Recycling industrial solid waste not only saves resources but also eliminates environmental concerns of toxic threats. Herein, we proposed a new strategy for the utilization of petrochemical-derived carbon black waste, a waste vanadium-bearing resource (V > 30000 ppm (10 −6)). Chemical leaching was employed to extract metallic vanadium from the waste and the leachate containing V was used as an alternative raw material for the fabrication of vanadate nanomaterials. Through the screening of various metal cations, it was found that the contaminated Na+ during the leaching process showed strong competitive coordination with the vanadium ions. However, by adding foreign Ce3+ and Y3+ cations, two rare-earth vanadates, viz., flower-like CeVO4 and spherical YVO4 nanomaterials, were successfully synthesized. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, and N2 physisorption were applied to analyze the physicochemical properties of the waste-derived nanomaterials. Importantly, we found that rare-earth vanadate catalysts exhibited good activities toward the semi-hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. The conversion of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic alcohol selectivity were even higher than those of the common CeVO4 prepared using pure chemicals (67.2% vs. 27.7% and 88.4% vs. 53.5%). Our work provides a valuable new reference for preparing vanadate catalysts by the use of abundant vanadium-bearing waste resources.
Poly-γ-glutamic acid is an extracellular polymeric substance with various applications owing to its valuable properties of biodegradability, flocculating activity, water solubility, and nontoxicity. However, the ability of natural strains to produce poly-γ-glutamic acid is low. Atmospheric and room temperature plasma was applied in this study to conduct mutation breeding of Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 2876, and a mutant strain M32 with an 11% increase in poly-γ-glutamic acid was obtained. Genome resequencing analysis identified 7 nonsynonymous mutations of ppsC encoding lipopeptide synthetase associated with poly-γ-glutamic acid metabolic pathways. From molecular docking, more binding sites and higher binding energy were speculated between the mutated plipastatin synthase subunit C and glutamate, which might contribute to the higher poly-γ-glutamic acid production. Moreover, the metabolic mechanism analysis revealed that the upregulated amino acids of M32 provided substrates for glutamate and promoted the conversion between L- and D-glutamate acids. In addition, the glycolytic pathway is enhanced, leading to a better capacity for using glucose. The maximum poly-γ-glutamic acid yield of 14.08 g·L–1 was finally reached with 30 g·L–1 glutamate.
Although metal–organic frameworks offer a new platform for developing versatile sorption materials, yet coordinating the functionality, structure and component of these materials remains a great challenge. It depends on a comprehensive knowledge of a “real sorption mechanism”. Herein, a ternary mechanism for U(VI) uptake in metal–organic frameworks was reported. Analogous MIL-100s (Al, Fe, Cr) were prepared and studied for their ability to sequestrate U(VI) from aqueous solutions. As a result, MIL-100(Al) performed the best among the tested materials, and MIL-100(Cr) performed the worst. The nuclear magnetic resonance technique combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and zeta potential measurement reveal that U(VI) uptake in the three metal–organic frameworks involves different mechanisms. Specifically, hydrated uranyl ions form outer-sphere complexes in the surface of MIL-100s (Al, Fe) by exchanging with hydrogen ions of terminal hydroxyl groups (Al-OH2, Fe-OH2), and/or, hydrated uranyl ions are bound directly to Al(III) center in MIL-100(Al) through a strong inner-sphere coordination. For MIL-100(Cr), however, the U(VI) uptake is attributed to electrostatic attraction. Besides, the sorption mechanism is also pH and ionic strength dependent. The present study suggests that changing metal center of metal–organic frameworks and sorption conditions alters sorption mechanism, which helps to construct effective metal–organic frameworks-based sorbents for water purification.
Radicals are important intermediates in direct coal liquefaction. Certain radicals can cause the cleavage of chemical bonds. At high temperatures, radical fragments can be produced by the splitting of large organic molecules, which can break strong chemical bonds through the induction pyrolysis of radicals. The reaction between the formation and annihilation of coal radical fragments and the effect of hydrogen-donor solvents on the radical fragments are discussed in lignite hydrogenolysis. Using the hydroxyl and ether bonds as indicators, the effects of different radicals on the cleavage of chemical bond were investigated employing density functional theory calculations and lignite hydrogenolysis experiments. Results showed that the adjustment of the coal radical fragments could be made by the addition of hydrogen-donor solvents. Results showed that the transition from coal radical fragment to H radical leads to the variation of product distribution. The synergistic mechanism of hydrogen supply and hydrogenolysis of hydrogen-donor solvent was proposed.
The standard enthalpy of formation is an important predictor of the reaction heat of a chemical reaction. In this work, a high-precision method was developed to calculate accurate standard enthalpies of formation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on the general connectivity based hierarchy (CBH) with the discrete correction of atomization energy. Through a comparison with available experimental findings and other high-precision computational results, it was found that the present method can give a good description of enthalpy of formation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Since CBH schemes can broaden the scope of application, this method can be used to investigate the energetic properties of larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to achieve a high-precision calculation at the CCSD(T)/CBS level. In addition, the energetic properties of CBH fragments can be accurately calculated and integrated into a database for future use, which will increase computational efficiency. We hope this work can give new insights into the energetic properties of larger systems.
Separation of vanadium from black shale leaching solution at low pH is very meaningful, which can effectively avoid the generation of alkali neutralization slag and the resulting vanadium loss. In this study, coordination mechanism of vanadium in acid leaching solution at low pH was investigated with the intervention of chloride ions. Under the conditions of pH 0.8, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid concentration of 20%, phase ratio of 1:2, and extraction time of 8 min, the vanadium extraction could reach 80.00%. The Fourier transform infrared and electrospray ionization results reveal that, despite the fact that the chloride ion in the leachate could significantly promote vanadium extraction, the chloride ion does not enter the organic phase, indicating an intriguing phenomenon. Among Cl−–V, SO42−–V, and H2O–V, the V–Cl bond is longer and the potential difference between coordinate ions and vanadium is smaller. Therefore, VO2+ gets easily desorbed with chloride ions and enter the organic phase. At the same time, the hydrogen ions of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid also enter the water phase more easily, which reduces the pH required for the extraction reaction.
The deacylation of amides, which is widely employed in the pharmaceutical industry, is not a fast reaction under normal conditions. To intensify this reaction, a high-temperature and high-pressure continuous microreaction technology was developed, whose space-time yield was 49.4 times that of traditional batch reactions. Using the deacylation of acetanilide as a model reaction, the effects of the temperature, pressure, reaction time, molar ratio of reactants, and water composition on acetanilide conversion were carefully studied. Based on the rapid heating and cooling capabilities, the kinetics of acetanilide deacylation at high temperatures were investigated to determine the orders of reactants and activation energy. This microreaction technology was further applied to a variety of other amides to understand the influence of substituents and steric hindrance on the deacylation reaction.
High-performance and stable electrocatalysts are vital for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Herein, via a one-pot hydrothermal method, Ni/Fe/V ternary layered double hydroxides (NiFeV-LDH) derived from Ni foam are fabricated to work as highly active and durable electrocatalysts for OER. By changing the feeding ratio of Fe and V salts, the prepared ternary hydroxides were optimized. At an Fe:V ratio of 0.5:0.5, NiFeV-LDH exhibits outstanding OER activity superior to that of the binary hydroxides, requiring overpotentials of 269 and 274 mV at 50 mA·cm–2 in the linear sweep voltammetry and sampled current voltammetry measurements, respectively. Importantly, NiFeV-LDH shows extraordinary long-term stability (≥ 75 h) at an extremely high current density of 200 mA·cm–2. In contrast, the binary hydroxides present quick decay at 200 mA·cm–2 or even reduced current densities (150 and 100 mA·cm–2). The outstanding OER performance of NiFeV-LDH benefits from the synergistic effect of V and Fe while doping the third metal into bimetallic hydroxide layers: (a) Fe plays a crucial role as the active site; (b) electron-withdrawing V stabilizes the high valence state of Fe, thus accelerating the OER process; (c) V further offers great stabilization for the formed intermediate of FeOOH, thus achieving superior durability.