Dec 2007, Volume 1 Issue 4

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  • YAO Dingkang, ZHU Liang, YU Renqian, MEI Changlin
    A lot of progress has been made on internal medicine in the past year. Here a great deal of data were collected about internal medicine in China by searching for some most important medicine magazines published in China in 2006. Because there are so many articles on internal medicine, some representative reports were selected and further reviewed. In the part II, a summary of advances made in four branches includes nephrology, hematology, endocrinology and metabolism, rheumatology.
  • XIA Dasheng, SONG Yanqiu, LI Chao, ZHANG Feng, WEI Minxin
    The aim of this paper was to investigate the change of serum leptin and its relationship with platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib (GP Ib) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The enrolled included 50 patients with CHD (CHD group) and 30 patients without CHD (control group) who were diagnosed by coronary angiography. The positive percentage and the average fluorescence intensity of platelet membrane GP Ib were detected by full-blood flow cytometry. Serum leptin was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The positive percentage and the average fluorescence intensity of platelet membrane GP Ib in the CHD group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). After correcting the differences of systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting glucose, PPBS, fasting insulin and quantitative insulin sensitive index, serum leptin level in the CHD group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Single factor correlative analysis revealed that serum leptin in CHD patients was negatively correlated with the average fluorescence intensity of platelet membrane GP Ib (P<0.05). Multifactorial stepwise regression analysis showed that serum leptin in CHD patients was independently negatively correlated with the average fluorescence intensity of platelet membrane GP Ib (P<0.05). Logistic analysis demonstrated that serum leptin was independently correlated with the risk of CHD (P<0.05). Hyperleptinemia was verified in CHD patients. The increase of serum leptin could affect blood platelet activation. Hyperleptinemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD.
  • WU Jun, LIN Jinchao, HE Zhaochu, OU Biru, GUO Haisen
    The effect of hyperlipidemia and inflammation on endothelial functions was studied. The enrolled included control (basic chow), hyperlipidemia and fenofibrate-treated groups (high fat diet). The hyperlipidemia model was set up by four-week atherogenic diet, followed by a 16-week treatment in the fenofibrate-treated group (fenofibrate 40 mg/kg every day) and without treatment in the hyperlipidemia group, respectively. In the 20th week, serum lipid level and NO levels were measured, and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and cell adhesiveness in aortic endothelia observed by computer-aided system. Compared with the control group, hyperlipidemia rats showed lower levels of NO and ncreases in leukocyte accumulation on the endothelial surface, also stronger and more extensive endothelial expression of VCAM-1. In fenofibrate-treated group, the expression of VCAM-1 and leukocyte accumulation on the endothelial surface was decreased, while serum levels of NO were increased as compared with hyperli pidemia group. Hyperlipidemia can inhibit the NO activity and promote the damage of VACA-1 to aortic endothelia. Fenofibrate can effectively prevent the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by restoring NO levels and down-regulating the VCAM-1 expression.
  • SU Yuan, JIN Yang, ZHANG Xiaoju, ZHOU Qiong, BAI Ming, ZHU Liping
    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pirh2 (p53-induced RING-H2) protein in the proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle control of the lung cancer cell line A549. Pirh2 expression was detected by immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell cycle control and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results showed that pirh2 was expressed in the cytoplasm of A549 cells. The inhibition of pirh2 expression by siRNA (psiRNA-pirh2) resulted in reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. In addition, the number of G0/G1 phase cells was increased but G2/M cells were not affected significantly. Taken together, the inhibition of pirh2 expression in the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 resulted in reduced tumor cell growth via the inhibition of cell proliferation, the activation of apoptosis and the interruption of cell cycle transition.
  • ZHU Lidong, CHEN Xiaoping
    The aim of this article was to study the influence of immunity function of advanced malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ) treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary external and internal drainage. Ninety-six cases of MOJ were divided into two groups according to the different ways of biliary drainage. Fifty-two external drainage tubes were placed in 41 cases of percutaneous transhepatic biliary external drainage group and 66 metal stents were placed in 55 cases of percutaneous transhepatic biliary internal drainage group. Liver function, serum TNF-α and cellular function were examined one day before operation and one week after operation and liver function was re-examined two weeks after operation, in order to observe the change and analyze the asso ciation among them and compare with the control group. All patients  conditions were improved after operation. In the percutaneous transhepatic biliary external and internal drainage groups, the total level of bilirubin decreased from (343.54±105.56) μ mol/L and (321.19±110.50) μ mol/L to (290.56±103.46) μ mol/L and (283.72±104.95) μ mol/L after operation respectively, which were significantly lower than pre-operation (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of all patients one week after operation was significantly lower than that before operation. TNF-α in percutaneous transhepatic biliary external and internal groups decreased from (108.58±19.95) pg/mL, (109.98±16.24) pg/mL of pre-operation to (104.32±19.59) pg/mL, (83.92±13.43) pg/mL of post-operation respectively, there was notable improvement (P<0.01) in internal drainage group after operation. Patients  serum CD4, CD3 and CD4/CD8 were notably increased, but CD8 was notably decreased (P<0.05). There was no difference in external drainage group (P>0.05). There was a significant difference between the two groups. Serum TNF-α and ALT had positive correlation. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary internal or external drainage was an effective and important method to treat MOJ. Patients  immune function was weak when they suffered MOJ, but body s cellular immune function can be notably improved after internal biliary drainage.
  • LU Bangyu, HUANG Yubin, CAI Xiaoyong, HUANG Fei, LU Wenqi, XU Jing, LIU Zujun, YAN Yihe, LI Jianjun, LI Jie
    Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) is a challenging operation to general surgeon. Up to date, only about 135 cases have been reported, 16 cases in China, 119 cases outside China. The reconstruction of alimentary system is a key procedure to ensure success of the whole surgery. It is worth investigating the methods of reconstruction in LPD. A retrospective study is made to investigate the methods of reconstruction in LPD. We analyze 13 cases of LPD performed in our center. Child s or modified Child s method was used to make the reconstruction in our practice. We tried three methods to make the anastomosis of pancreaticojejunostomy, including end-to-end dunking binding pancreaticojejunostomy in two cases, end-to-end dunking pancreaticojejunostomy using interrupted suture in two cases, and duct-to-jejunal end-to-side embedding pancreaticojejunostomy in nine cases. The clinical data was collected and analyzed. Three of four patients, who underwent end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy, had a little pancreatic leakage, especially in the first case. None of other nine patients, who underwent duct-to-jejunal end-to-side embedding pancreaticojejunostomy, was detected to have pancreatic leakage, and the operating time of these nine cases was less than other four cases. Duct-to-jejunal end-to-side embedding pancreaticojejunostomy is a safe and efficient method of reconstruction in LPD.
  • LU Ling, ZHANG Feng, PU Liyong, YAO Aihua, YU Yue, SUN Beicheng, LI Guoqiang, WANG Xuehao
    The biological features of intrahepatic CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells in the naturally tolerance of rat liver transplantation were explored. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in two allogeneic rat strain combinations, one with fatal immunosuppression despite a complete major histo compatibility complex mismatch. The subjects were divided into three groups according to different donors and recipients [Tolerance group: LEW-to-DA; Rejection group: DA-to-LEW; Syngegnic group (control group): DA-to-DA]. The proportion of intrahepatic CD4+CD25+ T cells from three groups was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) in different time. The intrahepaitc CD4+CD25+ T cells were isolated by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) method and iden tified by FCM. The Foxp3 mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). And their suppression on the proliferation of CD4+CD25- T effector cells was analyzed by cell proliferation assay in vitro. Beginning immediately after transplantation, the proportion of Treg cells increased over time in both allogeneic groups but was significantly greater in the Rejection group. The proportion of Treg cells declined after day 5, and such reduction was more dramatic in the Rejection group than in the Tolerance group. Animals in the Tolerance group showed a second increase in the proportion after day 14. Intrahepatic CD4+CD25+ T cells isolated from spontaneous tolerance models inhibited the proliferation of mixed lymphocyte reaction. The purity of CD4+CD25+ T cells sorted by MACS was 86%–93%. The CD4+CD25+ T cells could specifically express the Foxp3 gene compared with CD4+CD25- T cells. In vitro, the spleen cells from LEW rats can irritate the proliferation of CD4+CD25+ T cells more obviously than the syngegnic spleen cells. CD4+CD25+ Tr cells could suppress the proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells, but the inhibition was reversed by exogenous IL-2 (200 U/mL). The CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells specifically express the Foxp3 gene, which may play an important role in the induction of liver transplantation tolerance by suppressing the reaction of effective T cells.
  • FAN Xiaodong, HAN Ruifa
    Presently, one of the most potent immunotherapies is the application of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) to prevent recurrences of the superficial bladder cancer. Despite its successful use, nonresponders and certain side effects remain a major obstacle. Therefore, current studies aim at developing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains secreting Th1-like cytokines to improve the effectiveness of the therapy. In this study, a new type of rBCG strain constructed by Tianjin institute of Urology was tested for its immunostimulatory capacity in vitro. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) were stimulated by recombinant BCG and transformed into bacilli Calmette–Guerin activated killer (BAK) cells, and the effect of anticancer BAK cells was studied. Recombinant IFN-α-2b-BCG, wild-type BCG (wBCG), wild-type BCG and IFN-α-2b were coincubated with PBMCs respectively in vitro, and the proliferation of PBMC was detected with MTT in different time. BAK cells have the ability to kill bladder tumor cells, and the antitumor activity of effecter cells was determined by LDH release assay. The result of MTT showed that the proliferation of PBMC in the recombinant BCG group was more powerful than in the other two groups (P<0.05). The result of LDH release assay showed that the antitumor activity of BAK cells stimulated by Recombinant BCG was the highest in all groups. We conclude that the recombinant BCG can activate more PBMCs to anti-bladder cancer in vitro than wild-type BCG does.
  • YANG Kunyu, LIU Li, ZHANG Tao, WU Gang, CAO Fengjun, WANG Jianhua
    To investigate the influence of prophylactic elective nodal irradiation on the therapeutic results of definitive radiotherapy for patients with stage IIIA or stage IIIB unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer, 55 patients with clinically inoperable advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were studied. After four cycles of induction chemotherapy, the patients were divided into two groups at random. In one group, the elective nodal irradiation was included in clinical tumor volume (CTV) of definitive radiotherapy (ENI group); and in the other group, elective nodal irradiation was not included in CTV (non-ENI group). For the patients in the ENI group, the mean prescription dose for gross tumor volumes was 58.4 Gy, while for the patients in the non-ENI group, it was 65.8 Gy (P<0.05). The responsive rates were 45.8% and 74.0% (P<0.05), and the rate of the elective nodal failure (ENF) was 4.2% and 11.1%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the mean local-progression-free survival time was 11.0 and 15.0 months, and one-year local-failure rates were 51.9% and 24.5% (P<0.05). The median overall survival time was 13.0 and 15.0 months, respectively (P = 0.084). The one-year survival rates were 55.7% and 72.5%, and two-year survival rates were 0% and 19.9%. There was no significant difference in the occurrences of radiation-associated complications between the two groups. Our results showed that omitting elective nodal irradiation did not result in a high incidence of elective nodal failure. On the contrary, it decreased local failure by increasing prescription doses to the primary diseases and lymphadenopaphy, and thereby it may further prolong the patients  survival.
  • OUYANG Shan, ZHANG Qinghua, QIAO Fuyuan
    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Fas in placentas of uncomplicated pregnant women and those with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP), and elucidate the possible relationship between HGF and apoptosis of trophoblasts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was undertaken to examine the concentration of HGF mRNA and Fas mRNA obtained from 34 cases of HDCP and 30 cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. The expression of HGF mRNA in mild preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia and eclampsia cases was significantly lower than that in the uncomplicated cases (0.43±0.12, 0.38±0.09, 0.19±0.17 versus 0.67±0.19, P<0.05), while the expression of Fas mRNA in mild preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia and eclampisa cases was significantly higher than that in the uncomplicated cases (1.58±0.26, 2.96±0.14, 5.98±1.17 versus 1.01±0.36, P<0.05). For HGF mRNA and Fas mRNA, there was no difference between gestational hypertension cases and control cases. Decreased HGF mRNA or increased Fas mRNA was found along with the progress of HDCP. Negative correlation was found between the expressions of HGF and Fas. These results indicate that HGF inhibits the apoptosis mediated by Fas, and the reduced expression of HGF in HDCP may be responsible for the apoptosis of trophoblasts.
  • LEI Caixia, ZHANG Wei, SUN Xiaowei, DU Guoping, WANG Li, LIU Yinkun
    Galectin-3 (gal-3) and its ligands have been implicated in cell transformation and cancer metastasis. Gal-3 protein has been found in uterine epithelial cells adjacent to implanting blastocysts in different cell types. In order to investigate the role of gal-3 in the establishment of human endometrial receptivity, the expression of gal-3 in human endometrial cell line RL95-2 was silenced by RNA interference technology using gal-3 specific small RNA. The expression of gal-3 was detected by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. After the suppression of gal-3, cell cycle changes and the expression of integrin β1 were detected by flow cytometry. The adhesive ability of RL95-2 cells was analyzed by the adhesion test. Gal-3 siRNA transfection efficiency reached 70%–90%. The expression of gal-3 mRNA and protein in RL95-2 cells was strongly inhibited by 70%–90% after RNA interference. Inhibition of gal-3 expression decreased S-phase but increased G1 phase cells. Integrin β1 expression was down-regulated, and the adhesive ability of RL95-2 cells to fibronectin (FN) was significantly reduced. Gal-3 may be involved in the establishment of endometrial receptivity by regulating the proliferation and adhesion of endometrial cells. The influence on adhesion may be related with the integrin modulation.
  • JIANG Yuan, TIAN Xuehong, YUAN Jie, JIN Yuemei, TAN Yusong
    The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between the expression of adrenomedullin (ADM) and microvessel density (MVD) and prognosis in smooth muscle tumor of uterus. The expression of ADM was detected using immunohistochemical staining in specimens from 15 normal controls, 28 cases of uterine leiomyoma (LE) and 19 cases of uterine leiomyosarcoma (LES). The MVD was assayed by immunostainting with CD34. There was a positive correlation between the ADM expression and MVD in LE and LES respectively (rs = 0.823, P<0.01; rs = 0.793, P<0.01). The expression of ADM in LE was statistically lower than that in LES (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between the ADM expression and mitotic figures in LES (P<0.05): the more mitotic figures, the higher levels of the ADM expression and poor prognosis. The ADM is an important angiogenic factor in smooth muscle tumor of uterus. The ADM can be used as an accessory marker in estimating the malignant potency of LE and judging the pro gnosis of LES, and as a novel molecular target of anti-angiogenic and anticarcinogenic strategies.
  • LI Jianxiong, LIU Zilong, DUAN Yonggang, YU Jing, ZHU Changhong, LI Shuang, XIE Changsheng
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE) on the endometrial angiogenesis in rats, and 100 sexual mature female SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operation groups (SO group, n = 20), bulk copper groups (Cu group, n = 20), LDPE groups (n = 20), nano-Cu/LDPE groups I (n = 20) and II (n = 20). The levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), its receptor (Tie-2) and CD34 of the rats  endometria in each group were examined by using the S-P method of the immunohistochemistry 30 and 180 days after insertion, respectively. Compared with those in the SO group, the expression of Ang-2 and Tie-2 in all the experimental groups was obviously increased 30 days after insertion, and these parameters in nano-Cu/LDPE groups, except for Ang-2 level in nano-Cu/LDPE group II, were significantly lower in comparison with those in Cu group (P<0.05). On the 180th day after insertion, Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels were still higher in Cu group and LDPE group, but there was no difference of Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels between nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P>0.05). Compared with those in the SO group, the significant increases in microvessel density (MVD) were observed on the 30th and the 180th day after the insertion of the bulk copper (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in MVD counts before and after the insertion of nano-Cu/LDPE (P>0.05). The results show that Nano-Cu/LDPE have slighter influence on the endometrial angiogenesis than bulk copper.
  • YU Xiaobing, DAI Hong, LU Yingyi, LONG Li
    The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pathological myopia. PDT combined with intravitreal injection of TA was performed on 16 eyes of 16 patients with CNV diagnosed by visual acuity, fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA) and optical coherent tomography (OCT), including 14 eyes secondary to age-related macular degeneration and two eyes secondary to pathological myopia. TA was injected intravitreally 72 h post PDT on 12 eyes and from three months to one year (mean nine months) post PDT on four eyes respectively. All the patients were followed up for 3 to 18 months (mean 18.6 months). Best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, retinal thickness and FFA were observed. The visual acuity was improved in seven eyes (43.8%) of all the 16 eyes and stable in nine eyes (56.2%), respectively. FFA revealed complete or partial closure of CNV in all patients. OCT showed that the macular edema disappeared or was alleviated. Transient intraocular pressure elevation occurred in one patient (6.25%) of all the 16 eyes and intraocular pressure returned to the normal after a transient treatment with anti-glaucoma medication. The mean number of PDTs during the first year was 1.1. PDT combined with intravitreal injection of TA for CNV is safe and effective. It can reduce the risk of visual loss and the treatment frequency.
  • WU Lianhua, GAO Chunjin, WANG Guozhong, YANG Lin, HOU Xiaomin, GE Huan, XIA Chengqing, QI Man
    The aim of this research was to investigate the blood coagulation function in the patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The expression of CD31, CD61, CD62p, CD63 and PAC-1 on platelet membrane was measured respectively by flowcytometry, and the plasma prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and fibrinogen (Fbg) were measured by blood clotting instrument in 26 patients with ANFH after SARS and in 17 healthy adults. The expression of CD31, CD61, CD 62p, CD63 and PAC-1 on platelet membrane in 26 patients was all lower than that in 17 healthy subjects (P<0.01). The levels of PT, APTT, TT and Fbg in 26 patients were all normal. There is no significant difference (P>0.05) in those markers between patients and 17 healthy adults. The blood may not be in hypercoagulable state in patients with ANFH after SARS.
  • ZHOU Guangde, ZHAO Jingmin, DING Xiaohui, PAN Deng, SUN Yanling, YANG Jianfa, ZHAO Yulai
    To summarize the pathological features of nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) in China based on a histological scoring system for NAFLD designed by the Pathology Committee of NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH-CRN), the specimens of liver needle biopsies from 130 patients with NAFLD were histopathologically analyzed by haematoxylin eosin, reticular fiber and Masson trichrome stain. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to exclude non-NAFLD cases combined with clinical data. Hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, hepatocytic ballooning and fibrosis were presented widespread in NAFLD liver tissues. Furthermore, macrovesicular steatosis predominantly located in acinar zone 3 was the main histologic feature of NAFLD and lobular inflammation was usually presented mildly. Hepatocyte ballooning was observed in 94.6% of all 130 cases. Mild perisinusoidal fibrosis and periportal fibrosis were often observed in stage 1 cases. According to the statistic analysis, hepatic steatosis was positively correlated with lobular inflammation, hepatocytic ballooning and fibrosis (r = 0.587, 0.488, 0.374, respectively, all P value<0.01). The number of microgranulomas, lipogranulomas and apoptotic bodies increased following severity of steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Meanwhile, the number of megamitochondria and glycogen nuclei was paralleveled to the degree of hepatocytic ballooning (P value all<0.01). We suggest that the role of portal inflammation should be emphasized besides hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning and fibrosis in diagnosis and evaluation of NAFLD. It needs to be further verified whether microgranulomas, lipogranulomas and apoptosis bodies could be used as histopathological markers of development of AFLD. The number of megamitochondria is more frequently be found in NAFLD, while in alcoholic liver diseases was Mallory bodies.
  • WANG Chunxu, WANG Hanxing
    The effects of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of brain ischemia/reperfusion were explored. The mice were pretreated with heat stress followed by ischemia/reperfusion by clipping bilateral cervical commo n arteries for 7 min. Mice were divided randomly into four groups as follows: (1) normal control group; (2) heat stress pretreated subsequent to ischemia/reperfusion group (HS/IR); (3) ischemia/reperfusion group (IR); and (4) heat stress group (HS). Animals in the last three groups were subdivided into three subgroups: 1 d, 4 d, 14 d respectively. The Morris water maze was used to test the ability of learning and memorizing, Nissl staining was used to count the average number of survived neurons in hippocampal CA1 region, and immunohistochemistry combined with image analysis system to detect the changes of Microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) expression. The results showed that mice in IR group exhibited increased escape latency when compared with that of normal, HS and HS/IR groups (P<0.01), and the mice in IR group adopted an inefficient search strategy, major in circling and restricted searching manners. Nissl staining results showed a significant reduction in the number of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 regions in HS/IR and IR groups, with a decrease in IR group (P<0.01). Compared with normal group, the expression of MAP-2 in hippocampal CA1 region obviously decreased in IR group (P<0.05). The present results indicate that heat stress pretreatment can improve the spatial learning and memorizing function through protection to hippocampal neurons.
  • YANG Li, HAN Lizhong, SUN Jingyong, NI Yuxing, YU Yunsong
    This paper reported the epidemiology of the colistin-only-sensitive Acinetobacter baumannii(COS-AB) in a tertiary teaching hospital in China. We analyzed the clinical data of 136 COS-AB isolates from June 2004 to May 2005 and collected 66 A.baumannii isolates in which 33 strains were COS-AB, and the rest were non-COS-AB. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis (primer ERIC2 and 272) showed that all COS-AB were identical, while pulsed-field gel electrophotesis (PFGE) analysis showed two separate genotypes of these COS-AB which were distinctly different from that of non-COS-AB. The COS-AB from burn wards showed the identical PFGE pattern which was distinguished from the genotype of COS-AB in other departments, mainly surgical systems. The cross-infection was severe and strict methods of disinfection and sterilization should be implemented. Meanwhile, the epidemiology of COS-AB in environment and patients should be closely monitored. The PFGE analysis is a reliable method of A.baumannii typing.
  • WANG Hongxing, ZHANG Mingdao, CHEN Xingshi, LOU Feiying, LIANG Jianhua, CHEN Chong, SHI Tiantao, LU Qiulin
    The aim of this research was to investigate the variations of P50 auditory sensory gating (P50) in normal healthy adults and the first onset schizophrenics. By using the American Nicolet Bravo electromyography/evoked potential (EMG/EP) system, P50 was measured with conditioning-testing paradigm (paired-click stimuli S1 and S2 were used) in 58 first onset schizophrenics and 108 healthy adults, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied. The following three conclusions have been reached. (1) In normal control (NC) group, measured from central, anterior and posterior zone (Cz, Fz and Pz respectively), there were no statistical differences (P>0.05) between S1 and S2 evoked P50 peak latencies (S1-P50 and S2-P50); the amplitudes of S2-P50 [(2.2±1.4), (2.3±1.5) and (2.1±1.4) μV respectively] reduced significantly as compared with S1-P50 [(5.6±3.3), (5.6±3.9) and (4.9±2.8) μV respectively] (P<0.01); the S2/S1 ration, S1-S2 difference, and 100 (1-S2/S1) had no statistical differences (P>0.05). (2) Compared with NC, the schizophrenic group significantly showed lower S1-P50 amplitudes (P<0.01, except at Pz in which Z = 2.030, P = 0.042), higher S2-P50 amplitudes, higher S2/S1 ratio, lower S1-S2 difference, and more decreased 100 (1-S2/S1) (P<0.01) at Cz, Fz and Pz. (3) No significant correlations were found among S2/S1 ratio, S1-S2, 100 (1-S2/S1) of sensory gating and PANSS (P>0.05) in schizophrenic group. The first onset schizophrenics had sensory gating deficits, which could be quantified by P50.
  • ZHANG Wenwen, ZHANG Jianfu, ZHANG Yongmei, XU Ming
    The effect of peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) on gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury (GI-RI) and its possible mechanism were investigated. The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different treatment groups (n = 6). The animal GI-RI model was established by clamping the celiac artery for 30 min to induce ischemia and then released to allow reperfusion for 1 h, and the degree of GI-RI was assessed by scoring the gastric mucosal damage index (GMDI), the gastric fluid output, gastric fluid output, gastric acidity were measured and the surgical preparations of vagotomy and sympathectomy were used to investigate the possible mechanism of OT on GI-RI. The results were as follows. Compared with the control group (NS plus GI-R only, GMDI 121.33±10.40, n = 6), the intra peritoneal (ip) administration of oxytocin (20, 100 μg/0.5 mL) obviously attenuated GI-RI (P<0.05), GMDI were 82.33±14.26, 53.5±5.58 respectively (n = 6); the gastric fluid output and the gastric acidity (evaluated by pH) of the control group were (430.17±87.36) μL, 1.55±0.25 (n = 6), and those of the OT group were (102.45±48.00) μL, 2.65±0.40 (n = 6) res pectively; differences had statistical significance (P<0.01). The effect of oxytocin was reversed by atosiban, a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist. The GMDI of the group given atosiban 10 min before OT was 138.17±24.06 (n = 6), which had no significant difference with the control group. Oxytocin further attenuated GI-RI after vagotomy and sympathectomy (GMDI 6.83±8.89, 29.67±5.54, n = 6), compared with the GI-R group and the oxytocin group (P<0.01). These results indicated that the oxytocin could significantly protect gastric mucosal against injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion, and the oxytocin receptor was involved. This effect of oxytocin may be mediated through the vagus and sympathetic nerve, and then lead to the reduction of gastric juice output and the depression of gastric acidity.