A complete set of chromosome substitution lines with genetic background of Chinese Spring (CS) were used to determine the effects of each chromosome on utilization efficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in wheat (
Cotton growers face a problem of low cotton yield in late planting (after sunflower and maize). The objective of our study was to determine the effects of planting date, plant spacing (plant density), and genotypes on seed cotton yield and its components, ginning outturn (GOT%), and fiber quality traits (fiber length and fiber fineness). Five planting dates (May 1, May 15, May 30, June 15, and June 30), three plant spacings (15, 30, and 45 cm), and three cotton genotypes (CRS-6070, CRS-738, and CIM-496) were evaluated for seed cotton yield with its components and fiber quality traits. The results showed that monopodial branches/plant, sympodial branches/plant, number of bolls/plant, and seed cotton yield differed significantly among different planting dates, plant spacing, and genotypes. While the boll weight was significantly different among genotypes only. GOT%, fiber length, and fiber fineness were different significantly among planting time and cotton genotypes, which were not significantly affected by plant spacing. Cotton grown in early planting dates had higher seed cotton yield (4874 and 4653 kg/hm2) at the highest plant spacing (45 cm). While late sown cotton (June 15 onward) gave higher seed cotton yields (2068 and 1889 kg/hm2) at the lowest plant spacing (15 cm). GOT%, fiber length, and fiber fineness improved significantly in late planting and not affected from plant spacing. From our present study, it is concluded that high seed cotton yield can be achieved at high plant spacing in early planting while at low plant spacing in late planting.
More molecular markers for potential use in peanut genetic research were developed. A total of 92403
A transcript-derived fragment (TDF) showing up-regulated expression under low Pi stress and being identical to an uncharacterized phosphate transporter gene
H+ is a root secretion that affects P acquisition and P-use efficiency (PUE) under deficient phosphorus in maize. The secretion of H+, difference value of H+ between deficient and normal phosphorus (DH), and relative H+ (RH) as well as the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with these traits were determined for a F2:3 population derived from the cross of two contrasting maize (
Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important inorganic nutrients in plants, and its less availability is an important limiting factor for plant growth in most agricultural systems. In this essay, the following aspects on nitrate transporters (NRT) in plants, such as the uptake features of nitrate
Using a PCR homology approach, DNA and cDNA sequences of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (
Soil-borne diseases of wheat are getting more and more serious in the wheat/maize rotation growing system in northern China. A multifunctional microorganic strain called B1514 was found to have an inhibitory effect against major pathogens of winter wheat soil-borne diseases, have the ability to decompose maize straw, and have the ability to utilize the straw for multiplication. The strain was processed into bacterial agent HAD-1. Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to test the control effect of HAD-1 on the major wheat soil-borne diseases, on decomposing ability to maize straw, and on reproductive capacity. Results showed that HAD-1 had significant control effects on sharp eyespot, take-all, and root rot on wheat. The control efficacy at wheat jointing stage was 59.63% to 72.59%, 57.64% to 59.29%, and 54.48% to 63.25%, respectively. The yield loss decreased by 8.67% to 11.70%. The population numbers of the strain B1514 increased 2.68×107–4.83×107 times during the wheat growing season. HAD-1 significantly accelerated the decomposition rate of maize straw in the soil. The decomposition rate increased by 18.7% to 24.3% during wheat growing season.
Seed priming technique has been known to improve germination and seedling emergence under different environment stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of seed priming in improving the seed germination and seedling vigor of
Identification of genes related to flowering-time in
Traditional seed-coating agents are widely used, and their accumulative toxicity in soil brings a great hazard to natural environment and human health. In this study, a novel cucumber seed-coating agent was prepared from natural polysaccharide, fertilizer and microelement, etc. Results indicated that the agent had an excellent control effect on pests and increased yield by 8.5% to 9.3%, while the material cost was decreased by 16.7% compared with the traditional toxic seed-coating agent. In addition, the toxicity of the novel agent was also lower than that of traditional ones. Therefore, the application of the novel agent for cucumber is an appropriate option for controlling pests and replacing high toxicity ones.
The timing of floral transition is tightly controlled by a combination of endogenous and environmental signals. One early flowering mutant plant was screened from
Tea is an important economic crop in China. About 2665 accessions of tea germplasm (
The occurrence of fruit shrink disease in
The postharvest physiology of strawberry was investigated to study the effects of ozone on weight loss rate, ascorbic acid, respiration rate, peroxdase (POD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content during cold storage. The strawberries were treated with ozone of 0 ppm (control), 2 ppm, 4 ppm, and 8 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that the treatment of 4 ppm ozone could inhibited the decrease of ascorbic acid, POD activity, and CAT activity, and reduced weight loss rate and MDA content. The treatment delayed the senescence of strawberry, with a significantly lower respiration rate. Thus, the best concentration of ozone was 4 ppm, and ozone treatment could be a good candidate for maintaining postharvest quality of strawberry and provide a longer storage life.
Intracellular signal transduction pathways including MAPK, Ca2+, and cAMP signal transduction pathways play important roles in regulating growth, development, and pathogenesis of phytopathogenic fungi. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a key enzyme in cAMP signaling pathway. The transcription level of the gene encoding catalytic subunit of PKA in
The existence of a long juvenile phase is found seriously to affect the early-stage economic benefits of later mature walnuts (
To study the effect of foliar application of urea fertilizer on the growth and yield of tomato and to find out the optimum concentration of foliar application of urea for maximum growth and yield of tomato, an experiment was conducted with different concentrations of foliar application of urea fertilizer, namely, 2500, 5000, 7500, and 10000 ppm. The experiment was laid out by a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Results showed that different yield components and yield of tomato were influenced by the foliar application of different concentrations of urea. The maximum plant height (132.6 cm), number of leaves (30.73), number of green leaves per plant at harvest (21.08), days to first flowering (28.94), number of flower clusters (11.89), number of flowers (75.18), fruit clusters (5.81), fruits per cluster (4.14), and fruits per plant (21.49); length (4.72 cm), diameter (6.58 cm), and weight of individual fruit (151.0 g) were significantly influenced by the 10000 ppm concentration of foliar application of urea fertilizer. The 10000 ppm application gave the highest yield (63.69 t/hm2) with the lowest (28.48 t/hm2) in the control treatment. The yield per plant as well as per hectare increased with increasing concentrations of foliar application of urea fertilizer.
Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) is an extract from spent residue of
A study was undertaken to assess the effect of different storage temperatures on senescence and postharvest performance of isolated flowers of
An online extraction method for monitoring CO2 concentration during soil respiration is described based on the assay of gas pump and gas extraction with a dynamic air chamber. Also, a study is done on the relationship between data collected from online CO2 measurement and time, as well as the curve fitting. This method uses the optimization algorithm to extract the CO2 concentration in the soil respiration chamber, and sets up a mathematical model for online soil CO2 concentration extraction. It is verified that the extraction method is feasible with the automatic site detection. This method, which can reduce the volume of data redundancy and improve data reliability, has a high reference value for the similar characteristics of online data extraction, compared with the traditional CO2 detection methods during soil respiration.
Iran supports five different vegetation zones. One of those is the Irano-Touranian zone that is located in the northeast of Iran. This vegetation zone includes arid and semi-arid lands, and its area is about 3.5 million hm2. It supports growth of pistachio (
A full length cDNA encoding HMGR (designated as
Uniform design methodology and response surface methodology were used to determine the optimum conditions for hawthorn-Yali pear wine. By using uniform design, the effects of fermentation temperature, sugar content, the ratio of hawthorn to pear, soaking time of hawthorn, additional volume of SO2, and yeast dosage on sensory quality were investigated, which indicated that the first three aspects were of great significance to the sensory quality. By using three-factor, three-level response surface methodology, a prediction model was established in the form of quadratic polynomial regression equation, with the best processing conditions hereby determined under the conditions of fermentation temperature (25.18°C), sugar content (22.00%), the ratio of hawthorn to pear (21.19:100), and the alcohol degree (11.05 (V/V %)).