The present study examined the influence of the different fertilization on the dynamic of soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) of red soil in tea gardens. The results showed that straw mulching, intercropping, chemical fertilizer could all improve the amount of the soil microbial biomass C. The annual variation of microbial biomass C showed the tendency of “low–high–low–high”, and the influences were variable with the time. For the annual average of soil microbial biomass C, Treatment 1(T1) (straw mulching + 100% organic manure), Treatment 2 (T2) (straw mulching + 75% organic manure + 25% fertilizer), Treatment 3 (T3) (straw mulching + 50% organic manure + 50% fertilizer), Treatment 4 (T4) (straw mulching + 25% organic manure + 75% fertilizer), Treatment 5 (T5) (100% fertilizer),Treatment 6 (T6) (intercropping white clover) were 17.05%, 32.38%, 32.05%, 24.30%, 26.23%, 24.63% higher, respectively, than CK, and the differences among all the treatments were significant (P < 0.05). The correlation of the SMBC with the active organic matter, the total nitrogen, the microbial biomass N, the microbial biomass P were remarkable, but no significant correlation was found with available nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and moisture. Compared with other treatments, those mixed with organic matter and chemical fertilizer were more advantageous to enhance the soil fertility.