Modeling and Simulation in Manufacturing of Composite Structures
The main objective of this Special Column is to bring together the new and innovative ideas, experiences and research results from researchers and practitioners on all aspects of Modeling and Simulation in Manufacturing of Composite Structures.
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    Bo WANG, Feng ZHAO, Zixu ZHAO, Kunpeng XU
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2020, 15(4): 571-584.

    Compared with traditional materials, composite materials have lower specific gravity, larger specific strength, larger specific modulus, and better designability structure and structural performance. However, the variability of structural properties hinders the control and prediction of the performance of composite materials. In this work, the Rayleigh–Ritz and orthogonal polynomial methods were used to derive the dynamic equations of composite materials and obtain the natural frequency expressions on the basis of the constitutive model of laminated composite materials. The correctness of the analytical model was verified by modal hammering and frequency sweep tests. On the basis of the established theoretical model, the influencing factors, including layers, thickness, and fiber angles, on the natural frequencies of laminated composites were analyzed. Furthermore, the coupling effects of layers, fiber angle, and lay-up sequence on the natural frequencies of composites were studied. Research results indicated that the proposed method could accurately and effectively analyze the influence of single and multiple factors on the natural frequencies of composite materials. Hence, this work provides a theoretical basis for preparing composite materials with different natural frequencies and meeting the requirements of different working conditions.

    Xiaojun GU, Xiuzhong SU, Jun WANG, Yingjie XU, Jihong ZHU, Weihong ZHANG
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2020, 15(4): 547-557.

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have excellent mechanical properties, specifically, high specific stiffness and strength. However, most CFRP composites exhibit poor impact resistance. To overcome this limitation, this study presents a new plain-woven CFRP composite embedded with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Composite specimens are fabricated using the vacuum-assisted resin injection method. Drop-weight impact tests are conducted on composite specimens with and without SMA wires to evaluate the improvement of impact resistance. The material models of the CFRP composite and superelastic SMA wire are introduced and implemented into a finite element (FE) software by the explicit user-defined material subroutine. FE simulations of the drop-weight impact tests are performed to reveal the superelastic deformation and debonding failure of the SMA inserts. Improvement of the energy absorption capacity and toughness of the SMA-CFRP composite is confirmed by the comparison results.

    Xinyu HUI, Yingjie XU, Weihong ZHANG
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2020, 15(3): 475-483.

    In this study, the micro curing residual stresses of carbon fiber-reinforced thermoset polymer (CFRP) composites are evaluated using a multiscale modeling method. A thermochemical coupling model is developed at the macroscale level to obtain the distributions of temperature and degree of cure. Meanwhile, a representative volume element model of the composites is established at the microscale level. By introducing the information from the macroscale perspective, the curing residual stresses are calculated using the microscale model. The evolution of curing residual stresses reveals the interaction mechanism of fiber, matrix, and interphase period during the curing process. Results show that the curing residual stresses mostly present a tensile state in the matrix and a compressive state in the fiber. Furthermore, the curing residual stresses at different locations in the composites are calculated and discussed. Simulation results provide an important guideline for the analysis and design of CFRP composite structures.

    Bin NIU, Shijie LI, Rui YANG
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2020, 15(3): 484-495.

    This work deals with manufacturing and analysis of orthotropic composite Kagome honeycomb panels. A novel modular mold is proposed to manufacture carbon fiber reinforced composite Kagome honeycombs. The designed mold can be assembled freely to manufacture Kagome honeycombs with different configuration combinations and can realize easy demolding. Furthermore, two typical fiber placement methods are considered during the fabrication process, from which the more effective fiber placement method is determined. Finally, representative volume element method is used to perform homogenization analysis of the Kagome honeycomb panels and to obtain equivalent in-plane and bending stiffness. Finite element analysis using these equivalent properties is conducted and validated against the experimental results of the manufactured composite Kagome honeycomb panels under different loading cases.

    Guofeng MA, Renke KANG, Zhigang DONG, Sen YIN, Yan BAO, Dongming GUO
    Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2020, 15(4): 538-546.

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are extremely attractive in the manufacturing of structural and functional components in the aircraft manufacturing field due to their outstanding properties, such as good fatigue resistance, high specific stiffness/strength, and good shock absorption. However, because of their inherent anisotropy, low interlamination strength, and abrasive characteristics, CFRP composites are considered difficult-to-cut materials and are prone to generating serious hole defects, such as delamination, tearing, and burrs. The advanced longitudinal–torsional coupled ultrasonic vibration assisted drilling (LTC-UAD) method has a potential application for drilling CFRP composites. At present, LTC-UAD is mainly adopted for drilling metal materials and rarely for CFRP. Therefore, this study analyzes the kinematic characteristics and the influence of feed rate on the drilling performance of LTC-UAD. Experimental results indicate that LTC-UAD can reduce the thrust force by 39% compared to conventional drilling. Furthermore, LTC-UAD can decrease the delamination and burr factors and improve the surface quality of the hole wall. Thus, LTC-UAD is an applicable process method for drilling components made with CFRP composites.