(Dae Hwan Shin, Yu Tong Tam, Glen S. Kwon, pp. 348-359)
Several amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been widely studied for drug solubilization that enables safe intravenous administration of anticancer drugs, including PEG-b-PLA, PEG-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-PEG (i.e., Pluronics®), PEG-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) and PEG-b-poly(α-amino acid). Proven safety of ABCs is paramount for intravenou [Detail] ...
Great interests have arisen over the last decade in the development of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchical structure enables materials to have maximum structural functions owing to enhanced accessibility and mass transport properties, leading to improved performances in various applications. Hierarchical porous materials are in high demand for applications in catalysis, adsorption, separation, energy and biochemistry. In the present review, recent advances in synthesis routes to hierarchically porous materials are reviewed together with their catalytic contributions.
Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) assemble into a spherical nanoscopic supramolecular core/shell nanostructure termed a polymeric micelle that has been widely researched as an injectable nanocarrier for poorly water-soluble anticancer agents. The aim of this review article is to update progress in the field of drug delivery towards clinical trials, highlighting advances in polymeric micelles used for drug solubilization, reduced off-target toxicity and tumor targeting by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Polymeric micelles vary in stability in blood and drug release rate, and accordingly play different but key roles in drug delivery. For intravenous (IV) infusion, polymeric micelles that disassemble in blood and rapidly release poorly water-soluble anticancer agent such as paclitaxel have been used for drug solubilization, safety and the distinct possibility of toxicity reduction relative to existing solubilizing agents, e.g., Cremophor EL. Stable polymeric micelles are long-circulating in blood and reduce distribution to non-target tissue, lowering off-target toxicity. Further, they participate in the EPR effect in murine tumor models. In summary, polymeric micelles act as injectable nanocarriers for poorly water-soluble anticancer agents, achieving reduced toxicity and targeting tumors by the EPR effect.
Two dimensional (2D) nanocrystals of noble metals (e.g., Au, Ag, Pt) often have unique structural and environmental properties which make them useful for applications in electronics, optics, sensors and biomedicines. In recent years, there has been a focus on discovering the fundamental mechanisms which govern the synthesis of the diverse geometries of these 2D metal nanocrystals (e.g., shapes, thickness, and lateral sizes). This has resulted in being able to better control the properties of these 2D structures for specific applications. In this review, a brief historical survey of the intrinsic anisotropic properties and quantum size effects of 2D noble metal nanocrystals is given and then a summary of synthetic approaches to control their shapes and sizes is presented. The unique properties and fascinating applications of these nanocrystals are also discussed.
While drug resistance appears to be an inevitable problem of an increasing number of anticancer drugs in monotherapy, combination drug therapy has become a prosperous method to reduce the administered total drug dosages as well as overcome the drug resistance of carcinoma cells. Curcumin, considered to possess multi-faceted roles in cancer treatment according to its multiple anti-neoplastic mechanisms as a depressor of chemo-resistance, can significantly facilitate its anti-cancer functions and improve therapeutic effects via combination usage with a variety of other drugs with different reaction mechanisms. To explore this possibility, four anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents that all possess a certain degree of drug resistance problems, including three tyrosine kinase inhibitors (erlotinib, sunitinib and sorafenib) that are acting on different cell pathways and a typical anticancer drug doxorubicin, were combined with curcumin individually to examine the synergistic anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo. Results revealed that sunitinib combined with curcumin at the molar ratio of 0.46 yielded the most potent synergistic effect in vitro, and was therefore chosen for further animal evaluation. To further enhance the anti-cancer effect, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles were utilized as a carrier to deliver the selected drug combination in situ. Preliminary in vivo findings confirmed our hypothesis of being able to maintain a similar injected drug ratio for prolonged time periods in tested animals by our approach, thereby maximizing the therapeutic potency yet minimizing the toxicity of these drugs. This work could open up a new avenue on combination drug therapy and realization the clinical utility of such drugs.
A palladium catalyst supported on 2-aminopyridine functionalized cellulose was synthesized and fully characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. This catalyst can be applied in the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of aryl halides with arylboronic acids in 50% ethanol to afford biaryls in?good yields, and easily recycled by simple filtration after reaction without the loss of metal Pd.
Foamable high melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP) was prepared by grafting styrene (St) onto polypropylene (PP) and simultaneously introducing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through?a?one-step?melt extrusion process. The effect of PDMS viscosity on the foaming behavior of HMSPP was systematically investigated using supercritical CO2 as the foaming agent. The results show that the addition of PDMS has little effect on the grafting reaction of St and HMSPP exhibits enhanced elastic response and obvious strain hardening effect. Though the CO2 solubility of HMSPP with PDMS (PDMS-HMSPP) is lower than that of HMSPP without PDMS, especially for PDMS with low viscosity, the PDMS-HMSPP foams exhibit narrow cell size distribution and high cell density. The fracture morphology of PDMS-HMSPP shows that PDMS with low viscosity disperses more easily and uniformly in HMSPP matrix, leading to form small domains during the extrusion process. These small domains act as bubble nucleation sites and thus may be responsible for the improved foaming performance of HMSPP.
A sol-gel technique has been developed for the synthesis of a magnetite-silica-titania (Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2) tertiary nanocomposite with improved photocatalytic properties based on the use of inexpensive titania and silica precursors. The exceptional photocatalytic activity of the resulting materials was demonstrated by using them to photocatalyze the degradation of methylene blue solution. The best formulation achieved 98% methylene blue degradation. An interesting feature of the present work was the ability to magnetically separate and reuse the catalyst. The efficiency of the catalyst remained high during two reuses. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. XRD analysis revealed the formation of multicrystalline systems of cubic magnetite and anatase titania crystals. SEM and TEM characterization revealed well-developed and homogeneously dispersed particles of size less than 15 nm. FTIR spectra confirmed the chemical interaction of titania and silica. It was further noticed that the optical properties of the prepared materials were dependent on the relative contents of their constituent metal oxides.
The effect of thermal pretreatment on the active sites and catalytic performances of PtSn/SiO2 catalyst in acetic acid (AcOH) hydrogenation was investigated in this article. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physical adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, pyridine Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and H2-O2 titration on its physicochemical properties. The results showed that Pt species were formed primarily in crystalline structure and no PtSnx alloy was observed. Meanwhile, with the increment of thermal pretreatment temperature, Pt dispersion showed a decreasing trend due to the aggregation of Pt particles. Simultaneously, the amount of Lewis acid sites was remarkably influenced by such thermal pretreatment owning to the consequent physicochemical property variation of Sn species. Interestingly, the catalytic activity showed the similar variation trend with that of Lewis acid sites, confirming the important roles of Lewis acid sites in AcOH hydrogenation. Moreover, a balancing effect between exposed Pt and Lewis acid sites was obtained, resulting in the superior catalytic performance in AcOH hydrogenation.
Cardanol is a biobased raw material derived from cashew nut shell liquid. In order to extend its utility, new derivatives and additional applications are useful. In this work cardanol was first epoxidized, and a novel aniline derivative prepared from it under mild reaction conditions with the help of an ionic liquid catalyst. The reaction chemistry was studied by using nuclear magnetic resonance. The resulting aminohydrin adduct showed antioxidant property and should also be a useful synthon for further reactions. As an example, the aminohydrin was shown to undergo a condensation reaction with formaldehyde to form a prepolymer, which could be further reacted to form thermosetting resins.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized in the presence of polyacrylate through the reduction of silver nitrate by sodium borohydride in aqueous solution. The AgNO3 and polyacrylate carboxylate group concentrations were kept constant at 2.0 × 10−4 and 1.0 × 10−2 mol?L−1, respectively, while the ratio of [NaBH4]/[AgNO3] was varied from 1 to 100. The ultra-violet-visible plasmon resonance spectra of these solutions were found to vary with time prior to stabilizing after 27 d, consistent with changes of AgNP size and distribution within the polyacrylate ensemble occurring. These observations, together with transmission electron microscopic results, show this rearrangement to be greatest among the samples at the lower ratios of [NaBH4]/[AgNO3] used in the preparation, whereas those at the higher ratios showed a more even distribution of smaller AgNP. All ten of the AgNP samples, upon a one thousand-fold dilution, catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the temperature range 283.2–303.2 K with a substantial induction time being observed at the lower temperatures.