Landscape Architecture Frontiers

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DESIGNING A RESILIENT WATERSCAPE USING A LIVING LAB AND CATALYZING POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE
ZINGRAFF-HAMED Aude, MARTIN Juliette, LUPP Gerd, LINNEROOTH-BAYER Joanne, PAULEIT Stephan
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (3): 12-31.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020003
Abstract   PDF (3476KB)

The both polycentric governance and Living Labs concepts are based on decentralized participatory planning, co-design, and decisionmaking. While the concept of Living Lab is still emerging, the Isar-Plan (2000 ~ 2011) pioneered the approach for selecting, co-designing, and implementing nature-based solutions along the Isar River in Munich, Germany. Despite multiple governing authorities involved in the decisionmaking process of the Isar-Plan, the polycentric governance that led to the success of the project has to date not been analyzed. This paper presents the results of an ex-post-analysis of the Isar-Plan restoration planning process based on stakeholder interviews and a literature review. The contribution describes the evolution of Isar-Plan governance arrangements and discusses the Living Lab approaches to cooperative governance. The analysis demonstrates how polycentricity facilitated trust, learning, and the co-design of a resilient waterscape. The paper concludes that Living Labs can be a way of applying polycentric governance when autonomous and multi-scale decision-makers are collaboratively involved in the design of policy solutions, and vice-versa.

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WONDERLAND IS A SLOW PLACE
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 1-6.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010005
Abstract   PDF (6043KB)

The author first examines the origin and development of the international Citta Slow movement, and points out that the growing Citta Slow movement in China can be understood as a New Ruralism Movement for urban residents and the vision of Citta Slow in China is a romantic ideal of the Beautiful Countryside. The article then argues that slowing cities which operate at a moderate speed can create more pleasant and livable environments through the smart use of space, an energy-saving development, and harmony between man and nature. Finally, in the critical period of Beautiful China Construction and the new stage of China’s urbanization, five principles are proposed for designers and developers to apply into planning and design of slowing cities.

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THE WONDERLAND AT THE FOOT OF MOUNT QISHAN
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 4-9.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010004
Abstract   PDF (6931KB)

As the core territory for the Zhou and Qin dynasties, the land at the foot of Mount Qishan in Shaanxi Province has significantly made the society and culture of China thrive and grow. The author retraced four routes to find out how the Zhou and Qin people explored and envisioned this landscape, both physically as settlements and spiritually as a wonderland. These routes include the migration path of the Zhou people from the north to the south of Mount Qishan to seek shelter from nomadic tribes; the path of the Zhou people moving from the west to the east along the Weihe River to conquer the Shang people and establish a new kingdom; the path of the Qin State to unify the other six states and found a great dynasty; and the route climbing from the Weihe Valley to Mount Taibai, the main peak of the Qinling Mountains. All the episodes happened on these routes had a profound influence on the ideology of Chinese society and cultural identity. For instance, the Zhou people’s observation on the landscape for farming and living, as well as their preference for the basin-shaped territory, significantly contributed to forming the Chinese geomancy (Feng Shui) and developed into an ideal territorial image of being the “kingdom in the center” (literally meaning “China” in Chinese); the artistic representation of sublime reflected the Qin people’s fight for survival and honor; and the described Kunlun Wonderland perfectly expresses both religious ideals and worldly desires.

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DECISION-SUPPORTIVE FRAMEWORK FOR URBAN DESIGN BASED ON THE TARGET OF SLOWING DOWN URBAN RESOURCE FLOWS: FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF URBAN METABOLISM
Luoyi YIN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 10-23.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020015
Abstract   PDF (14718KB)

The Urban Metabolism theory makes it possible to quantify design methods and strategies for sustainable urban design based on analysis of urban resource flows. Aiming at improving the urban environment, this paper takes four types of urban resources closely related to residents’ lives (i.e., water, energy, organic waste, and food) as evaluation objects and their flow rates as the evaluation indicators, and operates with design scenario models as the core to establish the decision-supportive framework for urban design, which consists of four basic parts: urban status analysis, design scenario setting, design alternatives, and design evaluation. This framework could quickly present design proposals and evaluate their expected performances, providing a basis for decision making in design practice. Then, China World Trade Center area in Beijing is taken as an example to interpret the practical value of the framework by providing guidelines for urban design practices of this area. Finally, the paper points out that instead of showing the optimal design strategy, the final output of the framework just provides decision makers an intuitive understanding of a specific design proposal and the impacts the design intervention would bring to the urban environment.

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AL-ULA OASIS AND THE LOST CIVILIZATION
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 4-9.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010003
Abstract   PDF (3765KB)

This article firstly explores how Al-Ula, an ancient city in northwestern Arabian Peninsula, thrived historically despite little rainfall, and reviews the historic civilizations ruled this oasis. Then, it points out that the misuse of limited water resource degraded the environmental capacity of the oasis, resulting in the imbalance between humans and the land and eventually the decline of civilizations. Finally, the article concludes that the oasis and the watershed it depends on is an integral system, whose lifeblood is maintained by water cycle restoration. It is also one of the key tasks of Landscape Architecture to explore ecological restoration and sustainable management of watershed in the sense of hydrology.

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RESTORATIVE SPATIAL PLANNING PRACTICE IN RESPONSE TO ISOLATION, SEGREGATION, AND INEQUALITY
Leiqing XU, Yu YAN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 24-37.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020016
Abstract   PDF (11604KB)

The article points out that the urban homogenization and social atomization status may lead to corresponding social problems including isolation, segregation, and inequality, and critically reviews their intrinsic consistency with urban development stages and the correlation between mental health and urban diseases. Based on the review of ideas such as Socially Restorative Urbanism and Socially Restorative Urban Design Model, the authors summarize a Socially Restorative Urban Design Model with five planning strategies — group size reduction, place-making, nature-based restoration, walkable system construction, and responsive city establishment — to realize human-human, human-space, human-nature, human-mobility, and humandata connections through taking planning as a tool of empowerment. In addition, the article reflects on the urban problems caused by the past urbanization process in China which pursued quick achievements and examines cases that could guide the new stage of Urban Remediation and Ecological Restoration, giving the same weight to social restoration as physical space improvement and ecological restoration.

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OBSERVATION AND REPRESENTATION: ON RECOGNITION AND EXPRESSION OF NATURAL SITES IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Ying ZENG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 10-23.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020012
Abstract   PDF (17512KB)

In the education of Landscape Architecture, the way we view and depict a natural site is defined by the way we observe and express it. This paper starts with a comparison between the perspective and approach of traditional painting types (the realistic sketch, design sketch, and landscape painting) and those in Landscape Architecture. All of them involve observation (viewing) and expression (drawing) of natural beings and phenomena, where traditional paintings are in the pursuit of honest depiction of the forms or shapes. While in Landscape Architecture it emphasizes understanding and representing the evolutions and the complicated intrinsic relations of the authentic sites — in other words, to represent the nature of reality.

To be on-site, the use of body movement, and the evolutions and correlations of natural beings are the three most important principles to the observation and representation in Landscape Architecture. Combining with two cases in teaching and practice, this paper elaborates how to develop abstract forms and design concepts from the observation of authentic sites and how the trans-scaled reflection on the correlations about the sites can inspire a site-scaled design, providing references for the education and practice of Landscape Architecture in China.

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“MORE BUZZWORDS THAN ANSWERS” — TO SIDEWALK LABS IN TORONTO
Mariana VALVERDE, Alexandra FLNN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (2): 115-123.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180212
Abstract   PDF (15477KB)

Many articles have appeared in mainstream media and in techoriented venues about Sidewalk Labs’ ideas for a new hightech neighbourhood in Toronto (a project named Sidewalk Toronto). By and large, international commentary has focused on the opportunities and risks of giving over control over many city planning decisions to a private data-oriented corporation, with people lining up for or against “smart city” ideas, in general.

This article will set aside generalities about “smart cities” and technology, and instead pose a few questions about the particulars of Sidewalk Toronto project. The first question concerns the striking lack of transparency of the agreement between Sidewalk Labs (a Google sister company) and Waterfront Toronto, the public authority promoting the project, which is not directly accountable to the city or the citizens. The second question concerns the equally striking ambiguity about which parcel of land is being sought by Sidewalk Labs — an ambiguity that suggests a worrying lack of concern, on the tech company’s part, about both local planning law and local real estate realities. The third set of concerns is about the ownership of the data that appears to be Sidewalk Labs’ real interest. Fourthly, problems in the contract award and procurement mechanisms will be raised. Finally, even though the agreement has not yet been seen even by city council, the process so far and the statements by both parties raise serious concerns about accountability, the fifth point raised in this article.

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Resilience through Regeneration: The economics of repurposing vacant land with green infrastructure
Galen NEWMAN, Dongying LI, Rui ZHU, Dingding REN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (6): 10-23.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180602
Abstract   PDF (14171KB)

Many urban areas affected by flood disasters are also becoming increasingly ecologically and socially fragmented due to the accumulation of vacant properties. While redevelopment is often viewed as the primary objective in regenerating vacant properties, they can also potentially provide ecological and hydrological land uses. Rather than chasing developmentbased incentives for regenerating vacant lots in high flood-risk communities, a balance should be sought between new developmental land uses and green infrastructure to help counteract stormwater runoff and flood effects, or “Resilience through Regeneration.” This paper uses landscape performance measures to evaluate the economic and hydrologic performance of green infrastructure regeneration projects for three marginalized neighborhoods in Houston, Texas, USA. Each project site is characterized by excessive vacant lots and flood issues. Results suggest that, when using green infrastructure to regenerate vacant properties, 1) flood risk continually decreases, 2) upfront economic costs increase in the short term (when compared to conventional development), and 3) the long-term economic return on investment is much higher.

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SETTLING ALONG, WITH, AND ON WATER IN THUA THIEN HUE, VIETNAM: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
Bruno De MEULDER, Kelly SHANNON
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 10-27.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020006
Abstract   PDF (17102KB)

This paper develops a water-based spatial biography of the Thua Thien Hue Province in Vietnam’s Central Highlands and critically interprets the territory’s intertwined contemporary challenges — a growing population, greater demands on agriculture, fisheries, and aquaculture, tourism and changes in annual rainwater, and sea level regimes. It is structured by four sections (typical geography and exceptional ecology, diverse settlement typologies, curse and perils of water, contemporary challenges) which interpretatively read the context. Historical analysis and mapping of present-day projects in the pipeline are complemented by extensive fieldwork in an attempt to reveal (and later build upon) the logics of the territory. It concludes with a series of projective design strategies developed by Research Urbanism and Architecture for the Thua Thien Hue Province Peoples’ Committee and the Hanoi-based investor Van Phu, which attempt to balance ecology with economy with a focus on lagoon restoration and new city and settlement types (for the living and the dead) which respond to the predicted consequences of climate change (particularly severe flooding). The project is premised on policy shifts from hardengineering to approaches that work as much as possible with natural means to simultaneously restore ecologies and generates opportunities to embed new sustainable economies. Not surprisingly, water urbanism strategies are key to this envisioned future development of the province.

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In-Between Waters /Intercepting Wetness: Inventing Rain in the Mining Landscape of Shanxi Province, China
Jieru (Hedy) HE
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 139-149.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-050005
Abstract   PDF (11166KB)

Under the background of imposing engineered structures, including reservoirs and inter-basin water transfer infrastructures, being applied to solve drought caused by coal mining in Shanxi Province of China and floods caused by mineral mining in Western Ghats of India, the author reviews the intrinsic reason of water problems and recommends a water management solution that is design on “rain before floods” and “fields of wetness before flows of water.” Most magnificent engineered infrastructures are designed upon an idea of separating water from its milieu, thus becoming contained flows in pipes, channels, and reservoirs to solve water problems. To compensate for the shortage of existing water infrastructures, the author suggests gathering a regional-level landscape capacity for building “wetness” of resilience when facing problems of “water” in extremities. This is a radical shift compared with a problem-solving approach, as engineering does, to one that is grounded in landscape and uncovers opportunities.

The landscape research and design project introduced in this article aims to provide an alternative future for Shanxi Province, China, which seems arid and is challenged by monodevelopment mode. The research and design within the project are across four nested scales. A landscape infrastructure of intercepting wetness is taken as an underlying thread which initiates intertwined ecological, programmatic, temporal and material trajectories. On the other hand, the project demonstrates research, representation, design, and planning can actually inform one another, and the design remains open and adaptive to its changing environments.

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DESIGN FOR RESILIENCE: RE-CONNECTING COMMUNITIES AND ENVIRONMENTS
Katarina BAJC, Antje STOKMAN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (4): 14-31.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180402
Abstract   PDF (18275KB)

This article stresses the importance of positive image and perception of dynamic ecological processes for the implementation and care of areas which provide ecosystem services within the city. Those in turn secure the resilience of our urban environment. Aesthetic experience with emphasis on highlighting and revealing the presence of ecological dynamics, processes and cycles can increase the acceptance and interest for sustainable goals and projects within the city. Thus, several European cities are currently implementing strategies not only to enhance the capacity of their green networks for ecological services and resilience but most importantly to enhance the acceptance and active use of such areas. They are integrating the public in an open debate about implementing new attractive ecological amenities within a green network, and also stimulating landscape architects to find ways to design important ecological processes and functions in an eye-catching and spectacular way. The natural dynamics and cycles are thus brought to the attention of the people and present an important artistic and cultural component of resilience.

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THE IMPACTS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ON DESIGN
Yu LIU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (2): 52-55.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180206
Abstract   PDF (1008KB)

This interview centers on Artificial Intelligence and its possible applications in design fields. Yu Liu, the interviewee, explains the role of data in Artificial Intelligence, the boundary for Deep Learning, Artificial Intelligence’s function to aid design, and its future development. Liu also discusses how Artificial Intelligence can work within some particular fields, and the creative and ethical limits of Artificial Intelligence, especially in the design fields, which are between sensibility and rationality. Besides, he explains why Artificial Intelligence cannot take the place of human designers. In spite of this, Artificial Intelligence can be used to do repetitive or routine tasks so that designers can put more focus on design innovation and user experience optimization.

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LESSONS FROM THE SOCIAL FORM AND LANDSCAPE RESILIENCE OF THE PEACH BLOSSOM LAND
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (3): 4-7.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010001
Abstract   PDF (5074KB)

This article firstly examines the relationship between social form and landscape resilience and argues that a polycentric governance model is conducive to enhancing landscape resilience. By analyzing the social governance model and the landscape pattern of the Peach Blossom Land, it reveals how this fictional world was ideally shaped by an autonomous grassroots society and sustainable productive landscape. The ancient Huizhou Region perfectly illustrates how a local social governance based on family disciplines, clan rules, folk beliefs, and ethics, supplemented by the imperial power, has maintained the resilience and sustainability of its beautiful and productive ecological landscape in a long term, making itself a Peach Blossom Land in the hilly area of Southeast China and free from natural disasters and wars. Finally, the author proposes that although the Industrial Civilization has undermined the resilience of China’s landscape, Peach Blossom Lands are now reemerging under the Beautiful China Construction and Ecological Civilization programs.

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Using Street-level Images and Deep Learning for Urban La ndscape STUDIES
Xiaojiang LI, Bill Yang CAI, Carlo RATTI
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (2): 20-29.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180203
Abstract   PDF (10149KB)

Streets are a focal point of human activities and a major interface of the social interaction between urban dwellers and urban built environment. A better understanding of the urban landscapes along streets is thus important in urban studies. The increasing availability of street-level images provides new opportunities for urban landscape studies to study and analyze streetscapes at a fine level and from a different perspective. In this study, we presented an application of a recently developed Deep Convolutional Neural Network on landscape analysis based on street-level images. Different urban features were identified from street-level images accurately using a trained Deep Convolutional Neural Network model. Based on the image segmentation results, we further measured the spatial distribution of the street greenery and quantitatively analyzed the openness of street canyons in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The proposed combination of Artificial Intelligence and the massively collected street-level images provides a new sight for urban landscape studies for cities around the world.

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DESIGNING ECOLOGIES FOR RESILIENT URBANISMS
Bruno De MEULDER, Kelly SHANNON
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (5): 12-33.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180502
Abstract   PDF (24375KB)

This article encapsulates the recent work of OSA, a practice-based urbanism situated in an academic environment (KU Leuven, Belgium). In the contemporary era of increased social, ecological, and spatial injustices, OSA’s work attempts to create resilient urbanisms through designing robust ecologies. Its worldwide sites of research and interventions are primarily addressed through three themes: water urbanisms, forest urbanisms, and creating new social ecologies as resistance. The first part of the article provides an overview of the ambitions of OSA with a number of examples. The second component consists of four excerpts of recent and on-going design research.

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ROBOTIC LANDSCAPES — NATURE, COMPUTATION, AND THE DESIGN SPACE OF AUTONOMOUS TERRAIN MODELING
Christophe GIROT, Ilmar HURKXKENS
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (2): 64-75.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180208
Abstract   PDF (28233KB)

An experimental studio on a highway site in Canton of Ticino in Switzerland held at the ETH in the fall of 2017 is the result of a collaborative project with the National Center of Competence in Research Digital Fabrication, ETH Zürich. The work shows a series of designs that were developed through procedural and robotic principles. The landscape models based on a Lidar point cloud data set of the entire Ticino Valley served as the basis of all terrain operations. The results obtained after a 15-week studio are encouraging and show the way towards a new way of conceiving landscapes through robotic design.

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THE SPARK OF CONTEMPORARY LANDSCAPE CREATIVITY — THE FOUNDATION LANDSCAPE DESIGN STUDIO IN THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
Vincci MAK
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 24-37.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020010
Abstract   PDF (20036KB)

Traditional landscape design studio training starts with the learning of a classic or prominent landscape project, may it be through site observation or a trace-over / imitation exercise. Foundation year students in a landscape program typically take the landscape precedent project as a study ground, to learn about the landscape master’s design through the mimicking process in the trace-over exercise, or to learn about the articulation of spatial design through site observation.

Landscape Architecture, afterall, is a creative endeavor. Thus, an alternative approach is to start the fundamental training with the study of artistic processes, to foster appreciation in art and design, innovative concept development, and articulation in craftsmanship. Also, the contemporary discourse of Landscape Architecture is no longer simply about spatial design, but has transformed to require understanding of process, operation, step-by-step mechanism, movement, and how a system works. The performative and dynamic aspects of landscape are being valued nowadays.

Such ways of seeing landscapes require a different set of observation and representation methods and skills. In this article, the author shares how the pedagogical content and developments of the foundation year landscape design studio in the HKU Bachelor of Arts in Landscape Studies BA(LS) Program help train students with such new interpretations to contemporary Landscape Architecture.

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(NEW) URBAN SCIENCE: STUDYING “NEW” CITIES WITH NEW DATA, METHODS, AND TECHNOLOGIES
Ying LONG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (2): 8-21.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20190202
Abstract   PDF (1613KB)

The Fourth Industrial Revolution is profoundly changing our cities with a series of disruptive technologies, characterized for the boom of Internet industries and the everyday application and wide integration of intelligent technologies. Individuals’ traditional mechanical thinking has changed into a mindset based on big data, whose cognition also relies more and more on a combination of both virtual and physical reality experience. At the same time, cities, where we live, are witnessing a significant revolution in resource utilization, societal conditions, and spatial use. Along with the surge of new technologies and new data represented by computer technologies and multi-source urban data, the (new) Urban Science, as a transdisciplinary combination of urban computing, Artificial Intelligence, augmented reality, and human-computer interaction, rises over the past decade. Research institutions and programs on the (new) Urban Science are flourishing globally, and increasing related degree programs and courses are offered by colleges and universities worldwide to respond to the needs of this new era.

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THE APPLICATION OF SPACE SYNTAX MODELING IN DATA-BASED URBAN DESIGN — AN EXAMPLE OF CHAOYANG SQUARE RENEWAL IN JILIN CITY
Qiang SHENG, Chen ZHOU, Kayvan KARIMI, Anhua LU, Min SHAO
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (2): 102-113.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180211
Abstract   PDF (19019KB)

In the past decades, Space Syntax offers a series of theories and techniques to study the relationship between urban space and social-economic activities, and has been proved effective in analysis and design practices thanks to the open sources in the big data era. Taking the Chaoyang Square Renewal project in Jilin City, Jilin Province as an example, this article introduces the analyses of traffic volumes and visual integration of the square and the connected streets with modeling tools such as Segment Map and the intelligent multi-agent systems in Visibility Graph Analysis. All these analyses provided a basis for the full design process, from conceptual design to proposal evaluation, in order to activate this site through introducing pedestrian vitality. Prospects on new technologies in Artificial Intelligence, such as machine learning, are also explored to promote the research of Space Syntax and related application in urban design.

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FROM TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE TO GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE — ADAPTABLE FUTURE ROADS IN AUTONOMOUS URBANISM
LUO Yadan
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (2): 92-99.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20190209
Abstract   PDF (13086KB)

Modern road systems consist of a large amount of driving fault-tolerant space for security reasons, leaving much of the area vacant and underutilized in off-peak hours. The emerging autonomous vehicle technology may address this problem while reshaping the urban structure and space through transportation technology innovations. Once the algorithm-controlled vehicles can realize an accurate running, 80 percent of the existing roads can be transformed into vegetated permeable surfaces. As a result, the whole road system will be converted into a pervasive green infrastructure network, which provides an opportunity to enhance the continuity of urban ecosystem. Moreover, the cloud computing technology may help distribute more lanes to vehicles during peak hours and shrink vehicles’ right of way during off-peak hours. The saved road space could support activities such as outdoor restaurants and concerts. Finally, the author encourages more landscape architects to contribute to a better future of autonomous urbanism with their visions of eco-environment, public space, and humanity.

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A REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON URBAN WATERLOGGING BASED ON CITESPACE MAPPING KNOWLEDGE DOMAINS
Lingyu RAN, Yan ZHOU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 66-87.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-0-020002
Abstract   PDF (4029KB)

Cities have suffered from long-time waterlogging problems. A review of English and Chinese literature on “urban waterlogging” can help analyze the research progress and further explore methods and approaches to alleviate such problems in Chinese cities. By examining the literature from the Web of Science Core Collection database and CNKI database with CiteSpace, a Mapping Knowledge Domains tool, this paper aims to scientifically review the disciplinary structure, major research interests, and research hotspots of the issues of urban waterlogging. Through data analyses, it concludes that: 1) urban waterlogging is a hot topic that has been studied in a great number of subjects, with interdisciplinary studies and a continuous growth in Urban and Rural Planning, Geography, Landscape Architecture, etc. in recent years; 2) the research on waterlogging in representative subjects varies; 3) English and Chinese literature explores stormwater management and control measures from the perspectives of planning concepts, infrastructure, drainage systems, spatial regulation, management methods, and micromeasures; 4) research hotspots cover the concepts and measures of waterlogging control, hydrological processes and patterns, causes of waterlogging, and risk assessment and management; 5) the existing research mainly focuses on micro scales, and there is an absence of studies on ideal spatial patterns and planning approaches at macro and medium scales, or on the correlation between urban hydrological processes and waterlogging formation mechanisms with spatial deployment of stormwater regulation approaches. Finally, according to existing research limitations, the paper proposes that: 1) future theoretical studies should explore the backgrounds, objectives, and application scenarios of various waterlogging control approaches; 2) studies are expected to explore spatial patterns and planning approaches at macro and medium scales; and 3) scholars should expand the territory of research by integrating with Hydrology.

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OPERATIONALIZING POLYCENTRICITY FOR LANDSCAPE RESILIENCE
Wei LIU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (3): 8-11.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010002
Abstract   PDF (1349KB)

Landscapes are complex adaptive socialecological systems that encompass human and natural and built environments, and provide essential public and common goods to societies. Facing fast socio-economic, environmental, and policy changes and increasing uncertainties, building resilience has emerged as a main objective for landscape planning, design, and management. A key strategy to make landscape social-ecological systems resilient is to form appropriate governance forms that can be responsive and adaptive to external shocks and other stressors. Polycentricity is such a form that has been proven to enhance resilience. By analyzing a variety of cases, it demonstrates polycentricity — both its breadth of inclusion and collaborative degree — can affect governance outcomes. This is the best of times to become more plural in theory and methodology in order to have a stronger capacity of navigating the complexities of landscape social-ecological systems.

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REINVENTING THE PUBLIC PARK — THE BLOCK IN DUBAI
Duncan DENLEY
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 134-145.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040010
Abstract   PDF (21824KB)

Recently completed, The Block was constructed over a seven-month period along the Dubai Water Canal in Dubai Design District, providing a much-celebrated public park for the people of Dubai. Through their re-purposing of seven hundred 30-ton concrete blocks left over from the canal construction, landscape architects, desert INK created countless play features for children, outdoor exercise areas, and food and beverage outlets. Breaking all public park stereotypes and incorporating an unconventional approach to design, The Block stands out as one of the most unique and innovative landscape designs in the Middle East, if not the world. With a clear brief to attract a diverse range of new visitors to d3, desert INK set out to create an extraordinary park which would attract children and families to this otherwise design-industry focused district so that different lifestyles could co-exist and the community could thrive.

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AN EVIDENCE-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR LANDSCAPE DESIGN
Pengzhi LI, Boxin LIU, Yiwen GAO
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (5): 93-101.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180510
Abstract   PDF (10641KB)

As a design method supported by scientific knowledge and findings, evidence-based design now is widely applied in the field of architectural and landscape design. This design process makes architects and landscape designers’ decisions about built environment sound and reliable. Combining two practice cases — the Urban Ecological Corridor Planning of College Station of Texas, a regional planning project, and Landscape Design of the Yangpu Bridge Park in Shanghai, an urban public space project — this article illustrates the concept and process of key issue identification and response, a pivotal step in evidence-based design, and points out the challenges in related applications of this method.

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MARKER WADDEN, THE NETHERLANDS:A BUILDING-WITH-NATURE EXPLORATION
Liang XIONG, Rik de VISSER
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (3): 58-75.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180307
Abstract   PDF (24060KB)

The Marker Wadden finds a good balance between traditional wisdom and technology advance. On the one hand, based on the polder model, a traditional consensus way of planning and decision-making in the Netherlands, the Marker Wadden project is created by an alliance of both public and private bodies sitting together and their opinions acknowledged. On the other hand, it boldly explores in both philosophy and technique, and a new nature has been achieved by using innovative techniques and natural processes. Marker Wadden will be of great importance in a time of climate change. Wetland design and construction can contribute to sustainable water management, improve local ecosystems, and provide greater resilience of river deltas in storms and floods.

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PERSPECTIVES OF DESIGNED ECOLOGIES
Zhifang WANG, Zhenyu YUAN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (1): 8-17.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20190102
Abstract   PDF (2141KB)

Designed ecology refers to a process of active and purposive design interventions that help enhance functional improvement, restoration, or reshaping of ecosystem in human settlements, especially in the areas suffering from severe ecological degradation. Different from ecological design, designed ecology is to creatively intervene and improve human beings’ complicated living environment. Starting from an examination of related concepts, this paper reviews designed ecology from four perspectives: creating natural environment; reintroducing native habitat; enhancing natural regeneration; and tending natural ecosystem. It further defines designed ecology at three levels: 1) ecological functionality, i.e. the design creates a self-maintaining ecosystem; 2) succession efficiency, i.e. the effect of the designed succession surpasses the results of natural regeneration or the design helps promote natural regeneration; and 3) landscape experience, i.e. the design offers aesthetic services to better respond to the needs of human society. The authors argue that an effective promotion of designed ecology relies on both the efforts of design practice and ecological study, including research on regional / local ecosystem, self-succession of ecosystem, and ecosystem capacity, as well as exploration of improving human living experience through design practice.

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The Logic of “Lucid Water s and Lush Mountai ns are Invaluable Assets”
Kongjian Yu
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (6): 1-6.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180601
Abstract   PDF (4648KB)

Bamei, Yunnan is probably the last remaining “Peach Blossom Spring” in China, where rich fields and beautiful ponds are surrounded by mountains accessed only by boat, and people there live in peace and contentment. Although this is its reputation, when I last visited, it had changed beyond recognition. The reason may be that interest-driven developers and engineering companies have pursued local development, erasing so-called “economic benefits.” The pursuit of economic interests alone should not be blamed. Rather, understanding ecology and beauty together is the guarantee of further and greater economic benefits.

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