onset stroke and 290 age- and gender-matched control subjects without any cerebrovascular disease were enrolled for study. Plasma hsCRP level was detected and subsequent vascular events and death were recorded in both groups over a 5-year period. Compared to control group, patients presenting with stroke had higher plasma hsCRP level (3.3 ± 3.8
This study aims to investigate the influence of β-elemene on the secretion of angiotensin II (ANG II) and the expression of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).
This study aims to research the expression of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the relationship between Syk and clinicopathologic factors and p53. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of Syk and p53 protein in 39 cases of NSCLC (23 cases of lung squamous cell cancer, 16 cases of lung adenocarcinoma) and tumor-surrounding normal lung tissues. The positive rate of Syk was 46.15% (18/39) and 100% (39/39) in NSCLC and tumor-surrounding normal lung tissues, respectively. The expression level of Syk in NSCLC was significantly lower than that in tumor-surrounding normal lung tissues (
This study was aimed to explore the anterior cervical surgery methods to treat central cord syndrome without radiographic spinal fracture-dislocation (CCSWORFD), retrospectively analyze the cases of CCSWORFD, and evaluate the curative effect of anterior cervical surgery methods for CCSWORFD. Twenty four cases of CCSWORFD (19 males and 5 females), all suffering from cervical hyperextension injury, between 45-68 (average 59) years old, were operated on by anterior cervical surgery methods. Among these, 18 cases had been followed up for 6-24 (average 15) months; 18 cases, who had anterior decompression and plate fixation with titanium mesh bone grafting or iliac bone grafting achieved reliable effects based on the Japanese Orthopedics Association (JOA) evaluation (improved scores of cases with titanium mesh bone grafting,
The aim of this paper was to study the differential gene expression of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) by gene chip technology. Total RNA of 8 fresh GCTB specimens (Jaffe I∶6 cases, II∶1 case, III∶1 case; Campanacci I∶6 cases, II∶1 case, III∶1 case; Enneking Staging G0T1-2M0: 5 cases, G1T1-2M0: 2 cases, G1T2M0: 1 case) and 4 normal bony callus specimens (the control group) were extracted and purified to get mRNA and then reverse transcribed to complementary DNA, respectively. Microarray screening with a set of 8064 human cDNA genes was conducted to analyze the difference among the samples and the control. The hybridization signals were scanned. The gene expression disparity between the GCTB samples and normal bony callus was significantly different (
Leptin resistance is a main mechanism of acquired childhood obesity, and the suppression of long form of leptin receptor (OBRb) gene expression in diet-induced obese rats indicates that the down-regulation of OBRb gene expression plays a pivotal role in the mechanism of leptin resistance. The aim of the present study was to construct the lentiviral RNA interference (RNAi) vector of rat OBRb gene and evaluate the effects of siRNA on silencing OBRb gene expression. The target sequence of siRNA-OBRb was designed, and the complementary DNA containing both sense and antisense oligonucleotides was synthesized. After phosphorylation and annealing, these double-stranded DNA was cloned to pRNA-lentivector-VGFP to construct pRNA-Lenti-OBRb-VGFP recombinants with U6-containing promoter, target sequence and Poly III terminator. Then, the products were confirmed by electrophoresis and sequencing analysis, and the effects of RNAi on reducing gene expression were further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in transfected rat glioma cells expressing OBRb. The target sequence of siRNA-OBRb was successfully cloned to pRNA-lentivector-VGFP, and the RNAi protocol specifically reduced the expression of OBRb mRNA by approximately 80% compared with controls in transfected rat glioma cells. The successful construction of rat lentivirus vectors expressing OBRb-specific shRNA may be useful for further investigation
The aim of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of retinoic acid (RA) on the TBX1 gene expression in myocardial cells. Ventricular cardiocytes were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured, and then treated with different concentrations of retinoic acid. The expression of Shh and Fgf8 at mRNA and protein levels in neonatal rat myocardial cells were measured by using RT-PCR and Western blot technique, respectively. There was basal expression of Shh and Fgf8 in the control group. When treated with 3×10-7 mol/L RA, we observed that the expression of Shh mRNA and protein in neonatal rat myocardial cells were up-regulated by 1.51 (
Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is a ferrous iron import protein. The improper expression of DMT1 is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus containing the gene of DMT1 without the iron response element (DMT1-IRE) and investigated its expression and function in the C6 glioma cell line. The DMT1-IRE gene, obtained by RT-PCR, was cloned into the shuttle plasmid pAdTrack-CMV containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene. Linearized plasmid pAdTrack-CMV-DMT1-IRE was subsequently co-transformed into
In order to provide useful information for effective control and clinical therapy of infection, the resistance status and the rate of carryingAmpC β-lactamase of
During normal metabolism, oxidative byproducts will inevitably generate and damage molecules thereby impairing their biological functions, including the aging process.
To study the efficacy of Fuganling granula (FGL, 复肝灵颗粒) in treating mouse immunological hepatic injury that was caused by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a total of 60 mice were adopted, among which, 50 mice were given intraperitoneal injection with BCG and LPS to establish an immunological liver injury model and then were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 mice/group): 4 groups received treatment of FGL orally at the doses of 100 mg/kg (high-dosage), 50 mg/kg (middle-dosage), 25 mg/kg (low-dosage) and bifendate orally at the dose of 80 mg/kg, respectively. One group was treated with distilled water orally. The remaining 10 mice were given distilled water intraperitoneally as the normal control group. The indices of thymus, liver and spleen, and the activities of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum were detected. Compared to the normal rat, the model group’s thymus index decreased significantly. The liver index and spleen index increased significantly. The activities of serum ALT and AST increased significantly (all
The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between energy metabolism and the meridian phenomenon. The manner of change of oxygen partial pressure in acupoints and no-acupoints of the urinary bladder meridian of goats was observed with a needle-type tissue oxygen tension sensor after the acupuncture effect was blocked by Ca2+ complexation with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-Na2. The results showed that: (1) the concentration of calcium ion in urinary bladder meridian acupoints was higher than that in no-acupoints (
The aim of this study was to explore the expression of integrin-β1 in different stages of hepatic fibrosis and intervention of resveratrol as well as the way by which integrin-β1 promoted hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis models of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were created and intragastric administration of resveratrol was given in low (40 mg/kg), middle (120 mg/kg) and high (200 mg/kg) dose groups. The expression of integrin-β1, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in different stages of hepatic fibrosis was detected by using RT-PCR. The expression of hexadecenoic acid (HA) and precollagen III (pc III) was assayed by radioimmunoassay. The expression of integrin-β1, TGF-β and TIMP-1 was determined in each group. Liver function and pathological sections of each group in different stages of hepatic fibrosis was tested to judge the therapeutic efficacy of resveratrol at different doses. The expression of integrin-β1 in normal control group was low and steady and was not increased as the development of hepatic fibrosis, but it is increased in other groups. The expression levels of integrin-β1 in the model control group (0.878±0.03,
This study aimed to investigate the effects of celecoxib, synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid (CD437) and the combination of the two on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cycle arrest of human malignant melanoma A375 cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di-phenyltetrazoliumbromide assay (MTT assay) was applied to determine the anti-proliferative effects of the drugs on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. Flow cytometry was performed to investigate the influence of the drugs on cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Both celecoxib and CD437 could inhibit the growth of human malignant melanoma A375 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Celecoxib at 80 μmol/L inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest of human malignant melanoma A375 cells after treatment for 24 h [proliferation inhibiting rate: (50.2±2.51)%, apoptosis rate: (35.91±1.80)%]. CD437 at 10 μmol/L inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of human malignant melanoma A375 cells after treatment for 24 h [proliferation inhibiting rate: (58.6±2.38)%, apoptosis rate: (28.03±0.77)%]. Celecoxib in combination with CD437 could significantly enhance the effects of inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of human malignant melanoma A375 cells 24 h after treatment compared with the drug alone [proliferation inhibiting rate: (68.92±1.72)%, apoptosis rate: (42.09±1.05)%, both
The lacrimal endoscope is applied to the diagnosis and therapy of the disorders of the lacrimal system in combination with laser or micro drills under orthophoria. The changes of mucous membranes, the characteristics of pathological changes and the predilection sites of lacrimal system diseases were initially approached. One hundred and forty six pairs of eyes of 128 patients with lacrimal system disease were observed by the lacrimal endoscope in the Ophthalmology Department of Tongji Hospital from June 2006 to March 2007. The dynamic changes in mucous membranes, lesion sites, secreted substances and formation of membrane could be observed under orthophoria. Combined with laser or micro drill, the endoscope was applied to the therapy of lacrimal system disorders and the difference before and after the treatment was observed. Results are as follows: (1) The examination and therapy using the lacrimal endoscope were completed under topical anesthesia in 122 patients, and 6 patients of neonatorum dacryocystitis were examined and treated under general anaesthesia. All patients reported painless. (2) Sharp images of the lacrimal system were obtained by the endoscope. Normal lacrimal mucosal membrane was smooth and light pink, expanded and unobstructed during irrigation. In chronic dacryocystitis patients, the inhomogeneous colour of mucosal membranes was red and white, with different degrees of fibrotic membranes at the superior, middle and inferior parts of the nasolacrimal canals and secreted substances at sac could be observed. The lacrimal ducts could not be expanded and obstructed during irrigation. The patients with lacrimal system obstruction had different extents of membrane formation, and stenosis or complete obstruction of the lacrimal duct could be observed, and the corresponding mucosal membrane was not smooth which could not be expanded and obstructed during irrigation. (3) After the treatment by the endoscope combined with laser or micro drill, the major proliferation of the membrane disappeared and the lacrimal duct was unobstructed during irrigation. The cure rate and effective rate were 80.1% and 93.1%, respectively. The lacrimal endoscope is a new method in the diagnosis of lacrimal system diseases. Through a combination with laser or micro drill to carry out the therapy under orthophoria, it will bring a great change to the diagnosis and therapy of lacrimal system diseases.