Metabolic rewiring and epigenetic remodeling, which are closely linked and reciprocally regulate each other, are among the well-known cancer hallmarks. Recent evidence suggests that many metabolites serve as substrates or cofactors of chromatin-modifying enzymes as a consequence of the translocation or spatial regionalization of enzymes or metabolites. Various metabolic alterations and epigenetic modifications also reportedly drive immune escape or impede immunosurveillance within certain contexts, playing important roles in tumor progression. In this review, we focus on how metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and immune cells reshapes epigenetic alterations, in particular the acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and DNA. We also discuss other eminent metabolic modifications such as, succinylation, hydroxybutyrylation, and lactylation, and update the current advances in metabolismand epigenetic modification-based therapeutic prospects in cancer.
Immunotherapy has been applied successfully to treat B-cell lymphomas in preclinical models or clinical settings. However, immunotherapy resistance is a major challenge for B-cell lymphoma treatment. To overcome this issue, combinatorial therapeutic strategies have been pursued to achieve a better efficacy for treating B-cell lymphomas. One of such strategies is to combine immunotherapy with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. HDAC inhibitors can potentially increase tumor immunogenicity, promote anti-tumor immune responses, or reverse immunosuppressive tumor environments. Thus, the combination of HDAC inhibitors and immunotherapy has drawn much attention in current cancer treatment. However, not all HDAC inhibitors are created equal and their net effects are highly dependent on the specific inhibitors used and the HDACs they target. Hence, we suggest that optimal treatment efficacy requires personalized design and rational combination based on prognostic biomarkers and unique profiles of HDAC inhibitors. Here, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which B-cell lymphomas acquire immunotherapy resistance and the effects of HDAC inhibitors on tumor cells and immune cells that could help overcome immunotherapy resistance.
Unlike adult mammalian heart, zebrafish heart has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury. Previous study has shown Notch signaling activation in the endocardium is essential for regeneration of the myocardium and this activation is mediated by hemodynamic alteration after injury, however, the molecular mechanism has not been fully explored. In this study we demonstrated that blood flow change could be perceived and transmitted in a primary cilia dependent manner to control the hemodynamic responsive klf2 gene expression and subsequent activation of Notch signaling in the endocardium. First we showed that both homologues of human gene KLF2 in zebrafish, klf2a and klf2b, could respond to hemodynamic alteration and both were required for Notch signaling activation and heart regeneration. Further experiments indicated that the upregulation of klf2 gene expression was mediated by endocardial primary cilia. Overall, our findings reveal a novel aspect of mechanical shear stress signal in activating Notch pathway and regulating cardiac regeneration.
Several studies have demonstrated that memory T cells including stem cell memory (Tscm) T cells and central memory (Tcm) T cells show superior persistence and antitumor immunity compared with effector memory T (Tem) cells and effector T (Teff) cells. Furthermore, the Tcm/Teff ratio has been reported to be a predictive biomarker of immune responses against some tumors. Thus, a system-level understanding of the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of effector and memory T cells is of increasing importance for developing immunological strategies against various tumors. This review focuses on recent advances in efficacy against tumors, the origin, formation mechanisms of memory T cells, and the role of the gut microbiota in memory T cell formation. Furthermore, we summarize strategies to generate memory T cells in (ex) vivo that, might be applicable in clinical practice.
Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs), which facilitate cross-membrane transport of nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs, play an important role in the salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis, cancer chemotherapy, and treatment for virus infections. Functional characterization of ENTs at the molecular level remains technically challenging and hence scant. In this study, we report successful purification and biochemical characterization of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) in vitro. The HEK293Fderived, recombinant hENT1 is homogenous and functionally active in proteoliposome-based counter flow assays. hENT1 transports the substrate adenosine with a Km of 215±34 μmol/L and a Vmax of 578±23.4 nmol mg−1 min−1. Adenosine uptake by hENT1 is competitively inhibited by nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (NBMPR), nucleosides, deoxynucleosides, and nucleoside-derived anti-cancer and anti-viral drugs. Binding of hENT1 to adenosine, deoxyadenosine, and adenine by isothermal titration calorimetry is in general agreement with results of the competitive inhibition assays. These results validate hENT1 as a bona fide target for potential drug target and serve as a useful basis for future biophysical and structural studies.