To increase the strength of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) bolted joints, a method to increase the friction force between carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic members was proposed. The increase in failure load for the proposed joint was confirmed in finite-element method analyses and joint tests. Additionally, the feasibility of damage monitoring using surface strains of the cone washer was demonstrated.
Steel conveying rollers used in hot rolling mills must be exchanged frequently at great cost because hot conveyed strips induce wear and deterioration on the surface of roller in short periods. In previous studies, new roller structure was considered which has a ceramics sleeve connected with two steel shafts at both ends by shrink fitting. Here, although the ceramics sleeve can be used for many years, the steel shafts sometimes have to be exchanged for maintenance and reconstruction under the corrosive atmosphere. Since the thermal expansion coefficient of steel is about five times larger than that of ceramics, it is necessary to investigate how to separate the shrink fitting system by heating outside of sleeve and cooling inside of the shaft. Although how to separate the real roller has been discussed in the previous study, the separation mechanism has not been clarified yet. Therefore, in this study, several types of more fundamental models are investigated to understand the separation mechanism of real roller by the application of the finite element method. The results may be useful for designs of new rollers.
The dynamic responses of ferroelectric materials upon external mechanical and electrical stimulations are inherently nonlinear and coupled. In the current paper, a macroscopic differential model is constructed for the coupled hysteretic dynamics via modeling the orientation switching induced in the materials. A non-convex potential energy is constructed with both mechanic and electric field contributions. The governing equations are formulated as nonlinear ordinary differential equations by employing the Euler-Lagrange equation, and can be easily recast into a state space form. Hysteresis loops associated with stress induced polarization switching and butterfly-shaped behavior in ferroelectric materials are also successfully captured. The effects of mechanical loadings on the electrically induced switching are numerically investigated, as well as the mechanically-induced switching with various bias electric fields.
In this work, a pre-cracked semi-circular shaped explosive simulant was loaded using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). A high-speed camera was used to capture the deformation and fracture process of the specimen in situ. The digital images were processed using the digital image correlation (DIC) method. Next, full displacement and strain fields were obtained. The displacement vector field shows that the specimen fractured under tensile stress action. The strain field can be used to predict the crack propagation. Results show that the method of combined DIC and SHPB is effective to study the dynamic deformation and fracture behavior of explosive simulants. In addition, the specimen was loaded using a drop weight. The fracture toughness of the specimen was preliminary measured.
Based on the Stroh-type formalism and the technique of conformal mapping, the problem of two non-symmetrical collinear cracks emanating from an elliptical hole in a piezoelectric solid is investigated under remotely uniform in-plane electric loading and anti-plane mechanical loading, which allowed us to take the electric field inside the hole and cracks into account. The analytical solutions of the field intensity factors and the energy release rate are presented in closed-form, which includes the extreme cases for an impermeable crack and a permeable crack. Numerical results are then presented to reveal the effects of geometrical parameters, crack permeability and combined mechanical and electric loadings on the energy release rate.
A physical model for the shear horizontal (SH) wave propagating from left-handed material (LHM) through a graded or transition layer to right-handed material (RHM) has been proposed in this paper. After the comparison of the basic wave equations of the electromagnetic, longitudinal, and SH waves, it is found that they take similar differential form. The analytical solutions have been found for power law, hyperbolic, and polynomial profiles. Numerical waveforms of the amplitude and phase of the displacement are obtained for the corresponding profiles. It is found that the waveforms are symmetric for the power law and hyperbolic profiles, and that the waveform for the polynomial profile is shifted and non-symmetric. The shift along with the anti-symmetric profile may provide a way to monitor the wave behavior of the metamaterials.
Ductile fracture criterion is key limitation parameter in material forming. Accuracy predicting surface and internal failure in plastic deformation process affects on the technology design of workpiece and die greatly. Tension, compression, torsion and shearing test on 45# steel are utilized for providing the experimental values of the critical values at fracture, and 11 widely used ductile fracture criterion are selected to simulate the physical experiments and their relative accuracy for predicting and quantifying fracture initiation sites are investigated. The comparing results show that metal forming process under high triaxiality can be estimated successively using both Normalized Cockcroft-latham and the Brozzo ductile fracture criteria, but the Ayada and general Rice-Tracey model work very well for the low triaxiality cases.
In this paper, a small displacement-type magnetorheological grease (MRG) damper based on disk squeeze mode is proposed. The squeeze flow differential equation is obtained. The Navier slip condition is considered on the surfaces and the boundary compatible condition is established. The radial velocity profiles and the radial pressure distributions are derived respectively, and the mathematical stress expression is calculated. To verify rationality of analytical method, the MRG damper is designed and fabricated according to the technical requirements of an engine vibration isolation system. The experimental damping force from MTS870 Electro-hydraulic Servo with sine wave excitation shows that the proposed analytical method is feasible and provides the reference value for designing MRG damper based on disk squeeze mode.
The refined theory for axi-symmetric magnetoelastic circular cylinder is deduced systematically and directly from linear magnetoelasticity theory. Based on the general solution of magnetoelastic equation and the Lur’e method, the refined theory yields the solutions for magnetoelastic circular cylinder without ad hoc assumptions. On the basis of the refined theory developed in the present study, solutions are obtained for magnetoelastic circular cylinder with homogeneous and non-homogenous boundary conditions, respectively. For the circular cylinder with homogeneous boundary conditions, the refined theory provides exact solutions that satisfy all of the governing equations. The exact solutions can be divided into three parts: the 2-orders equation, the transcendental equation, and the magnetic equation. In the case of non-homogenous boundary conditions, the approximate governing equations are accurate up to the high-order terms with respect to cylinder radius.
Usage of a multiple-arcs system has significantly improved process stability and coating properties in air plasma spraying. However, there are still demands on understanding and controlling the physical process to determine process conditions for reproducible coating quality and homogeneity of coating microstructure. The main goal of this work is the application of numerical simulation for the prediction of the temperature profiles at the torch outlet for real process conditions. Behaviour of the gas flow and electric arcs were described in a three-dimensional numerical model. The calculated results showed the characteristic triangular temperature distribution at the torch nozzle outlet caused by three electric arcs. These results were compared with experimentally determined temperature distributions, which were obtained with specially developed computed tomography equipment for reconstructing the emissivity and temperature distribution of the plasma jet close to the torch exit. The calculated results related to temperature values and contours were verified for the most process parameters with experimental ones.
This paper aims to present general design considerations and optimality criteria for underactuated mechanisms in finger designs. Design issues related to grasping task of robotic fingers are discussed. Performance characteristics are outlined as referring to several aspects of finger mechanisms. Optimality criteria of the finger performances are formulated after careful analysis. A general design algorithm is summarized and formulated as a suitable multi-objective optimization problem. A numerical case of an underactuated robot finger design for Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM) hand is illustrated with the aim to show the practical feasibility of the proposed concepts and computations.
The motion dynamics and accuracy of parallel kinematic machines largely depend on the weights and rigidity of typical rigid links. Therefore, these parts should be designed in such a way that they are light but rigid. This work employs the techniques of topology and size optimization to design two typical rigid links of a parallel kinematic machine (PKM) and subsequently obtains applicable structures for them. The calculation models are established, and a new algorithm called the Guide-Weight method is introduced to solve topology optimization problems. The commercial software Ansys is used to perform size optimization.
Magnetostriction is investigated to evaluate the stress relief caused by pulsed magnetic field treatment, because this physical property is closely associated with residual stress. Magnetostriction of different stressed samples is measured in this paper. The stress variations caused by pulsed magnetic treatment are also compared. It is found that magnetostriction variations are closely associated with stress changes. Thermodynamic potential is used to find the relationship between them. Based on several assumptions, we find that the product of magnetostriction amplitude and stress magnitude is nearly a constant during magnetic field treatment, which is valuable for stress relief evaluation and optimizing processing parameters. This conclusion is testified by stress measurements, and the calculated values are in accordance with the experiment results.
The flow, bearing, and carrying capacity of the cycloidal hydrostatic oil cavity in hydrostatic turntable systems are numerically simulated, considering the rotation speeds of a turntable from 0 to 5 m/s and different boundary conditions. The vortex effect is weakened, and the stability of the oil cavity is enhanced with the increase in lubricant viscosity. However, the increase in inlet speed, depth, and inlet radius of the oil cavity causes the vortex effect to increase and the stability of oil cavity to reduce. With the increase in the oil film thickness, the carrying capacity of the oil cavity diminishes. The oil cavity pressure increases along the direction of the motion of the turntable; it is distributed unevenly because of the rotation of the turntable. With the increase in turntable speed, the location and size of the vortex scope in the oil cavity flow field and the strength of the vortex near the entrance gradually weaken and move away from the entry. The distribution of pressure is determined by the locations of the vortex. When the vortex is close to the wall, the wall pressure increases at its location. Otherwise, the wall pressure decreases first and then increases after the center of the vortex.
Focusing on a segment erector of a shield-tunneling machine developed with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and controlled by electro-hydraulic proportional systems, the kinematics of the segment erection process is presented. The perturbation method in the error analysis is introduced to establish the position and attitude error model, considering a number of factors such as the hydraulic drive, control accuracy, and tolerance in manufacturing and assembly. Dynamic simulations are carried out to obtain the controlling precision of electrohydraulic drive systems. Formulas for calculating the position and attitude error of the grip hand of the segment erector are derived. The calculation results verify the practicality and effectiveness of the error analysis, providing a foundation for practical designing, manufacturing, and assembling of the segment of the erecting mechanism.
Hydraulic thrust system is an important system in a shield tunneling machine. Pressure regulation of thrust cylinders is the most important function for thrust system during tunnel excavation. In this paper, a hydraulic thrust system is explained, and a corresponding simulation model is carried out in order to study the system characteristics. Pressure regulation of a certain group’s cylinders has little influence on regulation of the other groups’ cylinders. The influence will not affect the process much during tunnel excavation. Pump displacement may have a greater effect on pressure regulation and oil supply flow rate should be adaptive to the system’s demand. A exacting situation is simulated to explain how pressure regulation works during tunnel excavation.