Dec 2007, Volume 2 Issue 4

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  • TU Shantung
    Structural integrity technology has been widely used with great success for the design, manufacture and failure prevention of modern constructions such as chemical and petrochemical plants, power generation and energy conversion systems, as well as space and oceanic exploration. The modern needs of structural integrity technology are largely attributed to the increase of service temperature of the structures that results in the efficiency improvement in energy conversion and chemical processing technologies. Besides the needs arising from large-scale high-temperature plants, the high tech developments, such as micro chemo-mechanical systems and high-power electronics, provide new challenges to structural integrity technology. The present paper summarizes the recent technical progresses in large process plants and the aviation industry, micro chemo-mechanical systems, fuel cells, high-temperature electronics, and packaging and coating technologies. The state-of-the-art of structural integrity technology for high temperature applications is reviewed. Suggestions are provided for the improvement of current design and assessment methods.
  • MAO Xinyong, LI Bin, SHI Hanmin, LIU Hongqi, LI Xi, LI Peigen
    A new artifact called 3D-step-gauge consisting of a pyramid array and a compound, is proposed to calculate geometrical errors for machine tools. Only one point on each profile of the pyramid in the array is probed, and its center coordinate can be calculated. Then, the intervals of the pyramids can be transfered a length standard to measure errors. Considering the differences in the structural parameters and the location of the pyramids, a volumetric error measurement method of discrete points is presented. Furthermore, the location errors between the calibration state and the measurement state are studied and their influences on the accuracy of the position measurement are investigated on an actual machine tool. The 3D-step-gauge was tested on an actual machine tool and the measurement result shows quick assembly, convenient measurement, and high accuracy.
  • ZHU Hua, CHEN Chao, ZHAO Chunsheng
    The relationship between the arrangement of ceramics and the force coefficient shows that the maximum excitation efficiency will be obtained when the ceramics are placed at the trough of the first bending mode of the stator. Therefore, a cylindrical ultrasonic micromotor with a novel stator is proposed. The prototype motor is 5 mm in diameter, 30 mm in length and 4.2 g in weight. The micromotor operates with the first bending mode at 53 kHz. Its maximum speed is 350 r/min when the drive voltage is 200 V and the stall torque reaches 2.5 mN · m. As this motor is suitable for miniaturization because of its simple structure, another cylindrical ultrasonic micromotor is developed. Piezoelectric ceramic tube is used as its stator. This micromtor is 2 mm in diameter, 7 mm in length and 0.258 g in weight. Its speed reaches 813 r/min when the drive voltage is 60 V at 75 kHz. The operation mechanism, structure and design method of these two motors are introduced.
  • CHEN Wei, YANG Jichang, WU Xiaofeng, LU Dun, GUO Weigang
    Fracture is a common defect in sheet metal forming and it is essentially caused by tensile instability. This paper analyzes some experiments and theories for building forming limit diagrams of sheet metal and points out the advantages and disadvantages of current experiments and theories. According to this, a method that integrates the finite element simulation and experiment was used to research the forming limit diagrams of the sheet metal under complex strain paths. Taking the rear hanger that undergoes twice stamping as an example, the strain paths of the dangerous point of the rear hanger is investigated. Finally, the forming method of the rear hanger is confirmed. Results indicate that finite element method (FEM) can achieve the complex strain paths and different strain paths will have great impacts on the result of the sheet metal forming.
  • LIU Jinguo, WANG Yuechao, LI Bin, MA Shugen
    Frequent natural disasters and man-made catastrophes have threatened the safety of citizens and have attracted much more attention. The rescue mission under disaster environment is very complicated and dangerous for a rescue team. Search and rescue (SAR) robots can not only improve the efficiency of rescue operations but also reduce the casualty of rescuers. Robots can help rescue teams and even replace rescuers to perform dangerous missions. Search and rescue robots will play a more and more important role in the rescue operations. A survey of the research status of search and rescue robots in Japan, USA, China and other countries has been provided. According to current research, experiences and the lessons learned from applications, the five key performances of a search and rescue robot are survivability, mobility, sensing, communicability and operability. Multi-technique fusion and multi-agent intelligent network are considered to be requirements for the future development of the search and rescue robot. Disaster prevention, disaster reduction and disaster rescue are the important parts of national public safety. They are also crucial for the safety of citizens and their estates. Search and rescue robotic technique is an urgent needed, strategic and core technique for national development. It will be important and strategic for national economy and safety.
  • BIAN Hongyou, LIU Weijun, ZHAO Jibin
    A scanning mode is the key technology in a laser metal deposition shaping (LMDS) fabrication process. On the basis of the analysis of existing scanning modes and their influences on the fabrication efficiency and the quality of parts, some disadvantages of them are pointed out. A new kind of subarea-parallel scanning mode for LMDS based on a subdividing profiled outline into monotonous polygon subareas is presented. First, based on the principle of point visibility, inner loops are eliminated, and simple polygons are subdivided into monotonous polygons with the minimal zones. Second, the parallel scanning paths of all monotonous polygon subareas are finished, which diminishes the length of the scanning line. The practical application shows that the scanning mode can enhance the fabrication efficiency and quality.
  • JI Weihong, SONG Yupu, LIANG Bing
    Damage detection by using the changes of dynamic parameters is a conventional damage diagnosis method, however, some indices are not sensitive enough to the most structural damages. In this study, the analytical data of displacement modes of truss structure are obtained by using the finite element analysis sof—ANSYS. The mode analysis technique for the axial strain change of any stick is used to detect the steel trusses with different damages. The analytical results show that the damage location and degree of the truss stick can be effectively diagnosed by means of the axial strain change.
  • QI Hongyuan, ZHU Hengjun
    To calculate the fundamental frequency of vibration of special-shaped and elastic clamped plates, the conformal mapping theory is adopted to separate the interpolating points of a complicated boundary into odd and even sequences, both of which can be mutually iterated, so that the conformal mapping function between the complicated region and the unit dish region is established. Trigonometric interpolation and convergence along the normal direction methods are provided, and the complex coefficients of the conformal mapping function are calculated. Galerkin method is used to obtain the solution of fundamental frequency in the vibrating differential function of the complicated vibrating region. Finally, taking ellipse elastic clamped plates as an example, the effects on fundamental frequency coefficient caused by eccentric ratio e and area size are analyzed.
  • ZHANG Ruihua, CHEN Haichu
    This paper develops a 30 mm × 30 mm × 50 mm spherical micro actuator driven by piezoelectric ceramic stacks (PZT), and analyzes its dynamic performances. First, the space coordinate relationship of the spherical micro actuator and a dynamic model are set up. Second, The Runge-Kutta arithmetic is used to calculate the dynamical parameters of the micro actuator; the SIMULINK module of MATLAB is used to build the dynamical simulating model and then simulate it. Third, an experimental sample of the spherical micro actuator is developed, a micromanipulator is integrated with a micro-gripper based on the sample spherical micro actuator, and the experimental research on the micro assembly is conducted between a micro shaft of Φ180 μm and a micro spindle sleeve of Φ200 μm. Finally, the characteristics of the spherical micro actuator influenced by the mass of the metal sphere of the micro actuator, driving signal frequency, friction coefficient of the contact surface between the metal sphere and the friction block of the micro driving unit are analyzed. The experimental results indicate that the rotation resolution of the micro actuator reaches 0.000 1°, the rotation positioning precision reaches 0.000 5°, and the maximum working frequency is about 1200 Hz. The experimental results validate the back rotation vibration model of the spherical micro actuator. The micromanipulator integrated by the spherical micro actuator can meet the requirements of precise micro operation and assembly for micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) or other microelements in micro degree fields.
  • ZHANG Jianming, ZHANG Weigang, YANG Bing, WANG Yawei
    A force model of a control valve of injector is set up, and the changes of the fluid damping clearance are investigated on the basis of the results of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the experiments of control valve of injector. Results indicate that a damping clearance of 0.02–0.03 mm between the poppet and the valve guide is the most sufficient to dampen any excessive control valve poppet bouncing.
  • HUANG Yong, FAN Ding, FAN Qinghua
    When multi-component flux AF305 is used as surface activating flux for an aluminum alloy, the weld pene tration of activating flux-tungsten inert-gas (A-TIG) welding is over two times more than that of conventional TIG welding. Using A-TIG welding with the modes of alternating current (AC), direct current electrode negative (DCEN) and direct current electrode positive (DCEP), respectively, the flux differently affects weld penetration when the polarity is different. After studied the effect of compelled arc con striction on weld penetration of AC welding, it is believed that the constriction of the whole arc root is not the main mechanism that flux AF305 dramatically improves weld penetration. The penetration has a relationship with the separate distribution of slag on the weld surface. Then, an observation of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an electronic data systems (EDS) analysis of slag were performed respectively. The separate distribution of slag on the weld pool during welding and the great constriction of arc spots were confirmed by TIG welding with helium shielding gas. The relationship between slag distribution and weld penetration was studied by adding aluminum powder into flux AF305 to change the distribution of slag. During welding, the separate distribution of slag on the weld pool results in the great constriction of arc spots, an increase in arc spot force, and an increase in Lorentz force within the arc and weld pool. Finally, the weld penetration is increased.
  • ZHANG Xuhui, ZHANG Xu, NING Ruxin
    On the basis of the requirements of a product data management system (PDM) for the flexible coding system, the principle of the flexible coding system oriented multi-view is analyzed. Generation and utilization of coding should be associated with the context of the object. The architecture of the flexible coding system oriented multi-view is studied and the implementation class diagram of the system is designed. The system can support the establishment of five types of code segments, provide the tools of flexible defining coding rules and drive the automatic generation of object coding in different views (contexts). On the foundation of the characteristics of the system, coding for parts is taken as a sample to validate and elaborate the flexible coding process of the system.
  • ZHANG Guojun, HE Jiabing, ZHU Haiping, CHEN Xuan
    Stochastic statecharts are widely used in modeling systems. Considering that the comparability between different subsystems can streamline the modeling process, a stochastic statechart is improved by using the abstract sub-system and general system chart to express the comparability and integrity of a stochastic statechart respectively. Per formance data can be obtained by using a continuous-time Markov chain, which is transformed from a manufacturing system model described by the improved stochastic statechart. The case study shows that the improved stochastic statechart can effectively simplify the modeling and performance evaluation process and the results are useful to the configuration and optimization of a manufacturing system.
  • YU Ling, LIU Kang, LI Kaishi
    Based on the analysis of the basic ant colony optimization and optimum problem in a continuous space, an ant colony optimization (ACO) for continuous problem is constructed and discussed. The algorithm is efficient and beneficial to the study of the ant colony optimization in a continuous space.
  • ZHAI Wenjie
    In this paper, the status quo and recent progress in the research on tribo-electrochemistry in aqueous and non-aqueous media, respectively, are reviewed. Much more attention has been paid to the tribo-electrochemical mechanisms for the control of friction and wear. Based on a summary of the conventional polishing principles of hard and brittle materials, the tribo-electrochemical polishing method is proposed. The results of the preliminary test show that tribo-electrochemical polishing is promising to become a critical technology in the high efficient polishing and planarization of microelectronic materials.
  • WANG Zhanshan, MA Shanshan, MA Yan, ZHAO Min, LIU Hengbiao
    The transfer characteristics of an atomic beam and the effect of laser were investigated in this paper. In the application of knife-edge technique, the temperature of atoms through laser cooling was measured. Results indicate that, after atoms are emitted from an atomic oven, the longer the atoms move, the worse the distribution of the atomic beam shows, regardless the laser cooling is taken or not. Laser cooling can reduce the transverse velocity of the atomic beam to several orders of magnitude and also increase the uniformity of an atomic beam. Knife-edge technique can measure the temperature of an atomic beam through laser cooling. The measurement accuracy depends on the pixel size of the charge coupled device (CCD), which is used for the fluorescent imaging of the atomic beam. The results are very important for the future experiments of laser cooling.
  • XU Zhongming, HUANG Ping
    A method based on the energy dissipation mechanism of an Independent Oscillator model is used to calculate the frictional force and the friction coefficient of interfacial friction. The friction work is calculated with considering the potential change of contact surfaces during sliding. The potential change can be gained by a universal adhesive energy function. The relationships between frictional force and parameters of a tribo-system, such as surface energy and microstructure of interfacial material, are set up. The calculation results of the known experimental data denote that the frictional force is nearly proportional to the surface energy of the material, nearly inversely proportional to the scaling length, and independent of the lattice constant. The results agree with that of adhesion friction equations. They also agree with the experimental results performed with an atomic-force microscope under the ultra high vacuum condition.
  • LU Jinzhong, ZHANG Yongkang, KONG Dejun, REN Xudong, GE Tao, ZOU Shikun
    The surface of TC4 titanium alloy welding line by electron beam welding (EBW) was processed by high power Q-switched and repetition-rate Nd: glass laser. Effects of laser power and spot diameter on residual stress and micro-hardness of the TC4 alloy welding line by laser shock processing (LSP) have been analyzed. Results show that residual stresses almost do not change as laser power is 45.9 J, spot diameter is φ9 mm; While laser power is 45.9 J, spot diameter less than φ3 mm, the distribution of residual stress in welding line occurs obvious variation, which residual stress increase obviously with spot diameter decrease. When power density is bigger than 1.8×1010 W/cm2, residual stresses of electron beam welding line occur change by LSP, which improve obviously residual stress distribution; while laser power is bigger than 1.2×1010 W/cm2, the surface micro-hardness of electron beam welding line occurs change by LSP, which improve obviously micro-hardness distribution. Mechanical properties of TC4 titanium alloy welding line will be improved by LSP, which provides experimental foundation for further controlling the distributions of residual stress and micro-hardness during laser shock processing.
  • LIU Xiong, CHEN Yan, YE Zhiquan
    This paper presents an optimization model for rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines. The model refers to the wind speed distribution function on the specific wind site, with an objective to satisfy the maximum annual energy output. To speed up the search process and guarantee a global optimal result, the extended compact genetic algorithm (ECGA) is used to carry out the search process. Compared with the simple genetic algorithm, ECGA runs much faster and can get more accurate results with a much smaller population size and fewer function evaluations. Using the developed optimization program, blades of a 1.3 MW stall-regulated wind turbine are designed. Compared with the existing blades, the designed blades have obviously better aerodynamic performance.
  • CHANG Qiuying, YANG Peiran, WANG Jing, CHEN Quanshi
    The transient thermo-elastohydrodynamic (TEHL) lubrication simulation and isothermal elastohydrodynamic (EHL) simulation were performed on the exhausting cam-tappet friction pair of an internal combustion engine. Although by employing the two models the center pressure, the thickness of the lubricant film and friction coefficient obtained were similar in the changing trend during a rotating cycle, the parameters make a great difference, especially for the thickness of the lubricant film; the TEHL was four times thicker than the EHL. These results show that the temperature should not be neglected in the study of the lubrication of cam-tappet pairs.