Brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are intimately connected to form a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system. The communication between gut and brain, knows as the gut-brain axis, is so well established that the functional status of gut is always related to the condition of brain. The researches on the gut-brain axis were traditionally focused on the psychological status affecting the function of the GI tract. However, recent evidences showed that gut microbiota communicates with the brain via the gut-brain axis to modulate brain development and behavioral phenotypes. These recent fi ndings on the new role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis implicate that gut microbiota could associate with brain functions as well as neurological diseases via the gut-brain axis. To elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis, precise identification of the composition of microbes constituting gut microbiota is an essential step. However, identifi cation of microbes constituting gut microbiota has been the main technological challenge currently due to massive amount of intestinal microbes and the diffi culties in culture of gut microbes. Current methods for identifi cation of microbes constituting gut microbiota are dependent on omics analysis methods by using advanced high tech equipment. Here, we review the association of gut microbiota with the gut-brain axis, including the pros and cons of the current high throughput methods for identifi cation of microbes constituting gut microbiota to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in the gut-brain axis.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have the ability of unlimited self-renewal and can be differentiated into different cell lineages, including neural stem (NS) cells. Diverse regulatory signaling pathways of neural stem cells differentiation have been discovered, and this will be of great benefit to uncover the mechanisms of neuronal differentiation
Infl ammasome is a large protein complex activated upon cellular stress or microbial infection, which triggers maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 through caspase-1 activation. Nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3) is the most characterized infl ammasome activated by various stimuli. However, the mechanism of its activation is unclear and its exact cellular localization is still unknown. We examined the potential co-localization of NLRP3 infl ammasome with mitochondria and seven other organelles under adenosine triphosphate, nigericin or monosodium urate stimulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages using confocal microscopy approach. Our results revealed that the activated endogenous apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) pyroptosome forms in the cytoplasm and co-localizes with NLRP3 and caspase-1, but not with any of the organelles screened. This study indicates that the ASC pyroptosome universally localizes within the cytoplasm rather than with any specifi c organelles.
Group II chaperonins, which assemble as double-ring complexes, assist in the refolding of nascent peptides or denatured proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. The molecular mechanism of group II chaperonin assembly and thermal stability is yet to be elucidated. Here, we selected the group II chaperonins (cpn-α and cpn-β), also called thermosomes, from
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a member of the
The dynamic polar polymers actin filaments and microtu-bules are usually employed to provide the structural ba-sis for establishing cell polarity in most eukaryotic cells. Radially round and immotile spermatids from nematodes contain almost no actin or tubulin, but still have the abil-ity to break symmetry to extend a pseudopod and initiate the acquisition of motility powered by the dynamics of cytoskeleton composed of major sperm protein (MSP) during spermiogenesis (sperm activation). However, the signal transduction mechanism of nematode sperm activation and motility acquisition remains poorly under-stood. Here we show that Ca2+ oscillations induced by the Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ store through inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor are required for
Cell a utolysis plays important physiological roles in the life cycle of clostridial cells. Unders tanding the genetic basis of the autolysis phenomenon of pathogenic
Brassinosteroids, a group of plant steroid hormones, regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. We and other have previously solved the crystal structures of BRI1(LRR) in complex with brassinolide, the most active brassinosteroid identifi ed thus far. Although these studies provide a structural basis for the recognition of brassinolide by its receptor BRI1, it still remains poorly understood how the hormone differentiates among its conserved receptors. Here we present the crystal structure of the BRI1 homolog BRL1 in complex with brassinolide. The structure shows that subtle differences around the brassinolide binding site can generate a striking effect on its recognition by the BRI1 family of receptors. Structural comparison of BRL1 and BRI1 in their brassinolide-bound forms reveals the molecular basis for differential binding of brassinolide to its different receptors, which can be used for more effi cient design of plant growth regulators for agricultural practice. On the basis of our structural studies and others’ data, we also suggest possible mechanisms for the activation of BRI1 family receptors.