One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures have been the focus of current researches due to their unique physical properties and potential applications in nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics. They address and overcome the physical and economic limits of current microelectronic industry and will lead to reduced power consumption and largely increased device speed in next generation electronics and optoelectronics. This paper reviews the recent development on the device applications of 1-D nanostructures in electronics and optoelectronics. First, typical 1-D nanostructure forms, including nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, and hetero-nanowires, synthesized from different methods are briefly discussed. Then, some nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices built on 1-D nanostructures are presented, including field-effect transistors (FETs), p-n diodes, ultraviolet (UV) detectors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), nanolasers, integrated nanodevices, single nanowire solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and nanogenerators. We then finalize the paper with some perspectives and outlook towards the fast-growing topics.